CROSS NATIONAL CATEGORIES FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS in the United States by FATIMA LEMUS-GUPTA

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CROSS NATIONAL CATEGORIES FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS in the United States by FATIMA LEMUS-GUPTA by Mind Map: CROSS NATIONAL CATEGORIES FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS in the United States by FATIMA LEMUS-GUPTA

1. Disabilities

1.1. Autisim

1.1.1. IDEA definition: … means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance http://nasdse.org/DesktopModules/DNNspot-Store/ProductFiles/193_6a2edcf8-f229-4235-bcc2-0ca9a91c1134.pdf

1.1.1.1. Intervention: Early assessment and diagnosis, development of IFSP, referral to state's program according to Part C or Part B regulations, discuss desire outcomes and monitoring of progress http://nasdse.org/DesktopModules/DNNspot-Store/ProductFiles/193_6a2edcf8-f229-4235-bcc2-0ca9a91c1134.pdf

1.1.1.2. Modification: use of specific test for ASD, Asperger's Disorder and High Functioning Autism, use of evidence-based practices: reinforcement, social narratives, visual support, self-management, social skills training groups, time delay http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/Session_3_Reading_Final.pdf

1.1.1.3. Assistive technology: video modeling, visual supports, speech generation devices, computer aided instruction, picture exchange communication http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/Session_3_Reading_Final.pdf

1.1.1.4. Case study: Promoting evidence-based practices (EBP): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cjc6wDLxOgQ

1.2. Deaf-blindness

1.2.1. Definition: It is a combination of vision loss an hearing loss that prevents access to communication, environment, and people. A person who is DeafBlind may or may not have other physical or cognitive disabilities; each individual is different Frequently Asked Questions About DeafBlindness - deafblindinfo.org

1.2.1.1. Intervention: The following needs to be assess after identification of dual sensory impairments: psychological evaluation, assessment for vision and hearing. Service guidelines and technical assistance need to be identified. IFSP/IEP need to be stablished. http://www.spanadvocacy.org/sites/g/files/g524681/f/files/Final%20Parent%20Center%20DB%20Guide.pdf Early Intervention Services for Children with Visual Impairments - FamilyConnect: for parents of children with visual impairments

1.2.1.2. Modification: Besides diagnostic assessments other assessments are needed: sensory, psychological as every child is different. Access to information, sensory stimulation and physical education need to be addressed. Cochlear implant if needed.http://documents.nationaldb.org/products/dviqanindya.pdf https://nationaldb.org/library/list/40

1.2.1.3. Assistive technology: Telecommunication access: TTY, TDD, TT, Internet protocol phone access, text messaging via AIM, DeafBlind communicators, braille sense plus, PacMate, cochlear implant, computer and iPad activities

1.2.1.4. Case study: https://nationaldb.org/families

1.3. Deafness

1.3.1. Definition: Hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification. Definition of "Deafness" Under IDEA | Resources for Parents & Teachers

1.3.1.1. Intervention: Early intervention, access special education and related services, especial services available for low-income children under Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT). http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs3.pdf

1.3.1.2. Accommodation: Regular speech therapy, auditory training, learning sign language, favorable seating in the classroom to facilitate lip reading, assistance of a notetaker, amplification systems, use of visible communication modes and concealing, good lighting, modified chairs/desk, note copies. Deafness and Hearing Loss | Center for Parent Information and Resources

1.3.1.3. Modification: arrange for written test as supposed to oral tests, be sensitive to students needs - rest periods, provide visual handouts, slow down before and after asking questions for student processing time. http://www.usd.edu/medical-school/center-for-disabilities/upload/HI-Class-Accommodations.pdf

1.3.1.4. Assistive technology: TT, TTY, TDDD, TRS, use of Applications such as dragon dictation, notability, use of captioned films and videos. Top Apps for Students with Special Needs http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/FM-Systems/

1.3.1.5. Case study: Teaching deaf students in the inclusive classroom- Part 1

1.4. Developmental Delay

1.4.1. Definition: means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication, social or emotional development or adaptive/behavioral development. who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. http://www.ideapartnership.org/topics-database/idea-2004/idea-2004-part-b/1397-definitions-of-disability-terms.html http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs9.pdf

1.4.1.1. Intervention: Referral for a developmental evaluation is needed. This is to decide the need for easy intervention, appropriate resources and services. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs9.pdf

1.4.1.2. Accommodation: Depending on the areas of delay: use picture schedule, include plain walls, southing colors, and quite areas for less stimulation. Established predictable routines and organization: the use of soft color binders is recommended for quick look of materials and homework. Use of reward system for achievements. Use of relax soft music may be helpful for relaxing time. Include of physiotherapist, OT, nurse. http://www.developmental-delay.com/page.cfm/215

1.4.1.3. Assistive technology: Memory aids such as electronic reminders, photo phones, label makers, picture planning, note taking devices, text modification devices are helpful for students with developmental delay. http://atcoalition.org/article/assistive-technology-software-and-people-learning-disabilities

1.5. Hearing impairments

1.5.1. Definition: means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but is not concluded under the definition of deafness. http://www.ideapartnership.org/topics-database/idea-2004/idea-2004-part-b/1397-definitions-of-disability-terms.html

1.5.1.1. Intervention: Early intervention, access special education and related services, especial services available for low-income children under Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT). Special need team needs to be identified for comprehensive approach. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs3.pdf

1.5.1.2. Accommodation: Favorable seating in the classroom, partner with speech therapist to learn how to effectively differentiate sounds during instructions, promote peer collaboration in the classroom, use visible communication models to facilitate understanding, assistance of a notetaker, amplification systems. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/effects-hearing-loss-development Deafness and Hearing Loss | Center for Parent Information and Resources

1.5.1.3. Modification: Modification: arrange for written test as supposed to oral tests, be sensitive to students needs - rest periods, provide visual handouts, slow down before and after asking questions for student processing time. http://www.usd.edu/medical-school/center-for-disabilities/upload/HI-Class-Accommodations.pdf

1.5.1.4. Assistive technology: use of hearing aid, cochlear implants, bone-anchored hearing aids, text messaging, telephone amplifiers, flashing and vibrating alarms, audio loop systems, infrared listening devices, portable sound amplifiers, TTY, and FM systems http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/treatment.html http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Other-Hearing-Assistive-Technology-Systems-Solutions/

1.5.1.5. Case study: Hearing impaired student finds success through the right tools

1.6. Multiple Disabilities

1.6.1. IDEA definition: means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blidness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness. Causes include: chromosomal abnormalities, premature birth, difficulties after birth, poor development of the brian or spinal cord, infections, genetic disorders, injuries from accidents. Multiple Disabilities | Center for Parent Information and Resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xKqN21OdsLQ

1.6.1.1. Intervention: Each case is different depending on how many disabilities the child has, the severity of each disability and which disabilities are involved. Early detection and intervention is ideal, access especial education services. Interventions will focus on learning, improving or supporting major life activities, such as performing manual tasks, walking, standing, reading, learning, working, concentrating and thinking, breathing, communicating. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/multiple/#causes http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/multiple.pdf

1.6.1.2. Modifications: Depending on the type and severity of the disabilities. Assessment of strength and weaknesses is important. Modifications and accommodations include adapting assessments, instructions and materials. Including speech, physical and occupational therapy, use of appropriate textbooks, classroom arrangement. Allow partial participation. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/multiple.pdf

1.6.1.3. Assistive technology: Depending on the type and severity of disabilities the use of assistive technology is important for the following areas: learning, positioning and mobility, communication, environmental control, play/leisure/socialization, sports and recreation, daily living and personal care. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Multiple+Disabilities

1.7. Orthopedic Impairment

1.7.1. IDEA definition: means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly (e.g. absence of some member), impairments caused by disease (e.g. poliomyelitis), and impairments from other causes (e.g. cerebral palsy). http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs9.pdf

1.7.1.1. Intervention: EIP, IEP/EFSP can address the following: poor motor skills, restricted language, psychological factors. Comprehensive team may include physical, occupational, speech, music therapist, nurse, and psychologist. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment

1.7.1.2. Modification: assessments and instructions will be adapted to meet the needs of the student.

1.7.1.3. Accommodation: use of different assistive technology will be used depending on the type and severity of the orthopedic disability. Also, different types of support will be added to the classroom setting. Least restrictive environment needs to be evaluated to provide the best learning environment. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment

1.7.1.4. Assistive technology: specialized keyboards, digital notebooks, ballpoint mouse, calc-talking, pencil grips, book stands, specialized writing paper, audiotapes of printed materials, magnifying glasses, picture schedules, etc.http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment

1.7.1.5. Case study:

1.8. Other health Impairment

1.8.1. IDEA definition: means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment. This is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, heart condition, lead poisoning, leukemia. http://www.ideapartnership.org/topics-database/idea-2004/idea-2004-part-b/1397-definitions-of-disability-terms.html

1.8.1.1. Intervention: Early identification and intervention is important. IEP/EFSP as well as other resources need to be identified. The highest incident condition in this category is AD/HD. The accommodation and modification sections focus on AD/HD. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment

1.8.1.2. Accommodation: For AD/HD ccommodation in the classroom should be targeted to improve organizational skills, develop positive behavior, identify quite spaces for breaks, provide appropriate storage unit, use of devices and assistive technology as needed, use preferential seating, establish routines and patterns. http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/health-impairments/

1.8.1.3. Modification: Schedule regular breaks, provide adequate time for assessments, introduce the assignment in sequential steps, break assignments into shorter segments, provide time suggestions for each task, use ongoing assessments to monitor progress and modify strategies. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment

1.8.1.4. Assistive technology: No specific devices are recommended for students with AD/HD. However, there are a number of helpful tools supporting organization abilities such as notebooks, devisers, digital assistants, dictating machines, computer programs. Manipulative can be used in the classroom to decrease fidgeting. ADHD Classroom Strategies http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/health-impairments/

1.9. Speech or Language Impairment

1.9.1. IDEA definition: means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Language delay is not considered a speech or language impairment. http://www.ideapartnership.org/topics-database/idea-2004/idea-2004-part-b/1397-definitions-of-disability-terms.html http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs11.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pqu7w6t3Rmo&list=PLAqeK0Xcw2drV5NEROUWJhYNja2vP7mdP

1.9.1.1. Intervention: Expressing language difficulties need to be address in the IEP/EFSP. Speech and language therapist can identified the student needs. Since there are no specific or apparent symptoms speech and language impairments are often difficult to identified. Speech and language pathology services are recommended for this type of disability.

1.9.1.2. Accommodation: facilitate effective ways of communication, establish clear goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home, individual speech therapy for the child. Use simple instructions to avoid misunderstanding, provide communication aids when appropriate, http://www.fentress.k12tn.net/countywide/AccMod.pdf

1.9.1.3. Modification: Allow students to substitute oral assignment with written papers, allow student time to express themselves, provide students with information prior to the class topic, provide class notes, minimize classroom noise, teach students to communicate with appropriate divides, provide additional modeling for better understanding, use mnemonic devices, use peer tutoring, adjust assessments, use computer and relevant softwares. http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/learning/diversity/educational/sli.html

1.9.1.4. Assistive technology: assistive listening devices (ALDs), augmentative and alternative communication devices (AAC), alerting device, hearing loop system, FM system, personal amplifiers. Assistive Devices for People with Hearing, Voice, Speech, or Language Disorders

1.9.1.5. Case study: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpdjP0zHeBc

1.10. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

1.10.1. IDEA definition: … means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or phycho-social impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Signs of TBI include: physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, social behavioral or emotional problems. http://www.ideapartnership.org/topics-database/idea-2004/idea-2004-part-b/1397-definitions-of-disability-terms.html

1.10.1.1. Accommodation: use of assistive technology device, a peer note taker, allowing more time for test http://cbirt.org/interactive-learning/1/2/75/

1.10.1.2. Intervention: Establishing resources and early intervention is important. Identification of special education: Identify EI program, access special services, development of IEP to address educational needs, assess and implement classroom accommodations

1.10.1.3. Modification: Initial and ongoing assessments are needed, help students work around challenges, identify quite places to take breaks, use repetition and pace work accordingly, immediate feedback is important http://cbirt.org/interactive-learning/1/2/72/

1.10.1.4. Assistive technology: use of cellphone reminders and alarms, use of iPad or use voice memos to record assignments http://cbirt.org/interactive-learning/1/2/77/

1.10.1.5. Case study: http://cbirt.org/resources/corys-corner/my-name-cory/

1.11. Visual Impairments, including blindness

1.11.1. IDEA definition… means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs13.pdf

1.11.1.1. Accommodation: Learning orientation and mobility for safety and independently classroom mobilization and leaving.

