Enlightenment to Revolution

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Enlightenment to Revolution by Mind Map: Enlightenment to Revolution

1. French Revolution

1.1. France was divided into three estates or social groups since the middle ages and hadn't changed for a long time from Feudal views. Members of the Bourgeoisie, or the middle class, was part of the third estate and disliked privileges that nobles had. They didn't, however, want to abolish nobility. They just wanted to better their own position in society. This instability in social classes plus a sudden financial crisis put the nation at the brinks of revolution

1.2. Louis XVI had to call a meeting of the Estates General at Versailles when France was at the brink of crisis. Representation in the Estates General was unfavorable for the third estate. On June 17, 1789, the Third Estate declared it was the National Assembly and would draft a constitution.

1.3. Initial Resolve

1.3.1. The Declaration of the rights of man described the basic liberties of men such as rights of man to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

1.3.2. The King Concedes: The king was backed into a corner by the National assembly while he was still stuck in an absolutist system. Women marched to Versailles and demanded that Louis accepts National Assembly.

1.3.3. Church went into the control of the state. No longer were clergy appointed by the pope but instead elected by the people.

1.3.4. The new constitution set up a limited monarchy. There was still a king, but a legislative assembly would make laws. Limited king's power.

1.4. Radicalism

1.4.1. National convention drafted new constitution. First step was to abolish monarchy and establish a republic.

1.4.2. Jean-Paul Marat, Maximilian Robespierre.

1.4.3. The king was beheaded on January 21 on the guillotine.

1.4.4. Disputes blocked the writing of a new constitution. Uprisings refused to accept convention. Countries took up arms against France after king Louis XVI death. Domestic uprising and external threats.

1.5. Reign of Terror

1.5.1. Revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute counter revolutionaries and traitors. Many were killed by the Committee of Public Safety's and this was deemed the reign of terror.

1.5.2. By summer of 1794 , French defeated most foes. After the death of Robespierre, the Jacobins lost power and a more moderate middle-class took control.

2. American Revolution

2.1. The British leader wanted more revenue to pay for war efforts. They imposed many acts on colonies in order to pay for war expenses. Opposition towards the acts were often wide spread and violent. Colonists organized the First Continental Congress in order to counter British actions. This congress gathered up militias and later an army in the Second Continental Congress. Fight erupted in April 1775 in Lexington and Concord. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the American Revolution formally began.

2.2. George Washington: Washington was commander and chief for the Continental Army. He led many victorious battles against the British armies.

2.3. Thomas Jefferson: Jefferson drafted the declaration of independence which was the official document which declared independence from Britain for the colonies.

2.4. The American revolution resulted in the defeat of the British and the forming of a new nation by the colonies. They created a new government and constitution which gave people many rights such as freedom of speech and religion; things which the colonists longed for from Britain.

3. Enlightened Absolutism

3.1. Enlightened Absolutism: Rulers governed by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers.

3.1.1. Despots: A ruler who holds absolute power. Prussia Russia France Austrian Empire

3.2. Affects

3.3. Important Events

4. 7 Years War: Watch the video and use your book to help you organize your information

4.1. New rivalries replaced old. Britain vs France over colonial empires. Austria vs Prussia over Silesia. Alliances formed over being threatened and natural enemies. Alliance: France, Austria, Russia. Alliance: Britain. Prussia. Started major war that affected three main areas: Europe, India, and North America. European war ended in 1763 in stalemate with the exception of Prussia's permanent control of Silesia.

4.2. Britain and Frances war was more decisive, known as the Great war for Empire. Fought in India and North America. The British ultimately won due to not better forces but more persistent forces. The French Withdrew in 1763 after the treaty of Paris and left India to the British.

4.3. Greatest conflicts in 7 years war was in North America. British and French fought over two main areas in North America. The waterways of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the unsettled Ohio River valley. Due to their lower population in North American territories, the French gathered support from Native Americans because they were seen as the lesser evil of the two warring nations. The British had the advantage of an outstanding naval fleet compared to France. Without their fleets, the French could not reinforce their forts. Treaty of Paris, England was victorious. Great Britain became the greatest colonial power.

5. Enlightenment in Culture

5.1. Music

5.1.1. Important Composers 1) Johannes Sebastian Bach 2) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 3) Hayden

5.1.2. Impacts: After listening to the music in the link, answer these questions. An orchestral piece by Beethoven. The piece has fluctuating dynamics and the piece's key changes occasionally resulting in different moods; it moves from a dramatic feeling to a more 'happy' feeling and back again. As I've heard this piece before, all I felt was a pleasant feeling of hearing it again in schoolwork.

5.2. Art

5.2.1. Important Artists: 1) William Blake 2) Thomas Cole

5.2.2. Important Works: Raft of Medusa A raft of dead and suffering people waving for help. The raft was likely from a crashed boat as they are waving for help on a shore. The people are reaching out symbolizing helplessness and suffering while the people being reached out to and those people waving a flag are the hope. The black, ominous clouds symbolize some negative event to come. The title describes a raft of a Greek monster that turned people into stone. People who have been in shipwreck, know people in shipwreck, and people responsible for shipwreck Liberty Leading the People A half-naked woman leading what seems like a militia or army holding up a French flag. While they trample over the dead and dying. A civilian is grasping onto this woman. The women is the hope of the people or the liberty. That is the hope that is driving them into battle. The children are also fighting. The dead symbolize those they are fighting for and the woman reaching out from the ground symbolizes those who are suffering as a result. The title describes that people are being led by liberty. The French "patriots" who are fighting against some common enemy.

6. Age of Napoleon

6.1. Napoleon brought an end to the revolution, but preserved the positive aspects of revolution.

6.2. Domestic Policies

6.2.1. Made peace with the church.

6.2.2. Codify laws. France had almost 300 different legal systems. Napoleon introduced Civil code along with 6 other law systems.

6.2.3. Created strong, centralized administration. Focused on development of capable officials.

6.3. Napoleon's Empire

6.3.1. Napoleon wanted peace with warring nations. Didn't last and he defeated many opposing states making them his empire.

6.3.2. Legal equality, religious toleration, economic freedom.

6.3.3. Resistance of the British

6.3.4. Nationalism

6.4. Fall of Napoleon

6.4.1. Disaster in Russia

6.4.2. Final Defeat