7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Arts and Education

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Writing skills were the beginning of education in Sumer. They began writing stories and laws. They also assigned people a job as a scribe, who published written documents.

1.1.2. Sumerians created sculptures as art. These sculpted statues usually possessed huge, wide eyes.

1.1.3. Another creative project Sumerian artists created was architecture. This consisted of columns, ramps and great arches.

1.1.4. One of the Sumerian's most famous art pieces are cylinder seals. These cylinders had decorative engravings on them. Cylinder seals were used to sign documents or to claim things as your own.

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. The Shang and the Zhou made their tools and artwork out of bronze.

1.2.2. The bronze tools used in the Shang/Zhou also had patterns of faces.

2. Geography and Agriculture

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded in the spring. After it flooded the mud left behind was called silt. Silt helped enrich the soil.

2.1.2. Southern Mesopotamia received little rainfall, so the rivers depended only on rain and melted snow from far-off mountains.

2.1.3. Since rivers could overflow at any time, the Mesopotamian people developed canals and basins to store and transport the water.

2.1.4. This kind of geography which promoted farming also promoted the civilization known as the Sumerian civilization.

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. Long rivers, fertile soil, temperate climates, and isolated valleys all contributed to the growth of early China.

2.2.2. Two major rivers supplied early China with water: the Chang Jiang, and the Huang He.

2.2.3. The Huang He had fine dusty soil in the valley around the river called loess.

2.2.4. Each of the rivers in the North and South regions had different climates for growing different crops. Ex: Southern China along the Chang Jiang was warm and got plenty of rainfall, perfect for growing rice.

3. Science and Technology

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. Sumerians learned to use geometry which assisted them in their various building endeavors.

3.1.2. We describe an hour as 60 minutes and a circle as 360 degrees because the Sumerian's math system was based on the number 60!

3.1.3. Technology was advanced in the Sumerian civilization because Sumerians invented things like the wheel for pottery and the plow.

3.1.4. Through the tools they had created Sumerians invented sewers. They also developed bronze tools and weapons.

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. The Shang are perhaps most well known for their specialty of creating bronze tools.

3.2.2. The Zhou figured out how to use iron, though they mostly used bronze.

3.2.3. The technology the Zhou created with iron swords that helped them in wars.

3.2.4. The Zhou created the catapult and created their first cavalry.

4. Religion

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. Polytheism was the faith practiced by Sumerians. It is otherwise known as the worship of many gods.

4.1.2. Sumerians believed the many gods they worshiped were very similar to people, although they possessed enormous power.

4.1.3. These gods were thought to have controlled all natural forces, according to the Sumerians. Therefore, kings who became rulers had to perform ceremonies to please the gods.

4.1.4. Priests were very important in Sumer. They presented food to the gods with food and drink so the gods would not be angry.

4.2. Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. The Shang gave the dead king jewels and sacrificed soldiers of war at burial, concluding that the Shang believed in the afterlife.

4.2.2. As part of their worship, the Shang often asked their ancestors for advice.

4.2.3. The Zhou believed, in order to win the now taken over Shangs trust, that those who are corrupted shall not rule in power. This was known as Mandate of Heaven.

4.2.4. Later Chines civilizations used Mandate of Heaven to explain the dynastic cycle, the rise and fall of past Chinese civilizations.

5. Government and Leaders

5.1. Shang/Zhou

5.1.1. The very first leader of the Shang/Zhou is shrouded in mystery, but according to legend, his name was Fu Xi and he was part man and part god.

5.1.2. They say Fu Xi came down from above and saved the Chinese from becoming barbarians by teaching them how to use tools for fishing, hunting, and farming.

5.1.3. Early China was ruled over monarchy and the king lived in the capital, known as Anyang, in a court. He hired government leaders to keep order and protect more distant parts of China.

5.1.4. The king had at his disposal a large army to both attack/defend China, and to prevent rebellions.

5.2. Sumerians

5.2.1. Priests held high status and governed city-states.

5.2.2. As more city-states emerged, they fought for dominance.

5.2.3. War chiefs ruled as kings, who worked as representatives of the gods.

5.2.4. Dynasties were formed from the city-states' kings. Dynasties are a series of rulers from one family.

6. Social Structure and Family Life

6.1. Shang/Zhou

6.1.1. The Shang were a large agricultural society, but some Shang people would volunteer in building projects, or to fight a war they were in.

6.1.2. Wealthy or elite rulers of the Shang would take time off to go hunting for sport or collect precious items made of jade or bronze.

6.2. Sumerians

6.2.1. Women weren't viewed as individuals. When they were, the woman was royal or had a husband of high power.

6.2.2. Girls were trained at a young age for the role of wife, mother, or housekeeper.

6.2.3. Most scribes were men but some women of the upper class learned to write.

6.2.4. A typical Sumerian families consisted of a husband, wife and children. The husband had power in the family and was allowed to remarry if the first wife could not have children. Children were adored but could be sold to slavery if a debt had to be repaid.

7. Economy and Trade

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Since Sumerians didn't have basic materials like metal or wood, they began trading!

7.1.2. Sumerians began trading their art, such as woven textiles. They started with Southwest Asia and expanded their trade.

7.1.3. As trade became more popular, a social ranking began to emerge. On the top were kings, priests and their agents. In the middle, there were rich merchants and landowners. After them were farmers, laborers, and artists. Slaves were at the bottom and were typically captured in battle.

7.1.4. Men and women were also separated with different roles. Men had political power while women took care of children. Although, women of a higher class were able to gain an education and some worked in temples as priestesses.

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. The Zhou had many food surpluses due to their farmers developing techniques on more efficient farming, so they traded some of their extra food.

7.2.2. The Zhou was the first of China's civilizations to introduce coins to the economy.