1.11.1.2. Assistive technology: Braille, Audible/Speech, orientation aids, monocular telescopes, electronic magnifiers, computer screen magnification, closed-circuit television http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/v01-clearview/cresource/what-is-all-this-equipment-where-should-ms-milton-put-it/v01_07/#content

1.11.1.3. Case study: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/v01-clearview/cwrap/#content

1.11.1.4. Accommodation: use of assistive technology device, a peer note taker, allowing more time for test http://cbirt.org/interactive-learning/1/2/75/

1.11.1.5. Intervention: Establishing resources and early intervention is important. Identification of special education: Identify EI program, access special services, development of IEP to address educational needs, assess and implement classroom accommodations

1.12. Mental Retardation

1.12.1. IDEA definition: it is marked by significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Mental+Retardation

1.12.1.1. Intervention: There are different levels of mental retardation with different characteristics: physical, behavioral and intellectual. Traditional mental retardation has been divided into the following levels: mild, moderate, severe and profound. Intervention will be focus to mobility, activities of daily living and communication.http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Mental+Retardation

1.12.1.2. Accommodation: use of complex simple sentences, clear and concise instructions, demonstrations, use of assistive technology when needed, use of age appropriate conversation and activities, inclusion in the community.

1.12.1.3. Modification:emphasize fitness activities, over teach the cognitive information, use of visual aids as appropriate

1.12.1.4. Assistive technology: use of wheelchairs, canes or other mobility device, environmental control and safety devices, appropriate fitness equipment.

2. Difficulties

2.1. Emotional Disturbance

2.1.1. IDEA definition: condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time an to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers,; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mode of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs5.pdf

2.1.1.1. Intervention: there are a range of services that are beneficial to students with emotional disturbance and their family members: family therapy, gaining in solving problem skills, use of community base services, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs5.pdf

2.1.1.2. Accommodation: Adaptation of physical environment: seating arrangements, keeping away harmful objects, establish open and accepting environment, establish class rules and consequences, design activity checklists, emphasis positive behavior http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs5.pdf

2.1.1.3. Modification: adapt assessments, instruction, have alternative activities available, have groups of one, have shorter breaks to avoid overstimulation. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/repo_items/fs5.pdf

2.1.1.4. Assistive technology: behavioral charts, behavioral contracts, talk light for noise management, iPod/iPad to listen to books on tape,soft music http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Emotional+Disturbance

2.1.1.5. Case study

2.2. Specific Learning Disabilities

2.2.1. IDEA definition: means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including condition such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. They do not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/accommodations-education/accommodations-students-learning-disabilities

2.2.1.1. Intervention: Many students with specific learning disabilities struggle with reading, sounds, phonemes, rhyming, blending, decoding words accurately, fluency and comprehension. Early identification and intervention should be ideal. Establishment of IEP and identification of resources is a priority. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Specific+Learning+Disability

2.2.1.2. Accommodation: use of quiet work space, providing copies of the lessons outline, use of calculators, computerized spell checker, use multi-sensory approach for teaching for spelling, use of large prints if needed, http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/accommodations-education/accommodations-students-learning-disabilities

2.2.1.3. Modification: adjustment of time for assessments and homework, take or borrow notes from classmates, brake tasks into smaller steps, giving direction verbally and in writing, use of computer grammar checks and spell check. http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Specific+Learning+Disability http://www.readingrockets.org/article/accommodations-students-ld

2.2.1.4. Assistive technology: calculator, alternative keyboard, audio books, optical character recognition, FM listening system, proofreading programs, speech-recognition programs, spell checkers and electronic dictionaries.

2.2.1.5. Case study: Overcoming Dyslexia, Finding Passion: Piper Otterbein at [email protected]

3. Disadvantage

3.1. Disadvantage Students

3.1.1. Socio-economic factors

3.1.2. Linguistic factors

3.1.3. Cultural factors