7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Arts and Education

1.1. Sumeria

1.1.1. Sumerians inhabited mostly southern Mesopotamia from about 4000 BCE to about 2000 BCE.

1.1.2. The Sumerians occupied the fertile lower valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now southern Iraq between 4000 and 2000 BC.

1.2. Indus Valley

1.2.1. The earliest Indian art emerged from the valley of the Indus River during the second half of the 3d millennium B.C.

1.2.2. Some statuettes resemble the hieratic style of contemporary Mesopotamia, while others are done in the smooth, sinuous style that is the prototype of later Indian sculpture, in which the plastic modeling reveals the animating breath of life.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Sumeria

2.1.1. The Sumerians came up with the concept of dividing the hour into 60 minutes and the minute into 60 seconds.

2.1.2. The Sumerians may have invented military formations.

2.2. Indus Valley

2.2.1. They lived in well-planned cities and were known for the advanced use of wells, water storage and drainage systems.

2.2.2. Their indigenous technology of iron smelting showed an extremely high level of sophistication and was interwoven with their rich culture and tradition.

3. Government and Leaders

3.1. Sumeria

3.1.1. Their Government was invented to organize labor and officials were appointed to sort out problems and work on construction projects.

3.1.2. The Sumerian priest-kings received advice from a General Assembly made up of free men.

3.2. Indus Valley

3.2.1. From the information obtained through archaeology, the government in the Indus Valley was a monarchy.

3.2.2. Rulers within the cities of the Indus Valley governed through the control of trade and religion rather than military strength.

4. Economy and Trade

4.1. Sumeria

4.1.1. Sumerians would have ploughed with stone and cut with clay sickles, and went on to using metal ploughs with the development of metal-working skills.

4.1.2. Discoveries of obsidian from far-away locations in Anatolia and lapis lazuli from northeastern Afghanistan, beads from Dilmun, and several seals inscribed with the Indus Valley script suggest a remarkably wide-ranging network of ancient trade centered around the Persian Gulf.

4.2. Indus Valley

4.2.1. The Indus Valley Civilization, beginning sometime around 2300 BC, developed in two major city areas along the river valleys of the Indus, Ravi, and Sutlej, just beneath the Himalayan Mountains in modern Pakistan and Northeast India.

4.2.2. Anthropologists do know that these cities were highly developed for their period in history; the structure of their cities were so far advanced that it was not surpassed until the late nineteenth century in Europe.

5. Religion

5.1. Sumeria

5.1.1. Sumerian religion has its roots in the worship of nature, such as the wind and water.

5.1.2. The Sumerians believed that the dead descended into the nether world, also known as the under world.

5.2. Indus Valley

5.2.1. Many Indus valley seals show animals presented in a format reminiscent of later Hindu gods Shiva and Rudra.

5.2.2. The Indus valley civilization was essentially an urban civilization, characterized by well planned cities, built according to the needs of the people who inhabited them and the geographical and climatic challenges they faced.

6. Social Structure and Family Life

6.1. Sumeria

6.1.1. Women had a lot of rights to do anything that men can do such as priesthood and artisans and other.

6.1.2. The temple served several purposes, including worship and education.

6.2. Indus Valley

6.2.1. The social and economic life of of the people of Indus Valley Civilization was systematic and organised

6.2.2. The Indus valley population consisted of Australoid, Mediterranean, Mongoloid and Alpine races.

7. Geography and Agriculture

7.1. Sumeria

7.1.1. Around 6000 B.C., after the agricultural revolution had begun to spread from its place of origin on the northern fringes of the Fertile Crescent, Neolithic farmers started filtering into the Fertile Crescent itself.

7.1.2. By discovering how to use metals to make tools and weapons, late Neolithic people effected a revolution nearly as far-reaching as that wrought in agriculture.

7.2. Indus Valley

7.2.1. The civilization is famous for its large and well-planned cities.

7.2.2. The Indus Valley civilization covered most of what is today Pakistan and the Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab.