Edu 100

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Edu 100 by Mind Map: Edu 100

1. Indigenous Perspective

1.1. "Learning is a lifelong endeavour." (Anuik, 2012)

1.1.1. Everyone is born with the ability to learn and as a teacher, one must realize this and help all students achieve to the best of their ability.

1.2. Spirituality is fundamental to teaching and learning. (Anuik, 2012)

1.3. Original questions and critical thinking.

1.3.1. One must not only consider what they want to know, but also why they way to know it. (Anuik 2012)

1.3.2. Teachers must build a space that allows learners to ask questions. (Anuik, 2012)

1.3.3. It is important that students not only ask questions but also ask themselves why they are asking these questions. (Anuik 2012)

2. To be an effective 21st century teacher one must understand Indigenous peoples perspectives on education and how best to teach indigenous students.

3. Reflective Practice

3.1. Be reflective of yourself and your job performance.

3.1.1. One can learn from others or themselves.

3.2. Reflective thinking involves:

3.2.1. "Identifying ones feelings and assumptions associated with practice." (Peters, 1991)

3.2.2. "Theorizing how these feelings and assumptions are functional or dysfunctional associated with the practice." (Peters, 1991)

3.2.3. "Acting on the basis of the resulting theory of practice." (Peters, 1991)

3.3. Reflective Practice also involves critical thinking which is "identifying and challenging assumptions and exploring and imagining alternatives." (Peters, 19910

3.4. The 4 steps of reflective practice (DATA):

3.4.1. "Analyze the nature of what is described, including the assumptions that support the action taken to solve the problem task or incident." (Peters, 1991)

3.4.2. "Describe the problem, task, or incident that represents some critical aspect of practice needing examination or possible change." (Peters, 1991)

3.4.3. "Theorize about possible ways to approach the problem, task or incident." (Peters, 1991)

3.4.4. "Act on the basis of the theory" (Peters, 1991)

3.5. The reasoning behind reflective practice is that it is there to help improve practice. (Peters, 1991)

4. Self refection is important to be an effective 21st century teacher because it is a tactic to help improve one's practice. Students are not the only one's who should be constantly learning, teachers should be too. Not everything an individual does will work and it is important to understand why certain approaches work and some don't work. It is important to be a dynamic teacher and to create an environment where students and teachers themselves can grow and thrive. Through reflective practice this can be achieved by analising what works in which situations to better improve one's approach to the problem, task or incident.

5. Philosophical Approaches in Education

5.1. Perennialism - Motor Alder (PER)

5.1.1. Focuses on universal truths and profound thought and works that are old or considered classics. Examples of classical works are: Shakespeare's plays, Homer's Iliad, Meville's Mody Dick, Newton's law of motion, Einsteins theories. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.1.2. The classroom has a tightly controlled and well-dsiplined atmosphere. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.1.3. The same curriculum is taught to all students because the goal of school is to teach the truth and the truth is the same for everyone and people are born equal with the same opportunities, to treat others differently is a form of discrimination. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.1.4. Society decides what is taught because it validates the importance of classical work over time. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.1.5. There is almost no room for student's personal interests. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.1.6. "The enduring wisdom of the past is a guide to the present." (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.2. Essentialism - ED Hirsh Jr (ES)

5.2.1. Is a "back to the basics" approach to education, with the basics being: reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three R's). As well, technology is often now included with the three R's because it is almost necessary to know how to operate technology in this age. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.2.2. There are certain essential knowledge, skills, and understanding students should master, these essential skills are: reading, writing, computing, math, science, and history. (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

5.2.3. It is society that decides what is essential. (Your Philosophy of ...) There is a emphasis on fundamental knowledge and skills that business leaders and political leaders deem to be important. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.3. Progressivism - John Dewey (PRO)

5.3.1. In-order for a person to be well educated you must educate the whole child this includes their mental, physical and academic needs of the child. (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

5.3.2. Students should be taught how to keep up with change. They should be taught thinking and problem solving skills. (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

5.3.3. "Students and teachers are co-inquirers into areas of study determined by the school system and the teacher." (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

5.3.4. This approach is student centred, with an emphasis on the individual child and learning is based off the students interest. Self-expression is important and this method is anti-authorative. (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

