Categories of Disability Under IDEA

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Categories of Disability Under IDEA by Mind Map: Categories of Disability Under IDEA

1. 10. Other Health Impairment

1.1. A disability that involves limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects a child’s education. Students in this category most often have ADD or ADHD but may also exhibit learning difficulties as the result of chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and/or sickle cell anemia..

1.1.1. Teaching Strategies -Be consistent in the classroom -Have clear expectations -Allow plenty of time for transition from one activity to the next -Have the student stay close to the teacher, to keep distractions at a minimum -Simplify instructions -Use visual media to enhance classroom lessons -Follow-up often; use positive reinforcement

2. 7. Intellectual Disability

2.1. Significant below average general intellectual functioning exhibited with deficits in adaptive behavior and has manifested during the developmental period. The disability adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

2.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Keep instructions simple, repeat often if needed -Use a variety of teaching techniques, but be very clear with expectations -Be patient, encourage successes -Use visual media to help with lessons -Involve the student in group activities -Encourage development of social skills -Encourage communication to help address needs -Be patient, use active listening -Model expected behaviors -Keep a structured environment with clear rules and appropriate consequences

2.1.1.1. Classroom Case Study: http://www.stuff.co.nz/waikato-times/news/7716661/Case-study-Hamilton-North-School

3. 6. Hearing Impairment

3.1. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of "deafness."

3.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Children with a hearing impairment most often can follow lesson plans designed for the whole classroom, but ensure to provide clear instructions. -Small group lessons or individual instruction when needed can be beneficial -Use visual media to present lessons -Provide additional instruction in developing language skills -Face the student when talking

3.1.1.1. Hearing Impairment Case Study: http://www.washington.edu/doit/Faculty/Strategies/Disability/Hearing/hearing_case_study.html

4. 5. Emotional Disturbance

4.1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

4.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Ensure students are well aware of expectations -Inform students of day’s schedule and how long each activity will take -Keep a diverse schedule with a variety of different learning techniques -Use different forms of media for lessons -Encourage students with use of positive reinforcement -Work on social behaviors such as working with partners, standing in line, waiting turns -Be consistent -Be available for communication, encourage students to be self-aware of triggers

5. 4. Developmental Delay

5.1. Children, up to age 21, who exhibit a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication, social or emotional development and/or behavioral development

5.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Extremely important to stick to routines. -Repeat directions often if needed. -Be consistent with rules and expectations -Give appropriate time for transitions -Give plenty of positive reinforcement -Seek extra assistance/services if needed -Provide hands-on activities -Use visual media to enhance classroom lessons

6. 3. Deafness

6.1. A severe impairment that results in the inability to process any language through hearing. This impairment severely impacts a child’s learning progress.

6.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Student learns by watching others -Large group instruction benefits students by watching others first -Additional language instruction is extremely helpful in developing reading skills -Learning to communicate is helpful is small groups or with individual instruction -Make use of visual media

7. 2. Deaf-Blindness

7.1. Simultaneous hearing and visual impairments. The combination causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or blindness.

7.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Teaching staff should be specifically trained to work with these students -Traditional methods will not work for students with these disabilities. -Student learns by what he does. -Building trust is essential -Curriculum should be focused on communication and is very tactile -Learning needs to be functional -Support is crucial to ensure student is not excluded

8. 12. Speech or Language Impairment

8.1. This involves a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

8.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Promote interactive communication -Actively listen and encourage student express their needs -Involve therapists in the curriculum process -Speak clearly and directly; model correct speech patterns to the student -Provide a peer-mentor to help when needed -Use visual media to enhance classroom presentations -Allow student to have access to supplemental technology

8.1.1.1. Classroom Case Study: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnRNeDtme0g

9. 8. Multiple Disabilities

9.1. Simultaneous impairments (mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), where the combination results in severe educational needs that cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments (not including deaf-blindness).

9.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Plan an appropriate curriculum for the student focused on their strengths. Utilize input from student’s support staff as well the student’s parents -Encourage peer interactions to help develop skills -Make us of technology as a tool to communicate (computers, ect.) -Consider sign language as an alternative option for communication if the student is able

10. 11. Specific Learning Disability

10.1. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language (spoken or written). This may manifest itself in the inability to appropriately listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. Disabilities in this category include: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Disabilities not included in this category (covered in other): visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbances or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages.

10.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Present information in a multitude of formats (diagrams, graphs, visual media) -Clearly define expectations -Be clear and concise; speak slowly when providing instruction -Assign peer-mentor to help with classroom assignments -Offer different types of formats for exams (oral, written) -Provide feedback often

11. 9. Orthopedic Impairment

11.1. A severe orthopedic impairment is one that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. They may be caused by a congenital anomaly, by disease (e.g.,poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis) or from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations).

11.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Ensure the classroom is appropriately arranged to accommodate the student. -Encourage the use of technology to communicate -Work with student’s therapists to implement the most appropriate curriculum -Incorporate the development of motor skills throughout instruction

12. 1. Autism

12.1. A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication as well as social interaction. The child engages in repetitive activities, has resistance to change in their environment as well as daily routines. Can have severe responses to sensory experiences.

12.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Keep directions very simple and straightforward. Autistic students take things literally. -Keep lessons organized, in a logical order -Give fewer and very clear choices to avoid overstimulation -Repeat instructions often -Provide structure and daily routines -Give plenty of time for transitions -Give alternative methods of presenting lessons and information -Allow flexibility in participation; base it off student’s comfort level

12.1.1.1. Autism Case Study: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ith-hosJjGs

13. 14. Visual Impairment including Blindness

13.1. An impairment in vision, including partial sight and blindness, that affects a child’s ability to learn.

13.1.1. Teaching Strategies: -Clearly define expectations -Use visual media to enhance classroom lessons -Provide materials in alternative formats -Allow extra time if needed for students to follow along -Match students with a peer mentor -Be consistent in the classroom -Allow the use of visual aids if needed -Ensure the classroom is equipped with appropriate lighting and seating

14. 13. Traumatic Brain Injury

14.1. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force which in turn, leads to adversely affecting a child's educational performance. Impairments can be found in one or more areas, such as cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing as well as speech. Does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

14.1.1. Teaching Strategies -Use visual media to enhance classroom lessons -State objectives clearly -Be clear and concise when presenting lessons -Ensure distractions are at a minimum in the classroom -Give smaller sections of work at a time; encourage students to categorize work -Allow additional time if needed -Stay organized, encourage students to do the same -Give ample time for transitions