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Migration by Mind Map: Migration

1. Field Note

1.1. Immigrants are willing to risk their lives to get to more developed countries because they have hopes in creating a better life for themselves.

1.2. "Wet foot, dry foot" U.S. policy: If Cuban immigrants are found at sea, they are deported. If they make it to dry land, they can stay.

1.3. Perception is an overwhelming factor in migration because if people from other countries perceive life as being better in a different country, they will continue to migrate.

1.4. Remittances: Money sent from another country to a migrant's home country.

1.4.1. Economically significant because the economies of poorer countries are benefited by money sent from other countries. Remittances help many families financially.

1.4.2. Reverse remittances: The migrant asks their family from their home country for money.

1.5. Legal Immigrants

1.5.1. Estimated 31.2 million immigrants in the U.S. today. 20.4 are legal.

1.5.2. After Mexico, Dominican Republic is the U.S.'s largest source of legal immigrants.

1.5.3. The majority of legal agricultural workers in U.S. and Canada come from Mexico.

1.6. Since 9/11/01, the cultural landscape of the U.S./Mexico border has changed because they are making immigration more difficult. For example, fences are being put up, more border control is being hired, and there is more technology being used.

1.7. In Tijuana, Mexico, human rights activists have placed crosses on the wall to memorialize people who have died trying to cross the border.

1.8. NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement

2. What Is Migration?

2.1. Movement

2.1.1. Cyclic movement: People move away from home for short periods of time. Nomadism: A form of cyclic movement where people dwindle across the world. It is still found in parts of Africa and Asia.

2.1.2. Periodic movement: Longer periods of time away from home. Transhumance: A type of periodic movement. Ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures. found in Switzerland and Northeast Africa.

2.1.3. Migration differs from movement because it has a different degree of permanence than the other two. The migrant may never return home.

2.2. Migration

2.2.1. Migrant Labor: Workers who find jobs in places away from home.

2.2.2. International migration: Migration across countries.

2.2.3. Internal migration: Migration within a country. The pattern of internal migration in Peru and many other developing countries is from rural areas to urban.

2.3. Factors such as the mortgage crisis and higher unemployment rates have affected internal migration within the U.S.

2.4. The South (U.S.) is appealing to immigrants because of the warm climate and availability of jobs.

3. Why Do People Migrate?

3.1. Forced and voluntary migration

3.1.1. Forced migration: Someone in a position of power produces involuntary migration movement. Can't be understood based on theories of choice. 4 forced migrations that have changed the world's demographic map: Great Britain sent convicts to Australia, U.S. government moved Native Americans to other parts of the country, Stalin moved non-Russians to other parts of Europe, and in Germany, the Nazis forced Jews out of places they took control of.

3.1.2. Voluntary migration: A migrant relocates after weighing options and choices. Can be analyzed and understood as a series of options or choices that result in movement.

3.1.3. The European migration to the U.S. can be seen as forced because of the laws forced upon the Irish by Britain, but can also be seen as voluntary because they chose to move/

3.1.4. It is hard to decide whether certain migrations are forced or voluntary because usually the decision is not solely based off push or pull factors. There is usually a push factor, but they have a choice of what country they are going to and a pull factor of why they chose it.

3.2. Men migrate much more than women because they leave to find jobs and they have more choice of employment than women.

3.3. Atlantic slave trade: Largest and most devastating forced migration in the history of humanity.

3.3.1. The largest number of slaves were forced to go to Brazil.

3.3.2. The demand for slaves in the Americas was due to the lack of workers on plantations. The most important crop, economically, was sugar. Other crops were coffee, fruit, and cotton.

3.3.3. Regions of Africa most affected: West Africa (from Liberia to Nigeria) and inland to the margins of the Sahara. Also, along the equator.

3.3.4. Affected Africa and the Americas geographically because many people in the Americas are from African descent.

3.4. The reasons for the spikes in the U.S. Coast Guard interdiction of Haitians between 1982 and 2010: A military group took over the government and the country has been unstable. Earthquake in 2010.

3.5. Afghan refugees have fled to Pakistan and Iran because civil war and the Taliban. Currently, because the instability of the Afghan War.

3.6. Repatriation: To be sent back to your home country.

3.7. Ravenstein's 5 Laws of Migration

3.7.1. 1: Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.

3.7.2. 2: The majority of migrants move a short distance.

3.7.3. 3: Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.

3.7.4. 4: Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.

3.7.5. 5: Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.

3.8. The Gravity Model tries to predict interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them.

3.8.1. Equation: Multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them.

3.9. Push and pull factors

3.9.1. Push factors: Reasons making people want to leave a place. Perceived more accurately than pull factors.

3.9.2. Pull factors: Reasons making people want to go to a place Impacted by distance decay because you are more likely to understand and have a more accurate perception of places near to you than far from you.

3.10. Step migration: How a route of migration is broken up into smaller routes with many stopping points along the way.

3.11. Intervening opportunity:

3.12. How do the following impact migration?

3.12.1. Legal Status: To enter a country legally, you have to apply for a work visa from the host country. If you do not, you have to enter the country in a much different way because you would not want to be caught and face deportation.

3.12.2. Economic Conditions: People leave their home countries often times, to find opportunities for a better life.

3.12.3. Power Relationships: Based on gender, ethnicity, race, and money.

3.12.4. Political Circumstances: Push factor due to a political conflict in one's own country. 3 major politically driven migration flows 1: Migrants left Vietnam after communists took control of the country in 1975. 2: Uganda's dictator expelled 50,000 Asians and Ugandans of Asian descent in 1972. 3: Cuban communist dictatorship expelled more than 125,000 Cubans in 1980

3.12.5. Armed Conflict and War: People want to leave countries with war and into peaceful ones. 2 major armed conflict driven migration flows 1:Former Yugoslavia during the 1990's 2: Civil war in Rwanda

3.12.6. Environmental Conditions: People move to places with good food supply and also because of natural disasters. Examples: Bad crops, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions, tsunamis

3.12.7. Culture and Traditions: People will move to a place where they feel like their culture values will not be in jeopardy.

3.12.8. Technological Advances: New forms of transportation make it easier to migrate.

3.13. Deportation: Being sent back to one's home country.

3.14. Goal of the United Nations Convention: Give immigrants work and don't deport them. (The U.S. has not signed it)

3.15. EU: A group of countries in Europe that economically functions as one unit.

3.16. Migration stimulated by Hurricane Katrina: New Orleans' population dropped 11%

3.17. The 1995 volcanic eruption impacted Montserrat because half the land is uninhabitable.

3.18. British partition of South Asia into India and Pakistan- Millions of Muslims from India went to Pakistan

3.19. The dissolution of the Soviet Union impacted the migration of Soviet Jews because