5.3.5. The job of the student is to learn hoe to learn so they can cope in real life. Students are encouraged to test their own conclusions in real life and are free to develop their own theories. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.4. Existentialism - John Paul Sartre (EX)

5.4.1. People are responsible for defining themselves and the choices people make define who they are. People have two choices: they can define themselves or be defined by others. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.4.2. Believe the only truth is the truth determined by the individual. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.4.3. Students need to find their own way of thinking and finding answers. Students, as well, decide what they study and this is guided by the teacher (the teacher is a facilitator and a resource). Teachers and schools lay out topics appropriate for each grade level and students decide what to take. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.4.4. Students do many different things and study many different topics at the same time. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.5. Social Reconstructionism - Paulo Freire (SR)

5.5.1. Schools are meant to foster change an bring social reconstruction. Schools are agents of reform rather transmitting knowledge. Believe it is the duty of schools to educate students to influence the reconstruction of society. Society needs to be changed and schools are the place to do it. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.5.2. Curriculum focused on social issues. Students and teachers work together to find solutions for said problems. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.5.3. It models the democratic process. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.5.4. Encourages students to find a sense of worth. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.5.5. It is multicultural. (Your Philosophy of ...)

5.6. Education Philosophies Continuum

5.6.1. Shows on a continuum the way curriculum is determined: by society, teachers, students, or a combination of two. (Maheu, (Sept 16, 2014))

6. In-order to be an effective 21st century teacher learning has to connect to you. These are philosophical approaches that connect to who you are. They connect to your beliefs and values, and your identity. These philosophical approaches are a huge part of one's teacher identity which is fundamental to how they teach, what they teach, what hidden cirrculum is taught, what the role of the student and teacher are, and so much more.

7. Theories of Educational Psychology

7.1. Behaviourism

7.1.1. Learning takes place when we interact with our external world. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014)) There is a de-emphasis on free will. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.1.2. If we can control the environment for a student then we can stimulate their learning. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.1.3. External stimuli is the actions and reactions of other people and this external stimuli shapes our behaviour. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.1.4. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning If you control the stimuli than we can control the behaviour. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.1.5. Skinner: Operant Conditioning If you can control the consequences of behaviour than you can control behaviour. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014)) For Positive reinforcement and punishment something is given to the individual, while for negative reinforcement and punishment something is taken away. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.2. Information Processing (Cognitive)

7.2.1. Learning occurs through internal processing of information. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.2.2. Short-term memory (working memory) and long-term memory are both used. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.3. Constructivism

7.3.1. People actively construct their own meaning by internalizing/personalizing new and old information. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.3.2. This method considers the social environment of the student. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.3.3. Everyone learns differently. (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.3.4. Assimilation and accommodation(Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

7.4. Humanism

7.4.1. Set in a pyramid - Maslow's hierarchy of needs (Wence, (Sept. 30, 2014))

8. Classroom Management Models

8.1. Will your approach be: (Maheu, (Sept 30, 2014))

8.1.1. Student Centred <---> Teacher Centred

8.1.2. Proactive <---> Reactive

8.1.3. A Little Record Keeping <---> A Lot

8.1.4. Equitable <---> Equal

8.1.5. Culturally Sensitive <---> Same For All

8.1.6. Visible <---> Invisible

8.1.7. Open-ended <---> Prescriptive

8.1.8. Student Owns Problem <---> Teacher Owns Problem

8.2. Behaviourism

8.2.1. Behaviour can be controlled, modified and regulated by using rewards and punishments. (Maheu, (Sept 30,2014))

8.2.2. BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement: provide a reinforcing stimuli when the desired behaviour is demonstrated. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Negative Reinforcement: removal of something that is unpleasant to influence behaviour. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.3. Self-Regulating Approach Barbara Coloroso: Inner Discipline

