7 Aspects of Civilizations

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7 Aspects of Civilizations by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilizations

1. Government & Leaders

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Almost every law or aspect of the Sumerian society was written on some sort of tablet.

1.1.2. The Sumerian government was a monarchy. They believed their king made everything just through the Divine Right.

1.1.3. The lugal, or king, would be in charge of all architecture that was built, all temples, and he would lead the armies.

1.1.4. Even though the king had the most power, he wasn't allowed to act with ultimate power or as a dictator.

1.2. Shang Zhou

1.2.1. To help keep order in China, the king had governors to rule other parts out of the kings reach. To help with the order, he had a large army at his disposal.

1.2.2. When Zhou conquered the Shang, the leaders of the Zhou didn't think they would be accepted into China so they showed them the idea of Mandate of Heaven and that says that the gods would only support a just ruler.

1.2.3. Chinese rulers used the Mandate of Heaven to explain the dynasty cycle, the rise and fall of dynasties. Any dynasty that lost its power was due to its corruption.

1.2.4. The Zhou was the first dynasty that united almost all of China at one time.

2. Arts and Education

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. Sumerian architecture includes arches, ramps, and columns. These were tied into the making of the Ziggurats.

2.1.2. Sumerians created large sculptures with wide, open eyes. They also contained small objects carved from ivory.

2.1.3. Some of the most famous Sumerian art would be their cylinder seals.

2.1.4. People used seals to sign documents or show ownership.

2.2. Shang Zhou

2.2.1. The Shang Zhou dynasty was also known as the Bronze Age.

2.2.2. The earliest method of making bronzes was called lost-wax method.

2.2.3. They had a high respect for jade carving. If jade was found on bronze it was considered the highest honor.

2.2.4. They were highly advanced in mathematics.

3. Science and Technology

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. The types of tools they used were as follows: saws, chisels, hammers, braces, bits, nails, pins, rings, hoes, axes, knives, lancepoints, arrowheads, swords, glue, daggers, armor

3.1.2. Sumerians were some of the very first formal astronomers.

3.1.3. Sumerians also came up with the technology of dividing time into 60 minutes, and each minute being worth 60 seconds.

3.1.4. The Sumerians used three types of boats: skin boats, sailboats, and wooden oared ships.

3.2. Shang Zhou

3.2.1. The Shang were known for their skill of making bronze objects and tools. Some were used in religious ceremonies. Also they learned to use iron which later became the back bone of there society

3.2.2. The Shang also made very large structures, some being tombs.

3.2.3. Shang astronomers created a very accurate calender based on the cycles of the moon

3.2.4. The Zhou learned how to use iron which became the new backbone of their society.

4. Religion

4.1. Shang Zhou

4.1.1. Historians concluded many of the Shang's religious beliefs by studying royal tombs.

4.1.2. Tomb's contained expensive valuables along with hundreds of war prisoners who were also buried with their ruler.

4.1.3. The Shang most likely believed in the afterlife where the ruler would need his servants and riches.

4.1.4. The Shang's religion also revolved around ancestor worship, offering gifts to keep their loved ones happy in the afterlife.

4.2. Sumerians

4.2.1. They were believed to practiced ploytheism, the worship of many Gods.

4.2.2. Sumerians also believed that gods were like humans. They drank, ate, fell in love, and had disputes.

4.2.3. The Sumerian temples were large-stepped, mud-brick structures known as Ziggurats.

4.2.4. Each god protected each state and city to take care of.

5. Social Structures and Family Life

5.1. Shang Zhou

5.1.1. Family was very important for the Shang and Zhou, as they worshiped some of their ancestors.

5.1.2. Peasants were imporant to the Zhou, but were physically separated from the upper class.

5.1.3. The Zhou were traditionally divided into two periods, the Eastern and Western Zhou.

5.1.4. The Western Zhou is mostly known for honoring family relationships and social status.

5.2. Sumerians

5.2.1. Families consisted of a husband, wife, and just a few children.

5.2.2. Marriage was mostly an arranged event between family elders.

5.2.3. Husbands could initiate divorces very easily and with little to no reason.

5.2.4. The Sumerians were divided between two seasons: emish and enten.

6. Economy and Trade

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. The main jobs consisted of pottery makers, stonecutters, bricklayers, metal smiths, farmers, fishers, shepherds, weavers, leather-workers, and sailors.

6.1.2. They invented the wheel to put on carts, chariots, and for pottery making.

6.1.3. Sumer did not have many natural resources, so they heavily relied on trade.

6.1.4. Sumerians discovered obsidian and used it as one of their products for trade.

6.2. Shang Zhou

6.2.1. Agriculture ran the economy pretty much. During the Zhou reign, there was an economic boom through agriculture and the iron productions.

6.2.2. The serfs and slaves performed all economical functions in the Shang society.

6.2.3. The main source of income was from the harvest.

6.2.4. Silk eventually became China's main export.

7. Geography and Agriculture

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Some of the most famous water features in Sumer are the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

7.1.2. Some of the most agriculturally beneficial products the Sumerians used included Emmer wheat, barley, sheep, and cattle.

7.1.3. Sumer was a part of the region called Mesopotamia, also known as the Fertile Crescent.

7.1.4. The Sumerians invented a new agricultural strategy called "Mono-Cropping", which is the process of planting one type of crop in a single area.

7.2. Shang Zhou

7.2.1. Farming in the Zhou dynasty was controlled by the government and the rest was by nobles.

7.2.2. Zhou at the time dammed a river to create huge irrigation systems for farming

7.2.3. The Zhou dynasty had a surplus of mountains surrounding it.

7.2.4. One of the main water features of the Zhou Dynasty was the Wei river valley.