History of the Internet

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History of the Internet by Mind Map: History of the Internet

1. 1962

1.1. Galactic Network

1.1.1. JCR Licklider (MIT)

1.1.2. Envisioned globally interconnected computers where everyone could access data & programs

1.2. JCR Licklider becomes the head of DARPA

1.2.1. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

1.2.2. The central R&D organization for the US DOD

2. 1961

2.1. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT)

2.1.1. First published paper on packet switching theory

3. 1964

3.1. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT)

3.1.1. First book on packet switching theory

4. 1965

4.1. Lawrence G. Roberts & Thomas Merrill

4.1.1. Hook a TX-2 computer in Mass. to a Q-32 in Cal. over low-speed telephone lines.

4.1.2. First WAN

4.1.3. Proved that circuit switched networking was inadequate and packet switching was necessary

5. 1966

5.1. Lawrence G. Roberts (DARPA)

5.1.1. Develops plan for "ARPANET"

6. 1967

6.1. Lawrence G. Roberts (DARPA)

6.1.1. Publishes ARPANET plan

6.2. Donald Davies & Roger Scantlebury (NPL (UK))

6.2.1. Present paper on packet network concept

6.3. RAND

6.3.1. publish paper on packet switching networks for secure voice

6.4. All three organizations (MIT, NPL & RAND) were working on the same problem without realizing it until the conference in 1967

7. 1968

7.1. RFQ released by DARPA for research on IMPs (Interface Message Processors)

7.1.1. RFQ was won by Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN)

7.1.1.1. Group headed by Frank Heart

7.2. Work on ARPANET architecture continues with Lawrence G. Roberts, Bob Kahn, and Howard Frank.

7.3. Network measurement system developed at UCLA

7.3.1. Group headed by Kleinrock

8. 1969

8.1. nodes

8.1.1. Network Measurement Center (UCLA) headed by Kleinrock becomes first node on ARPANET

8.1.2. Stanford Research Institute becomes 2nd node

8.1.3. UC Santa Barbara

8.1.3.1. 3rd node

8.1.4. U of Utah

8.1.4.1. 4th node

8.2. S. Crocker establishes Request for Comments (RFCs)

8.2.1. intended to be a fast way to share ideas with other network researchers.

8.2.2. first printed on paper and snail mailed

8.2.3. eventually distributed through FTP

8.2.4. Now on WWW

8.2.5. SRI maintained the online directories

8.2.6. RFCs created feedback loop

8.2.7. When consensus reached, a specification would be developed

9. 1970

9.1. Network Working Group (NWG) under S. Crocker finished initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called Network Control Protocol (NCP)

