Cummins' Second Language Acquisition (1981)

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Cummins' Second Language Acquisition (1981) by Mind Map: Cummins' Second Language Acquisition (1981)


1.1. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

1.2. Developed approximately within 2 years

1.3. "Surface" skills of listening and speaking

1.3.1. Acquired quickly (specially by those language backgrounds similar to English)

1.3.2. Acquired by people that spend a lot of time in school in interactions with native speakers.


2.1. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

2.2. Developed approximately 5-7 years

2.3. Basis for how a child can develop the ability to handle academic demands in the various subjects.

2.3.1. Much deeper understanding of the language

3. Expansion of concept (Four Quadrants)

3.1. Context-embeded communication

3.1.1. Provides a wide variety of communication support and clues such as: objects, gestures, vocal inflections

3.1.2. Examples: Social language One-to-one social conversations with gestures Storytelling activities with visual props

3.2. Context-reduced communication

3.2.1. Provides fewer to no communicative support or clues

3.2.2. Academic language

3.2.3. Examples: Phone conversations Notes

3.3. Cognitive undemanding communication

3.3.1. Minimal amount of abstract thinking

3.3.2. Easy

3.3.3. Examples: Playground/playful conversations Yes/no questions

3.4. Cognitive demanding communication

3.4.1. Large amount of abstract thiking

3.4.2. Requires learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly

3.4.3. Hard

3.4.4. Examples: Academic curriculum like social studies Math lessons and math word problems Written assessments

4. CUP vs SUP

4.1. CUP: Common Underlying Proficiency

4.1.1. Supported by Commins

4.1.2. Skills and contact from 1st language can be carried over or transferred to 2nd language

4.1.3. This is the bases of Bilingual Education

4.2. SUP: Separate Underlying Profociancy

4.2.1. Not supported by Commins

4.2.2. Assumes content and skills from 1st language will not transfer to 2nd language