COGNITION

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COGNITION by Mind Map: COGNITION

1. APPROACHES

1.1. Key Concepts

1.1.1. Processing

1.1.1.1. Bottom up vs. Top Down

1.1.1.2. Serial vs. Parallel

1.1.1.2.1. Also: Cascade

1.1.2. Approaches

1.1.2.1. Experimental Cognitive Psych

1.1.2.2. Cognitive Neuropsych

1.1.2.2.1. Uses Associations

1.1.2.2.2. Uses Dissassociations

1.1.2.3. Computational Cognitive Science

1.1.2.3.1. create computer programs that model human cognitive mechanisms.

1.1.2.4. Cognitive Neuroscience

1.1.2.4.1. Brain structure/function vs. cognitive processing

1.1.2.4.2. Techniques:

1.2. Historical Perspectives

1.2.1. Introspection

1.2.2. Behaviorism

1.2.3. Cognitive Revolution

1.2.3.1. Transcendental Method

1.2.3.1.1. "Inference to best explanation"

2. Visual Perception & Object Recognition

2.1. Object Recognition

2.1.1. Approaches

2.1.1.1. Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down

2.1.1.2. Viewpoint-dependent vs. Viewpoint-Invariant

2.1.1.2.1. Viewpoint-Dependent

2.1.1.2.2. Viewpoint-Invariat

2.1.1.2.3. examples: Greebles

2.1.1.2.4. Where happening in the brain? :46min

2.2. Visual Perception

2.2.1. Perceptual Constency

2.2.1.1. size

2.2.1.1.1. ex: railroad tracks

2.2.1.2. shape

2.2.1.2.1. ex: opening door

2.2.1.3. color

2.2.2. Perceptual Segregation

2.2.2.1. Gestaltism

2.2.2.1.1. 6 laws of P.S.

2.2.2.1.2. Figure-Ground Segregation

2.2.3. Why important?

2.2.3.1. Apply knowledge

2.2.3.1.1. take action!

2.2.3.2. Learning

2.2.3.2.1. combining info

2.2.3.3. Needed for Object Recognition

2.2.3.3.1. Challenges

2.2.4. Awareness of a Stimulus

2.2.4.1. Subjective Threshold

2.2.4.1.1. fails to report conscious awareness

2.2.4.2. Objective Threshold

2.2.4.2.1. point at which no evidence aware of it

2.2.4.2.2. often used as a prime

2.2.4.2.3. falls to chance level

2.2.4.3. aka Subliminal Perception

2.3. MODELS

2.3.1. Recognition-By Components Theory

2.3.1.1. geons as building blocks

2.3.1.1.1. though segmentation

2.3.1.1.2. and edge extraction

2.3.1.2. viewpoint invariant

2.3.1.3. -:

2.3.2. Marrs Theory of Visual Object Recognition

2.3.2.1. 3 stages of processing

2.3.2.1.1. 2D primal sketch

2.3.2.1.2. 2.5 D sketch

2.3.2.1.3. 3D model is made

2.3.2.2. +

2.3.2.2.1. includes both top down and bottom up

2.3.2.2.2. specified in adequate detail to be simulated by a computer

2.3.3. NEG (-):

2.3.3.1. no address how you recognize particular object rather than A object (your labtop vs a labtop)

2.3.3.2. Not enough with importance of context

2.3.3.3. Applies to clear parts/shapes

2.4. Deficits

2.4.1. Agnosia

2.4.1.1. visual agnosia :55

2.4.1.1.1. apperceptive agnosia

2.4.1.1.2. associative agnosia

2.4.1.1.3. distinguish between the two

2.4.1.1.4. simultagnosia

2.4.1.1.5. Spatioal agnosia

2.4.1.2. prosopagnosia

2.4.1.2.1. human faces or holistic processing

2.4.2. Delusional MisID

2.4.2.1. Capgras

2.4.2.2. Fregoli Syndrome

2.4.2.2.1. Different ppl are the same individual morphing in appearance

2.4.3. Blindsight

2.4.3.1. Damage to V1, primary visual cortex

2.4.3.2. Respond to visual stimuli, even though not perceiving

3. Attention and Executive Function

3.1. Definitions and Models

3.1.1. Stimulus Awareness

3.1.1.1. HOW unaware?

3.1.1.1.1. below sensory threshold

3.1.1.1.2. sensory adaptation

3.1.1.1.3. Habituation

3.1.2. Processing

3.1.2.1. Automatic

3.1.2.1.1. unintentional

3.1.2.1.2. few resources

3.1.2.1.3. parallel

3.1.2.1.4. fast!

