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History of the Internet by Mind Map: History of the Internet
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History of the Internet



Galactic Network

JCR Licklider (MIT)

Envisioned globally interconnected computers where everyone could access data & programs

JCR Licklider becomes the head of DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

The central R&D organization for the US DOD


Leonard Kleinrock (MIT)

First published paper on packet switching theory


Leonard Kleinrock (MIT)

First book on packet switching theory


Lawrence G. Roberts & Thomas Merrill

Hook a TX-2 computer in Mass. to a Q-32 in Cal. over low-speed telephone lines.

First WAN

Proved that circuit switched networking was inadequate and packet switching was necessary


Lawrence G. Roberts (DARPA)

Develops plan for "ARPANET"


Lawrence G. Roberts (DARPA)

Publishes ARPANET plan

Donald Davies & Roger Scantlebury (NPL (UK))

Present paper on packet network concept


publish paper on packet switching networks for secure voice

All three organizations (MIT, NPL & RAND) were working on the same problem without realizing it until the conference in 1967


RFQ released by DARPA for research on IMPs (Interface Message Processors)

RFQ was won by Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), Group headed by Frank Heart

Work on ARPANET architecture continues with Lawrence G. Roberts, Bob Kahn, and Howard Frank.

Network measurement system developed at UCLA

Group headed by Kleinrock



Network Measurement Center (UCLA) headed by Kleinrock becomes first node on ARPANET

Stanford Research Institute becomes 2nd node

UC Santa Barbara, 3rd node

U of Utah, 4th node

S. Crocker establishes Request for Comments (RFCs)

intended to be a fast way to share ideas with other network researchers.

first printed on paper and snail mailed

eventually distributed through FTP

Now on WWW

SRI maintained the online directories

RFCs created feedback loop

When consensus reached, a specification would be developed


Network Working Group (NWG) under S. Crocker finished initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called Network Control Protocol (NCP)

NCP allowed network applications

worked like a driver

could not address networks downstream

no error control

Believed ARPANET would be the only network and would be completely reliable


Kahn demonstrates ARPANET at International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC)

First public demonstration

email introduced

Kahn proposes "open architecture"

Individual networks developed on their own.

Protocols to control connections between networks

NCP not usable for open architecture, Kahn proposes what would eventually be called the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite, TCP/IP has error control and ability to see downstream networks, more of a communications protocol than NCP


Kahn gets Vint Cerf (Stanford) to help him with TCP/IP development

Cerf was familiar with NCP and with interfacing various operating systems

First written version of TCP/IP presented to International Network Working Group

Cerf was chair

TCP was intended to support a range of transport services.

Original implementation only supported file transfer and remote login

realized that TCP should not handle packet loss, applications should, split TCP in two, TCP and IP, TCP - service features, like flow control and recovery from lost packets, IP - provides only for addressing and forwarding packets, Also added UDP, User Datagram Protocol, provides direct access to basic service of IP

Three contracts given by DARPA to implement TCP/IP

Stanford (Cerf), BBN (Ray Tomlinson), and UCL (Peter Kirstein)

Stanford developed standards

within a year there were three interoperable versions of TCP/IP

Xerox PARC develops Ethernet


Xerox PARC develops TCP for personal computers.


First book published on ARPANET

Kleinrock's "Queueing Systems: Vol. II, Computer Applications"

Influential in spreading packet switching


Transition from NCP to TCP/IP

ARPANET used by significant number of defense R&D and operational organizations

Split off into MILNET for operational requirements

ARPANET used for R&D

Barry Leiner takes over Internet research at DARPA

disbanded ICB and created various Task Forces, each TF focused on particular area of technology

Formed Internet Activities Board (IAB), made up of chairs from Task Forces

As Internet grew, TFs and the IAB were reorganized with substructures


Defense Department adopts TCP/IP as standard


ARPANET is well established as technology supporting broad community of researchers and developers

Still difficulties connecting between different networks (i.e. email)


US version of JANET

Dennis Jennings takes over NSF, makes TCP/IP mandatiory for NSFNET

IAB with Dan Lynch held 3-day workshop to inform vendors on what TCP/IP could and could not do

In spite of DOD insistence on TCP/IP fo all networks, many vendors still did not understand it.


computer networks springing up wherever there is funding

MFENet for USDoE's Magnetic Fusion Energy group

HEPNet for USDoE's High Energy Physics group

SPAN for NASA's Space Physicists

CSNET for academic and industrial computer science community


BITNET linked academic mainframe computers

Most networks were purpose built for a small group

little incentive for compatibility



Developed to serve entire higher education community


Steve Wolff takes over NSF.

developed policies and strategies to fund and encourage network infrastructure for academic and research communities

Supported DARPA's Internet infrastructure., developed policies guaranteeing connectivity between DARPA and NSF, RFC 985 (Requirements for Internet Gateways)


ARPANET backbone has grown from 6 nodes with 56kbps links to 21 nodes with multiple 45Mbps links.

serves approx. 29,000 networks in the US

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) developed

permits management of networks


ARPANET decommissioned.

thanks to NSF funding and standardization, TCP/IP was the de facto data protocol on networks


Development of coordination mechanisms by Vint Cerf (manager of Internet Program at DARPA)

International Cooperation Board (ICB), coordinated work with European organizations

Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB), invitational body to assist Cerf in managing Internet activity


Development of Internet Society

developed to keep Internet development free and fair as more commercial enterprises and community organizations were funding and developing their own Internet research and development


IAB reorganized and renamed to Internet Architecture Board under the Internet Society



Internet Society works on provision of service and other measures that help IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force, responsibilities include developing the TCP/IP protocols, attended by users, researchers, and vendors


World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), responsible for evolving various protocols and standards associated with the Web


First Interop trade show

New node

New node