Immune responses to viral infection

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Immune responses to viral infection by Mind Map: Immune responses to viral infection

1. Viruses

1.1. obligate intracellular pathogen

1.2. consists of proteins and nucleic acid, but not able to replicate independently of host so needs host machinery

2. Routes of entry

2.1. breach host barriers

3. how do viruses replicate?

3.1. 1. attachment and delivery of genome into host cell

3.2. 2. hijack transcription and translation machineries

3.3. 3. assembly, and exit

3.4. intracellular machinery for propogation

4. how are we protected?

4.1. innate

4.1.1. first line (barriers)

4.1.2. second line (NK, macro, eisonophils, cytokines, fever)

4.2. adaptive

4.2.1. third line (T and B)

4.3. .

4.3.1. .

5. how does host recognise a virus or virus infected cell?

5.1. PAMPs

5.1.1. PRRs

5.1.1.1. TLRs

5.1.1.1.1. TLR Signalling cascade leads to

6. How can viruses evade the host immune system?

6.1. directly kill immune cells

6.1.1. cell lysis by replication

6.1.2. induced apoptosis

6.1.3. CD8+ mediated lysis

6.1.4. pyrotoptosis

6.2. antigenic variation

6.2.1. yearly vaccine

6.3. latency

6.3.1. productive, latent, reactivation

6.3.1.1. lysogenic and lytic cycle

6.4. immunomodulatory gene products