9.2. NCP allowed network applications

9.2.1. worked like a driver

9.2.2. could not address networks downstream

9.2.3. no error control

9.2.4. Believed ARPANET would be the only network and would be completely reliable

10. 1972

10.1. Kahn demonstrates ARPANET at International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC)

10.1.1. First public demonstration

10.2. email introduced

10.3. Kahn proposes "open architecture"

10.3.1. Individual networks developed on their own.

10.3.2. Protocols to control connections between networks

10.3.3. NCP not usable for open architecture

10.3.3.1. Kahn proposes what would eventually be called the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite

10.3.3.1.1. TCP/IP has error control and ability to see downstream networks

10.3.3.1.2. more of a communications protocol than NCP

11. 1973

11.1. Kahn gets Vint Cerf (Stanford) to help him with TCP/IP development

11.1.1. Cerf was familiar with NCP and with interfacing various operating systems

11.2. First written version of TCP/IP presented to International Network Working Group

11.2.1. Cerf was chair

11.3. TCP was intended to support a range of transport services.

11.3.1. Original implementation only supported file transfer and remote login

11.3.2. realized that TCP should not handle packet loss, applications should

11.3.2.1. split TCP in two, TCP and IP

11.3.2.1.1. TCP - service features, like flow control and recovery from lost packets

11.3.2.1.2. IP - provides only for addressing and forwarding packets

11.3.2.2. Also added UDP

11.3.2.2.1. User Datagram Protocol

11.3.2.2.2. provides direct access to basic service of IP

11.4. Three contracts given by DARPA to implement TCP/IP

11.4.1. Stanford (Cerf), BBN (Ray Tomlinson), and UCL (Peter Kirstein)

11.4.2. Stanford developed standards

11.4.3. within a year there were three interoperable versions of TCP/IP

11.5. Xerox PARC develops Ethernet

12. 1974

12.1. Xerox PARC develops TCP for personal computers.

13. 1976

13.1. First book published on ARPANET

13.1.1. Kleinrock's "Queueing Systems: Vol. II, Computer Applications"

13.1.2. Influential in spreading packet switching

14. 1983

14.1. Transition from NCP to TCP/IP

14.2. ARPANET used by significant number of defense R&D and operational organizations

14.2.1. Split off into MILNET for operational requirements

14.2.2. ARPANET used for R&D

14.3. Barry Leiner takes over Internet research at DARPA

14.3.1. disbanded ICB and created various Task Forces

14.3.1.1. each TF focused on particular area of technology

14.3.2. Formed Internet Activities Board (IAB)

14.3.2.1. made up of chairs from Task Forces

14.3.3. As Internet grew, TFs and the IAB were reorganized with substructures

15. 1980

15.1. Defense Department adopts TCP/IP as standard

16. 1985

16.1. ARPANET is well established as technology supporting broad community of researchers and developers

16.2. Still difficulties connecting between different networks (i.e. email)

16.3. NSFNET (US)

16.3.1. US version of JANET

16.3.2. Dennis Jennings takes over NSF

16.3.2.1. makes TCP/IP mandatiory for NSFNET

16.4. IAB with Dan Lynch held 3-day workshop to inform vendors on what TCP/IP could and could not do

16.4.1. In spite of DOD insistence on TCP/IP fo all networks, many vendors still did not understand it.

17. mid-1970s

17.1. computer networks springing up wherever there is funding

17.1.1. MFENet for USDoE's Magnetic Fusion Energy group

17.1.2. HEPNet for USDoE's High Energy Physics group

17.1.3. SPAN for NASA's Space Physicists

17.1.4. CSNET for academic and industrial computer science community

17.1.5. USENET

17.1.6. BITNET linked academic mainframe computers

17.2. Most networks were purpose built for a small group

17.2.1. little incentive for compatibility

18. 1984

18.1. JANET (UK)

18.1.1. Developed to serve entire higher education community

19. 1986

19.1. Steve Wolff takes over NSF.

19.1.1. developed policies and strategies to fund and encourage network infrastructure for academic and research communities

19.1.2. Supported DARPA's Internet infrastructure.

19.1.2.1. developed policies guaranteeing connectivity between DARPA and NSF

19.1.2.2. RFC 985 (Requirements for Internet Gateways)

20. 1987

20.1. ARPANET backbone has grown from 6 nodes with 56kbps links to 21 nodes with multiple 45Mbps links.

20.2. serves approx. 29,000 networks in the US

20.3. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) developed

20.3.1. permits management of networks

21. 1990

21.1. ARPANET decommissioned.

21.1.1. thanks to NSF funding and standardization, TCP/IP was the de facto data protocol on networks

22. Late-1970s

22.1. Development of coordination mechanisms by Vint Cerf (manager of Internet Program at DARPA)

22.1.1. International Cooperation Board (ICB)

22.1.1.1. coordinated work with European organizations

22.1.2. Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)

22.1.2.1. invitational body to assist Cerf in managing Internet activity

23. 1991

23.1. Development of Internet Society

23.1.1. developed to keep Internet development free and fair as more commercial enterprises and community organizations were funding and developing their own Internet research and development

24. 1992

24.1. IAB reorganized and renamed to Internet Architecture Board under the Internet Society

25. mid-1990s

25.1. reoganizations

25.1.1. Internet Society works on provision of service and other measures that help IETF

25.1.2. Internet Engineering Task Force

25.1.2.1. responsibilities include developing the TCP/IP protocols

25.1.2.2. attended by users, researchers, and vendors

25.1.3. IAB

25.1.4. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

25.1.4.1. responsible for evolving various protocols and standards associated with the Web

26. 1988

26.1. First Interop trade show

27. New node

28. New node