3.1.2.2. Controlled

3.1.2.2.1. DEF:

3.1.2.2.2. TYPES:

3.1.2.3. Auto ----> Controlled?

3.1.2.3.1. Automatization

3.2. Impairments and Assessments

3.2.1. Deficits

3.2.1.1. RHD

3.2.1.1.1. Hallmarks

3.2.1.1.2. How assess?

3.2.1.1.3. Treatment approaches

3.2.1.2. ADHD

3.2.1.2.1. Types

3.2.1.3. Executive Function Deficits

3.2.1.3.1. ex: Phineas Gage

3.2.1.3.2. TBI

3.2.1.3.3. Stroke

3.2.1.3.4. Developmental Disorders

3.2.1.3.5. Neurogenerative disease

3.2.1.4. TBI

3.2.1.4.1. Attentional Deficits

3.2.1.4.2. Executive Function Deficits

3.2.1.4.3. Organizational Deficits

3.2.1.4.4. Social probs

3.2.1.4.5. Synthesis/Integration

3.2.1.4.6. Goal Formation

3.2.1.5. Frontotemporal Dementia

3.2.1.5.1. often misdiagnosed as Alzeheimers or psych

3.2.1.6. NonVerbal Learning Disorder

3.2.1.6.1. Concrete, difficulty with abstract

3.2.1.6.2. Poor organization

3.2.1.6.3. Poor Social skills

3.2.1.6.4. Poor visual discrimination

3.2.1.6.5. good decoders, terrible at comprehension

3.2.2. Assessing Executive Function Defictis

3.2.2.1. 3 behaviors to look at:

3.2.2.1.1. Propositional

3.2.2.1.2. Interactional

3.2.2.1.3. Nonverbal

3.2.2.2. Tasks

3.2.2.2.1. Cancellation

3.2.2.2.2. Mazes

3.2.2.2.3. Clock Drawing

3.2.2.2.4. Problem solving tasks

4. MEMORY

4.1. CLASS 5

4.1.1. TYPES

4.1.1.1. working memory

4.1.1.2. LTM

4.1.1.2.1. semantic

4.1.1.2.2. episodic

4.1.1.2.3. perceptual representation system

4.1.1.2.4. procedural

4.1.2. MODELS

4.1.2.1. Braddeley & Hitch

4.1.2.1.1. visuospatial sketchpad

4.1.2.1.2. Phonological loop

4.1.2.1.3. Central Executive

4.1.2.1.4. Episodic buffer

4.1.2.2. Levels of Processing Thry

4.1.2.2.1. Examples

4.1.2.2.2. rehearsed through:

4.1.2.2.3. note....encoding/retrieval types must match!

4.1.3. Operations of Memory

4.1.3.1. Encoding

4.1.3.1.1. consolidation

4.1.3.2. Storage

4.1.3.2.1. free recall

4.1.3.3. Retrival

4.1.3.3.1. availability

4.1.3.3.2. accessibility

4.1.4. TASKS

4.1.4.1. Recall v Recognition

4.1.4.1.1. Recall

4.1.4.1.2. Recog

4.1.4.2. Explicit v Impilicit

4.1.4.2.1. Explicit

4.1.4.2.2. Impliciit

4.1.4.3. Retrospective v Prospective

4.1.4.3.1. Retro

4.1.4.3.2. Prospective

4.1.5. Forgetting

4.1.5.1. WM

4.1.5.1.1. Interference

4.1.5.1.2. Decay

4.2. CLASS 6:

4.2.1. Neural Basis of Memory

4.2.1.1. Amygdala

4.2.1.1.1. consolidation

4.2.1.1.2. esp. if emotional

4.2.1.2. Hippocampus

4.2.1.2.1. encoding

4.2.1.2.2. consolidation

4.2.1.3. Frontal Lobe

4.2.1.3.1. Episodic memory

4.2.1.4. Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum

4.2.1.4.1. Skill learning

4.2.1.5. Phonological store

4.2.1.5.1. wernickes

4.2.1.6. Articulatory Rehearsal

4.2.1.6.1. left prefrontal areas

4.2.1.6.2. say information to yourself in your head, putting it into phonological store