8.3.1. Adults should believe children are worth the effort and time it takes to instill inner discipline. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Kids are worth it. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Treat children as you would treat yourself. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) If it works and leaves dignity intact then do it. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.3.2. Avoid humiliation, sarcasm and ridicule. Teachers need to demonstrate compassion. Real world consequences need to occur. Authoritarianism does not teach inner discipline. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.3.3. The Three Types of Teachers: Jellyfish "They are weak, inconsistent about classroom management, and allow anarchy and chaos. Without recognizable structure and rules, they are arbitrary and inconsistent with rules and punishments, use mini lectures and put downs, use threats and bribes and allow emotions to rule students and their behaviours." (Three Categories of Teachers Coloroso) Brickwall "This teacher is all powerful; the student is the subordinate. Gray areas do not exist, because all class events are clear cut and in black and white. Placing little trust in students’ ability to develop Inner Discipline, the brickwall teacher exercises the ultimate power and accepts responsibility for students’ behavior rather than teaching Inner Discipline.Operating in an atmosphere of fear, this teacher has fixed rules, emphasizes punctuality, cleanliness and order, enforces rules rigidly, tries to break students’ wills, emphasizes rituals and rote learning, uses humiliation, rewards and bribes, relies on competition" (Three Categories of Teachers Coloroso) Backbone "Backbone teachers provide the support and the structure necessary for students to realize their uniqueness and to come to know their true selves, something that brickwall teachers suppress and jellyfish teachers ignore. By emphasizing democracy through learned experiences,they advocate creative, constructive and responsible activity, have simply and clearly defined rules, use natural or reasonable consequences, motivate students to be all they can be, and teach students how to think. Teaching students to trust themselves, other and in the future, backbone teachers help students develop Inner Discipline, and retain faith in themselves and in their own potential." (Three Categories of Teachers Coloroso)

8.3.4. Coloroso's 3 R's of Discipline (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Video that demonstrates the 3 R's of Discipline Restitution How do I make it right? Resolution Everyone's voice must be heard. Create a situation where it is a win-win. Reconciliation

8.4. Supportive Classroom or Democratic Teaching Rudolf Dreikurs

8.4.1. Promotes social knowledge construction to create a “moral climate of trust.” (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.4.2. Utilizes democratic discipline. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.4.3. All misbehaviour is a result of mistaken goals: (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Attention Power Revenge Feelings of inadequacy

8.4.4. Use of Logical Consequences: may use democratic processes to devise rules and logical consequences. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Logical Consequences

8.4.5. Encouragement builds self-esteem while praise builds dependency. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.5. Community Approach Alfie Kohn: Beyond Discipline

8.5.1. Kohn believes teachers need to provide 3 universal needs: (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014)) Autonomy Relatedness Competence

8.5.2. Alfie Kohn on Feel-Bad Education

8.5.3. Both positive and negative reinforcement is bad.(Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.5.4. Responsibility should be on the child. (Maheau, (Sept 30,2014))

8.6. Aboriginal Approach

8.6.1. Martin Brokenleg: Circle of Courage "The Circle of Courage® is a model of positive youth development based on the universal principle that to be emotionally healthy all youth need a sense of belonging, mastery, independence and generosity. This unique model integrates the cultural wisdom of tribal peoples, the practice wisdom of professional pioneers with troubled youth, and findings of modern youth development research." (Circle of Courage)

9. Gender and Sexual Minorities

9.1. Resources (on campus)

9.1.1. FYreFly

9.1.2. The Landing

9.1.3. APiRG

9.1.4. iSMSS

9.2. Not as well known terms:

9.2.1. Two-spirit - Both a male and female spirit. Someone who is one gender and takes on the role of another

9.2.2. Heterosexism - Viewing the world through a heterosexual lens. Viewing the world as male and female.

9.2.3. Transgender - The state of one's gender identity or gender expression not matching one's assigned sex. (Wikipedia, 2014)

9.2.4. GSA - A club that is for sexual minorities and their friends

10. Players in Alberta Education

10.1. Ministry of Education

10.1.1. Details the powers of local authorities and the province. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.1.2. Alberta Education - Department or Ministry of Education is the central educational authority. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.1.3. Minister of Education is an elected member of the provincial legislature, is a member of the cabinet and is appointed by the premier. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.1.4. The Minister of Education plays a critical role in determining how a province sets long-term educational policy and in influencing the level of funding provided to schools. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.1.5. Makes and approves decisions relating to: Curricula, rules governing the certification of teachers, the number of credits required for high-school graduation and so on. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.1.6. The current Alberta Minister of education is Gordon Dirks.

10.1.7. Education is payed for through property taxes. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.2. Deputy Minister

10.2.1. Unelected civil servant appointed by the cabinet. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.2.2. Coordinates the work of the department, planning, school finance, curriculum development, assessment, special education, language programs, renovation/construction of school buildings (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.3. School Boards

10.3.1. There is great autonomy for school boards now because of an emphasis of decentralization. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.3.2. School boards: (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)) School Trustees are responsible for day-to-day admin of schools. Hire and pay school personnel. Develop transportation systems, provide physical facilities for pupils. Close schools, set budgets raise local education taxes. Modify/adapt provincial curriculum.

