dynamic character, A character that changes
flat/static character, a character that doesn't develop eg Lane or Merriman
Stream of Conciousness, Imitating the characters stream of thoughts
Persona, This is a voice in a work of literature, it could be the narrator of author who uses the narrator to express ideas
Oxymoron, This combines two normally contradictory terms eg pretty ugly
hyperbole, a figure of speech that uses exaggeration
Imagery, simile, extended simile, a simile that is elaborated on and developed in several phrases or sentences, metaphor, extended metaphor, a metaphor that is elaborated on and developed in several sentences, personification, a figure of speech that attributes human qualities to an inanimate object.
Epigram, A short witty statement, that is often memorable
Onomatopoeia, This is a figure of speech that uses the words to imitate the sound eg crash! bang! meow!
Pun, It is a play on words, e.g. He wanted to become a chef, but he didn't have the thyme.
Synonym, Words which shares the same or similar meaning
Theme, the key idea or message of the text, Dystopia, 'Bad Place', An example of this would be when Amir returns to Kabul to find it in near ruin by the destruction by the Taliban, Utopia, 'Good Place'
Prologue, An opening statement to introduce the play
Epilogue, A concluding statement
Climax, The main dramatic focus of the plot, Falling Action, Action after the climax
Dramatic Irony, When the reader/audience knows something that the character(s) does/do not
Epiphany, A sudden insight or change of heart that happens in an instant
Monologue, A speech given by one person, Dramatic Monologue, When a character speaks to a silent listener, Interior Monologue, When the reader feels like they are inside the characters mind through the revelation of the characters thoughts
Classicism, Structure and style that imitates that of ancient Greece and Rome
Soliloquy, A long speech made by a character who is alone, who reveals private thoughts and feelings to the reader or audience
Whether the piece is spoken, written or both, Format, Audience, Who the writer has in mind when they are writing the text, depending on the formal this would change., Aim/purpose, Why the text has been written., for example whether it is a novel or article etc
How the setting of the text affects the tone or mood
Alliteration, This is the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable
Assonance, The repetition of vowel sounds in at least two words but that do not rhyme
Consonance, The repetition of a consonant at the end of at least words
Caesura, Having punctuation in the middle of a sentence to form a break or pause
Accent, a manner of pronounciation of language
Dialect, applied most often to regional speech patterns,, A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation, sociolect - speech patterns created by social and economic status
Idiolect, A person's individual speech characteristics
Received Pronunciation, the accent of Standard English in England, "BBC English", sociolinguistic factors give received pronunciation particular prestige in England and Wales.
Stress, the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word or to certain words in a phrase or sentence., The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables., The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense.
Connotation, Associations with a word that is not the definition
Denotation, The literal meaning of a word
Dysphemism, To use the coarse or rude method of saying something or using a more offensive substitute for a word for example calling your Father old man.
Euphemism, To use the indirect method of sayimg a potentially offensive statement, eg) the decorators are in
Colloquialism, Local expression not found in formal writing but that reflects the area/society in which the text is set. The use of informal speech for example the British use of 'snogging.', New node, Dialect, Regional speech that identifies a character's social status
Structure, Juxtapositioning, placing a word, phrase or sentence next to another to achieve a specific stylistic effect, Layout, How a text has been ordered or structured on a page., Form, External, What genre has been chosen, Prose - Novel/Essay/Letter/Article/Document/Drama, Verse - Lyric/Sonnet/ Dramatic Monologue/Occasional Verse, Internal, What is the inner design?, Prose - Organisation/Balance/Climax/Sentence Structure/Use of Rhythm etc., Verse - Consider the rhythm, such as iambic rhythm,trochaic rhythm,anapaestic rhythm.
Narrative stance, First Person Address, Third Person Address, Omniscient, This will involve the use of the third person pronoun (he/she/they)., Restricted, Reliable, Unreliable
Adjacency pairs, Linked statements made by different speakers, such as Q&A
Chaining, The linking together of adjacency pairs to form a bigger unit of Discourse
Deixis, This allows a speaker to point at places, times and individuals in a conversation, How someone else responds to utterance
Fillers, This is when soneone uses none fluent terms instead of pausing
Hedges, A device that a speaker uses to reduce the impact of utterance
Initiation, The way an individual starts a conversation, When somone starts a conversation, it is the way they start it
Non-fluency terms, unpreparedspeech causes things such as hesitations or unintneded repititions, false starts or fillers
Paralinguistic features, Non-linguistic variables in speech, such as tone of voice, emphasis and intonation
Phatic speech, Language we use to enable social contact rather than convey a literal meaning, such as 'It's a nice day today' or 'How are you keeping?'
Tag questions, A short question attached to the end of an utterance, seeking some sort of agreement or confirmation. Used to encourage a conversation with the other person., for example, 'It's a lovely day, isn't it?'
Turn taking, The way in which speakers regulate their contributions to a conversation, some people giving precendence to others, some taaking precendence over others
Rhetoric is the art of using language to communicate effectively
the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion
examples of rhetorical techniques, Alliteration:repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence, Let us go forth to lead the land we love. - J. F. Kennedy
Determiner, A determiner determines or identifys what we are referring to. They are used before nouns, E.g - 'those' shoes, 'my' book, 'that' man
Noun, Concrete nouns, These are used to refer to; people, objects, places, substances, Abstract nouns, These are; events, states, concepts, activities, a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.
Verb, asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being, Dracula bites his victims on the neck., The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes.
Adverb, can modify a verb, adjective, another adverb or clause, indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much"., can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes., "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in how fast the clothing was constructed., Conjunctive Adverb- join two clauses together, The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased., the conjunctive adverb "consequently" is not strong enough to join two independent clauses and so requires a semi-colon
Pronoun, A pro form that substitutes a noun, examples "he" "you"- makes a sentence less repetative
Syntax, Sentence structure and organisation, Simple sentence, A sentence which contains a single clause which includes a finite verb, Compound sentence, A sentence which contains two or more clauses linked by the coordinating conjunctions, and, but, (n)either, (n)or., Complex sentence, A sentence which contains two or more clauses linked by subordinating conjunctions, such as 'although', 'as', 'because', 'that', 'which' or 'who'., however does not contain any coordinating conjunctions, Compound-complex sentence, A sentence which contains three or more clauses, which contain at least one coordinating and at least one subordinating conjunction, Minor sentence, A group of words which begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop but which does not contain a finite verb