Critical Terms / Frameworks

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Critical Terms / Frameworks by Mind Map: Critical Terms / Frameworks

1. Literary

1.1. Character

1.1.1. dynamic character A character that changes

1.1.2. flat/static character a character that doesn't develop eg Lane or Merriman

1.1.3. Stream of Conciousness Imitating the characters stream of thoughts

1.1.4. Persona This is a voice in a work of literature, it could be the narrator of author who uses the narrator to express ideas

1.2. figures of speech

1.2.1. Oxymoron This combines two normally contradictory terms eg pretty ugly

1.2.2. hyperbole a figure of speech that uses exaggeration

1.2.3. Imagery simile extended simile metaphor extended metaphor personification a figure of speech that attributes human qualities to an inanimate object.

1.2.4. Epigram A short witty statement, that is often memorable

1.2.5. Onomatopoeia This is a figure of speech that uses the words to imitate the sound eg crash! bang! meow!

1.2.6. Pun It is a play on words, e.g. He wanted to become a chef, but he didn't have the thyme.

1.2.7. Synonym Words which shares the same or similar meaning

1.3. Context

1.3.1. Theme the key idea or message of the text Dystopia 'Bad Place' Utopia 'Good Place'

1.4. Dramatic Structure/Technique

1.4.1. Prologue An opening statement to introduce the play

1.4.2. Epilogue A concluding statement

1.4.3. Climax The main dramatic focus of the plot Falling Action Action after the climax

1.4.4. Dramatic Irony When the reader/audience knows something that the character(s) does/do not

1.4.5. Epiphany A sudden insight or change of heart that happens in an instant

1.4.6. Monologue A speech given by one person Dramatic Monologue When a character speaks to a silent listener Interior Monologue When the reader feels like they are inside the characters mind through the revelation of the characters thoughts

1.4.7. Classicism Structure and style that imitates that of ancient Greece and Rome

1.4.8. Soliloquy A long speech made by a character who is alone, who reveals private thoughts and feelings to the reader or audience

1.5. Mode

1.5.1. Whether the piece is spoken, written or both Format Audience Aim/purpose for example whether it is a novel or article etc

1.6. Atmosphere/ aura

1.6.1. How the setting of the text affects the tone or mood

2. Linguistic

2.1. Phonology

2.1.1. Alliteration This is the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable

2.1.2. Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds in at least two words but that do not rhyme

2.1.3. Consonance The repetition of a consonant at the end of at least words

2.1.4. Caesura Having punctuation in the middle of a sentence to form a break or pause

2.2. Pronunciation

2.2.1. Accent a manner of pronounciation of language

2.2.2. Dialect applied most often to regional speech patterns, A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation sociolect - speech patterns created by social and economic status

2.2.3. Idiolect A person's individual speech characteristics

2.2.4. Received Pronunciation the accent of Standard English in England "BBC English" sociolinguistic factors give received pronunciation particular prestige in England and Wales.

2.2.5. Stress the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense.

2.3. Vocabulary

2.3.1. Connotation Associations with a word that is not the definition

2.3.2. Denotation The literal meaning of a word

2.3.3. Dysphemism To use the coarse or rude method of saying something or using a more offensive substitute for a word for example calling your Father old man.

2.3.4. Euphemism To use the indirect method of sayimg a potentially offensive statement eg) the decorators are in

2.3.5. Colloquialism Local expression not found in formal writing but that reflects the area/society in which the text is set. The use of informal speech for example the British use of 'snogging.' New node Dialect Regional speech that identifies a character's social status

2.4. Discourse

2.4.1. Structure Juxtapositioning placing a word, phrase or sentence next to another to achieve a specific stylistic effect Layout How a text has been ordered or structured on a page. Form External Internal

2.4.2. Narrative stance First Person Address Third Person Address Omniscient Restricted Reliable Unreliable

2.5. Features of speech

2.5.1. Adjacency pairs Linked statements made by different speakers, such as Q&A

2.5.2. Chaining The linking together of adjacency pairs to form a bigger unit of Discourse

2.5.3. Deixis This allows a speaker to point at places, times and individuals in a conversation How someone else responds to utterance

2.5.4. Feedback

2.5.5. Fillers This is when soneone uses none fluent terms instead of pausing

2.5.6. Hedges A device that a speaker uses to reduce the impact of utterance

2.5.7. Initiation The way an individual starts a conversation When somone starts a conversation, it is the way they start it

2.5.8. Non-fluency terms unpreparedspeech causes things such as hesitations or unintneded repititions, false starts or fillers

2.5.9. Paralinguistic features Non-linguistic variables in speech, such as tone of voice, emphasis and intonation

2.5.10. Phatic speech Language we use to enable social contact rather than convey a literal meaning such as 'It's a nice day today' or 'How are you keeping?'

2.5.11. Tag questions A short question attached to the end of an utterance, seeking some sort of agreement or confirmation. Used to encourage a conversation with the other person. for example, 'It's a lovely day, isn't it?'

2.5.12. Turn taking The way in which speakers regulate their contributions to a conversation some people giving precendence to others, some taaking precendence over others

2.6. Rhetoric

2.6.1. Rhetoric is the art of using language to communicate effectively

2.6.2. the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion

2.6.3. examples of rhetorical techniques Alliteration:repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence Let us go forth to lead the land we love. - J. F. Kennedy

2.7. Lexis

2.7.1. Determiner A determiner determines or identifys what we are referring to. They are used before nouns E.g - 'those' shoes, 'my' book, 'that' man

2.7.2. Noun Concrete nouns These are used to refer to; people, objects, places, substances Abstract nouns These are; events, states, concepts, activities a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.

2.7.3. Verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being Dracula bites his victims on the neck. The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes.

2.7.4. Adverb can modify a verb, adjective, another adverb or clause indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much". can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix Conjunctive Adverb- join two clauses together The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased. the conjunctive adverb "consequently" is not strong enough to join two independent clauses and so requires a semi-colon

2.7.5. Pronoun A pro form that substitutes a noun examples "he" "you"- makes a sentence less repetative

2.7.6. Adjective

2.8. Grammar

2.8.1. Syntax Sentence structure and organisation Simple sentence A sentence which contains a single clause which includes a finite verb Compound sentence A sentence which contains two or more clauses linked by the coordinating conjunctions, and, but, (n)either, (n)or. Complex sentence A sentence which contains two or more clauses linked by subordinating conjunctions, such as 'although', 'as', 'because', 'that', 'which' or 'who'. Compound-complex sentence A sentence which contains three or more clauses, which contain at least one coordinating and at least one subordinating conjunction Minor sentence A group of words which begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop but which does not contain a finite verb