Biology (Semester 1)

This mindmap relates student performance goals with state content standards and topic level content objectives

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Biology (Semester 1) by Mind Map: Biology (Semester 1)

1. Standards & Performance

1.1. STANDARD B1 Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications

1.1.1. STANDARD B1.1 - Scientific Inquiry

1.1.2. STANDARD B1.2 - Scientific Reflection and Social Implications

1.2. STANDARD B2 Organization and Development of Living Systems

1.2.1. STANDARD B2.1 Energy Transfer and Growth Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis. Compare and contrast the transformation of matte and energy during photosynthesis and respiration. Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/ or cell products.

1.2.2. STANDARD B2.1x Cell Differentiation Describe how, through cell division, cells can become specialized for specific function. Predict what would happen if the cells from one part of a developing embryo were transplanted to another part of the embryo.

1.2.3. STANDARD B2.2 Organic Molecules Explain how carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules. Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S). Describe the composition of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms. Describe how dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules.

1.2.4. STANDARD B2.2x Proteins Explain the role of enzymes and other proteins in biochemical functions (e.g., the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones). Propose how moving an organism to a new environment may influence its ability to survive and predict the possible impact of this type of transfer.

1.2.5. STANDARD B2.3 Maintaining Environmental Stability Describe how cells function in a narrow range of physical conditions, such as temperature and pH (acidity), to perform life functions. Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life. Explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence of disease agents.

1.2.6. STANDARD B2.3x Homeostasis Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other. Describe how human body systems maintain relatively constant internal conditions (temperature, acidity, and blood sugar). Explain how human organ systems help maintain human health. Compare the structure and function of a human body system or subsystem to a nonliving system (e.g., human joints to hinges, enzyme and substrate to interlocking puzzle pieces).

1.2.7. STANDARD B2.4 Cell Specialization Explain that living things can be classified based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence. Describe how various organisms have developed different specializations to accomplish a particular function and yet the end result is the same (e.g., excreting nitrogenous wastes in animals, obtaining oxygen for respiration). Explain how different organisms accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes). Analyze the relationships among organisms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes. Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic). Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy- containing bonds, such as those in ATP. Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts. Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria. Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material to invade living cells.

1.2.8. STANDARD B2.5 Living Organism Composition Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds. Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions. Describe how energy is transferred and transformed from the Sun to energy-rich molecules during photosynthesis. Describe how individual cells break down energy-rich molecules to provide energy for cell functions.

1.2.9. STANDARD B2.5 Energy Transfer Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of ATP synthesis and degradation. Relate plant structures and functions to the process of photosynthesis and respiration. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport). Relate cell parts/organelles to their function.

1.2.10. STANDARD B2.6x Internal/External Cell Regulation Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.

1.3. STANDARD B3 Interdependence of Living Systems and the Environment

1.3.1. STANDARD B3.1 Photosynthesis and Respiration Describe how organisms acquire energy directly or indirectly from sunlight. Illustrate and describe the energy conversions that occur during photosynthesis and respiration. Recognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration and identify the reactants and products for both. Explain how living organisms gain and use mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration and explain in words what they mean. Summarize the process of photosynthesis.

2. Biology Unit, Topics and Objectives

2.1. Unit 1 The Nature of Life

2.1.1. Topic: The Science of Biology Objectives Explain what the goal of science is. Explain what a hypothesis is. Describe how scientists test hypotheses. Explain how a scientific theory develops. Describe some characteristics of living things. Explain how life can be studied at different levels. Explain how light microscopes and electron microscopes are similar and different. Topic Mastery Step 1: Teach concepts Step 2: Skills Practice Step 3: Formative Assessment Step 4: Re-teach & Repeat Steps 2 & 3 until Student Goals are met. Step 5: Summative Assessment

3. Performance Expectations (Goals)

3.1. General Performance Outcomes for Science

3.1.1. Identifying Science Principles Describe, measure, or classify observations. State or recognize correct science principles. Demonstrate relationships among closely related science principles. Demonstrate relationships among different representations of principles.

3.1.2. Using Science Principles Explain observations of phenomena. explanations or predictions. Predict observations of phenomena. Suggest examples of observations that illustrate a science principle. Propose, analyze, and evaluate alternative

3.1.3. Scientific Inquiry Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field. Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed. Based on empirical evidence, explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables. Distinguish between scientific explanations that are regarded as current scientific consensus and the emerging questions that active researchers investigate

3.1.4. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations. Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence. Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information. Evaluate scientific explanations in a peer review process or discussion format. Evaluate the future career and occupational prospects of science fields. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints. Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that lead to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge. Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions. Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.

3.2. Learning Hierarchy

3.2.1. Level 1: Observations, Measurements & Data

3.2.2. Level 2: Patterns in data: laws, generalizations, graphs, tables

3.2.3. Level 3: Models & Theories

3.2.4. Level 4: Application to Practical Problems