10.3.3. Alberta School Boards Association ASBA Vision statement: ASBA is a respected and influential provincial association of locally elected school boards.ASBA supports publicly elected school boards in their efforts to ensure that students in Alberta have the opportunity to reach their highest potential.ASBA is the leading voice advocating for public education in Alberta. ASBA is energized by the enthusiastic participation of its members. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.3.4. Public School Boards Association "We believe public schools are the first choice of our communities, where all our children learn and live the values of democracy together, reflecting our hope and shaping the future of our communities." (Who is PSBAA?) "To champion inclusive public school education with locally elected School Boards dedicated to student success." (Who is PSBAA?) Not-for-profit society, the members of which are school jurisdictions (mostly public school jurisdictions). (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)) Affirms two characteristics of public education: that it is inclusive as a matter of conviction and by design; and, that it is a deliberate model of a community and, by choice, primarily a model of a civil democratic community. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)) Advocates for public education and maintains relations with province (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.3.5. The Alberta Catholic School Trustees' Association Is the voice of Catholic trustees in Alberta and the Northwest Territories, and is committed to preserving and enhancing the rights of Catholics to education based on the Gospel of Jesus Christ. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.4. The Alberta Teacher's Association (ATA)

10.4.1. Mission Statement: "The Alberta Teachers' Association, as the professional organization of teachers, promotes and advances public education, safeguards standards of professional practice and serves as the advocate for its members.” (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.4.2. It serves both professional and union functions. All public (includes Catholic) school teachers are required to be members. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.4.3. Services of the ATA (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)): Governance – sets policies using democratic processes Member Services – deals with individual issues related to teachers and teaching practice Professional Development – develops workshops and resources to enhance teaching practice Teacher Welfare – bargains for improved teacher working conditions and salaries Also has a great library, newspaper and and many other resources for teachers

10.5. Colleges and Universities

10.5.1. Faculties of Education at universities are charged with pre-service teacher education and post graduate studies in education. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.5.2. Some colleges specialize in components of teacher education but may not grant degrees. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

10.6. School Councils

10.6.1. Most provinces have strengthened the role of local voices. By involving parents, school personnel in School Councils – play an advisory role. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11. History of Education in Canada

11.1. The Birth of Public Education

11.1.1. "The development of public school systems in the 19th century was marked by the standardization of textbooks, teacher training, classroom organization, and curriculum. Children were viewed as clay to be molded in desired forms, but over time a view of children as inherently distinct with varying levels of potential (that is, as seedlings that had to be cultivated according to their individual natures) came to prevail." (Garfield, 2013)

11.1.2. State (meaning federal) education was transferred to parents, communities and churches. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.1.3. Costs for education were born locally. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.1.4. Public education became state (provincial) education. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.1.5. Canada is the only industrialized country that has no federal office or department of education. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.1.6. British North America Act 1867 Each province has jurisdiction over education (same in USA). (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)) Exception to sovereign provincial power (Section 23) protection of minority religious and language rights – basis of Roman Catholic Schools – implementation varies from province to province. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014)) Federal government is responsible for status-Indian education, Territories education and children of military personnel. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.1.7. Indian Act, 1876 provides the legal framework that has regulated the federal government’s relationship with registered Indians. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.2. Public Schools

11.2.1. 95% of the schooling system is public while 5% is private. (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.3. Public Control of Education means: (Maheau, (Oct 6, 2014))

11.3.1. Taxes fund education

11.3.2. Standardized and uniform approaches to education policy (texts, curricula and teacher certification)

11.3.3. Equalization of education benefits regardless of geography

11.3.4. Free and accessible to all students

11.3.5. We want to maintain high standards for our educational system

12. Bullying

12.1. Cyberbullying

12.1.1. Boys 3x more likely to bully others online. (Maheau, (Nov 13, 2014)

13. Socialization

13.1. Socialization Theories (Barakett & Cleghorn, Contexts of…)

13.1.1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

13.1.2. Piaget Cognitive Perspective

13.1.3. Social Learning Theory

13.1.4. Symbolic Interaction, Phenomenology, and Interceptive sociology

13.1.5. Mead’s Theory

13.1.6. Schultz’s Theory

13.2. “Socialization refers to the complex, life-long learning process through which individuals develop a sense of self and acquire the knowledge, skills, values, norms, and dispositions required to fulfill social roles.” (Barakett & Cleghorn, Contexts of…)

