7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Social Structure and Family Life

1.1. Sumarians

1.1.1. As trade developed, a social hierarchy began to form.

1.1.2. At the top, were the kings, priests, and their principal agents.

1.1.3. The next tier was the wealthy merchants. Below them were the majority of Sumerians, the artisans, farmers, and laborers. At the bottom, were the slaves, many of whom were captured in battle.

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. They had distinguished social classes like many other societies at the time.

1.2.2. One way social class was distinguished was by how the body was buried. The wealthiest were buried in tombs, and the most poor were sometimes thrown in wells.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. Sumerians invented the wheel, which they used for pottery, and to build a variety of vehicles.

2.1.2. The plow was invented by the Sumerians. They also learned how to make tools and weapons from bronze.

2.1.3. Sumerians collected and cataloged an impressive amount of medical knowledge. They even performed basic surgery.

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. Iron weapons also helped strengthen the Zhou army.

2.2.2. New weapons were a source of new technology such as the catapult and the creation of China’s first cavalry.

2.2.3. the Zhou introduced coins to China and began the use of chopsticks, which are still used as eating implements in China today.

3. Arts and Education

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. Education in the Sumerian culture was very advance as they were the ones to put time into 60mins each hour. They also used geometry to form buildings. Sumerians had a writing form called cuneiform used originally to keep business accounts as they became more educated writing expanded to law, poetry, and writing stories. They also had medical knowledge so they could perform basic surgery. Above is a picture of a slab of clay with cuneiform written on it

3.1.2. The Sumerians' way of writing was called a cuneiform and they used styluses to make wedge-shaped symbols in clay tablets

3.1.3. The most famous Sumerian work of art are the cylinder seals. These seals are cylindrical stone seals with detailed designs engraved all around.

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. The development of Chinese Writing was closely tied to the use of oracle bones.

3.2.2. These early Shang texts used picture symbols to represent objects or ideas

3.2.3. The Shang learned how to work with bronze, making almost all metalwork in China in bronze.

4. Economy and Trade

4.1. Shang/Zhou

4.1.1. the Zhou introduced coins to China

4.1.2. The Zhou wealthy enjoyed finding bronze or jade objects

4.1.3. There is also evidence that the Shang may have created one of the world's systems of money.

4.2. Sumerians

4.2.1. To obtain these materials, Sumerians traded with people across Southwest Asia and beyond, exchanging woven textiles for metals, timber, and Stone.

4.2.2. Sumerians obtained many of the materials for their buildings and art through trade.

4.2.3. Sumer lacked many raw materials, such as Wood and metals.

5. Geography and Agriculture

5.1. Sumarians

5.1.1. Mesopotamia was in between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, which was good for farming.

5.1.2. The region received little rain, and the water levels had to rely on rainfall and snow melt in distant mountains.

5.1.3. Without warning, the rivers could flood, and wash away villages and crops. If the water levels fell too low, the crops could die.

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. Under the Zhou, China’s population grew. Farmers learned new techniques that increased the size of their harvests, thereby creating food surpluses.

6. Government and Leaders

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. Sumerian Priests held high status, and initially ruled the city-states. In time, these city-state kings formed dynastys.

6.1.2. City-States began to be ruled by kings, and they battled for dominance.

6.1.3. The kings, who served as the gods' chief representative, would preform ceremonies to please the gods.

6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. During the Shang period, China was ruled by a strong monarchy.

6.2.2. Shang kings, at their capital city of Anyang were surrounded by a court, or gathering of wealthy nobles.

6.2.3. These nobles preformed rituals intended to strengthen the kingdom and keep it safe.

7. Religion

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Sumerians practiced polytheism, the worship of many gods.

7.1.2. Sumerians believed their gods controlled all natural forces.

7.1.3. The Sumerians thought their gods were much like humans. The gods ate and rank, fell in love, and fought.

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. The Shang believed in an afterlife in which a ruler would still need servants and riches.

7.2.2. The Shang religion was centered around Ancestor worship as well as an afterlife for their ruler.

7.2.3. As part of their belief, the Shang would ask their ancestors for advice. This advice was sought through the use of oracle bones, inscribed bits of animal bone or turtle shell.

8. By: Kristie Wilcox, Izzy Summers, Ad