4.2.2. Exceptional

4.2.2.1. Mnemonist

4.2.2.1.1. Strategists

4.2.2.1.2. Naturals

4.2.3. Disorders

4.2.3.1. Amnesia

4.2.3.1.1. loss of EXPLICIT

4.2.3.1.2. Implicit and STM usually intact

4.2.3.1.3. Temporal Gradient

4.2.3.2. TBI

4.2.3.3. Stroke

4.2.3.4. Multiple Sclerosis

4.2.3.5. Cerebral Tumors

4.2.3.6. Alzheimer's Disease

4.2.3.6.1. 1st sign is episodic memory

4.2.3.6.2. then semantic

4.2.3.6.3. nondeclarative last

4.2.3.6.4. **loss of acetylcholine

4.3. Assessing

5. CONCEPTS, CATEGORIES, and SEMANTIC REPs

5.1. Types of Reps

5.1.1. concrete

5.1.1.1. images=analouge codes

5.1.1.2. simultanously convey info

5.1.1.3. details about specific case

5.1.2. abstract

5.1.2.1. symbolic codes

5.1.2.2. Propositions

5.1.2.3. convey info serially

5.1.2.4. ability to generalize

5.1.2.4.1. perfect for categorical info

5.1.3. Dual Coding Theory

5.2. Concepts and Categories

5.2.1. concepts

5.2.1.1. fundamental unit of symbolic knowledge

5.2.1.2. "mental glue" of past to present experiences

5.2.1.3. allow us to:

5.2.1.3.1. make predictions

5.2.1.3.2. organize and rep knowledge

5.2.1.3.3. communicate

5.2.2. cateogories

5.2.3. Stored in LTM

5.2.3.1. Defining Attribute

5.2.3.1.1. all category members are equally rep'd

5.2.3.1.2. -:

5.2.3.1.3. Characteristic attributes

5.2.3.2. Prototype

5.2.3.2.1. each category has a rep-ing prototype

5.2.3.2.2. -:

5.2.3.3. Exemplar

5.2.3.4. final thoughts

5.2.3.4.1. Feature based + prototype approaches?

5.2.4. Schematic Networks

5.2.4.1. schemas

5.2.4.1.1. influence how we learn concepts

5.2.4.2. Semantic Networks

5.2.4.2.1. interconnected NODES

5.2.4.2.2. BASIC LEVEL=preferred specificity

5.2.5. Connectionist Networks

5.2.5.1. reped by the PATTERN of activation

5.2.5.2. aka Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models

6. SEMANTIC IMPAIRMENTS

7. LANGUAGE

7.1. Language and Thought

7.1.1. Properties:

7.1.1.1. Arbitrary Symbolic

7.1.1.2. Regularly structured

7.1.1.2.1. at mulitple levels!

7.1.1.3. Generative

7.1.1.4. Dynamic

7.1.1.4.1. ex: Beowolf

7.1.2. Components

7.1.2.1. Form

7.1.2.1.1. Syntax

7.1.2.1.2. Morphology

7.1.2.1.3. Phonology

7.1.2.2. Content

7.1.2.2.1. Semantics

7.1.2.3. Use

7.1.2.3.1. Pragmatics

7.1.2.4. Deep vs. Surface Structure

7.1.2.4.1. Surface

7.1.2.4.2. Deep

7.1.2.5. Prosody

7.1.3. Whorfian Hypothesis

7.1.3.1. can lang influence...

7.1.3.1.1. Color perception/memory

7.1.3.1.2. spatial relationships

7.2. Bilingualism

7.2.1. Cognitive Consequences

7.2.1.1. better metalinguistic awareness

7.2.1.2. outperform on tasks that tax EF

7.3. Spoken

7.4. 11: Written

7.4.1. Visual Processing

7.4.2. Theories of Reading

7.4.3. Reading Impairments

7.4.3.1. Surface Dyslexia

7.4.3.2. Phonological Dyslexia

7.4.3.3. Hyperlexic

7.4.3.4. Deep Dyslexia

7.4.4. Writing

7.4.4.1. 2 Routes

7.4.4.2. Phonological Dysgraphia

7.4.4.3. Surface Dysgraphia

7.4.4.4. 2 views:

7.4.4.4.1. Shared Components

7.4.4.4.2. Distinct Components

7.5. In Context