13.3. "Socialized people people know what is expected of them because the are introduced to and socialized into a specific culture” (Barakett & Cleghorn, Contexts of…)

13.4. “Socialization is consider necessary to ensure the stability and functioning of the social system” (Barakett & Cleghorn, Contexts of…)

13.5. Socialization is our systematic training into the norms of our culture; process of learning the meanings and practices that enable us to make sense of and behave appropriately in our culture. (Maheau, (Oct 28, 2014))

13.6. Culture

13.6.1. Surface culture is aconscious level/visible and relatively few in number. (Maheau, (Oct 28, 2014))

13.6.2. Deep culture is not at conscious level/invisible and many in number number. (Maheau, (Oct 28, 2014))

13.7. Social/Cultural Norms

13.7.1. Socialization to the norms of the culture is recognized by our behaviour and reaction to aspects of social life, often which can begin before birth and continue throughout one’s life. (Maheau, (Oct 28, 2014))

13.7.2. Social norm is "an expected form of behavior in a given situation." (Social Norm)

13.7.3. "Cultural norms are behavior patterns that are typical of specific groups. Such behaviors are learned from parents, teachers, peers, and many others whose values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors take place in the context of their own organizational culture." (Cultural Norms)

14. It is important to establish one's education psychology to be an effective 21st century teacher because it is a large part of one's teacher identity. It is the basis of what one believes to be how students learn and how to established desired behaviours and negate undesirable behaviours from students. Each theory is different and the one chosen (or multiple or even points taken from many) shape how one conducts their teaching in the classroom and how they interact with students.

15. Gender

15.1. Sex

15.1.1. Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define males and females.

15.2. Gender is a socially constructed concept and is understood through socialization,

15.3. Issues:

15.3.1. Sexism - homophobia, transgenderism

15.3.2. Separations - washrooms, lineup

15.3.3. Gender-roles - sports teams, subject choices

15.3.4. Teacher expectations - behaviours

15.3.5. Administration - (who is the principle) - usually male

15.3.6. More males in elementary - more role models for boys

15.3.7. More females on sciences

15.3.8. Parental involvement

16. Knowing who is in charge of which parts of the education system is important to being an effective 21st century teacher because one will know where to go in a case where they need assistance, or if they have any questions they know who to direct them to. Also, if a teacher wants to make a change in the education system they will know who to write to in order to make said changes start happening. It is also important as a teacher to know where you stand i the education system and how it works so they can understand the bigger picture of education.

17. To be an effective 21st century teacher one must understand their classroom management style. In order to achieve learning in a classroom, said classroom must be managed appropriately. A well managed classroom allows students to focus better and achieve to the best of the abilities. As well, one's classroom management style is closely linked to one's teacher identity which is fundamentally important to what one teachers, how one teachers and so on.

18. It is important to understand the best to better understand the future. Knowing the history of how the education system in Alberta came to be can help one understand how to better things in the future. To be an effective 21st century teacher one must not only learn from their own mistakes but also they mistakes of others. Looking at the way things were in the past can help teachers better prepared and take better courses of actions in the future.

19. As an effective 21st teacher one must realize bullying as a serious problem and know many ways to deal with a bullying situation to correct the problem. Bullying can really harm a child and as an effective 21st century teacher one must always be on the look out for changes in behaviours of students and make sure students interact with each other respectfully.

20. As a 21st teacher one must realize how gender and gender roles affect student's learning. Teachers must be aware of issues like seism in schools and help children who don't necessary fit into the socially constructed gender binary feel safe and included.

21. To be an effective 21st century teacher one must understand the struggles that sexual and gender minorities go through and how to best help them. It is important to make the classroom a safe space for all students and make everyone feel like they belong.

22. To be an effective 21st century teacher one must understand d how socialization affects students. Depending on how the student has been socialized can affect how they learn which is important to understand as a teacher. Everyone learns differently and comes from different backgrounds and it is fundamental to understand this and to change one's teaching style depending on the student.