Beta and Gamma

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Beta and Gamma by Mind Map: Beta and Gamma

1. beta

1.1. HCMV

1.1.1. features

1.1.1.1. species/tissue specific

1.1.1.1.1. 50-90% HCMV by age of 40

1.1.1.2. most mild and asymptomatic

1.1.1.3. congenital

1.1.1.3.1. asymptomatic

1.1.1.3.2. symptomatic

1.1.1.3.3. intrauterine death

1.1.1.4. in immunosuppressed

1.1.1.4.1. HIV

1.1.1.4.2. transplant patiants

1.1.1.4.3. graft vs host disease (immunosuppression needed)

1.1.1.5. highest priority vaccine development (US National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine)

1.1.1.5.1. current anti-HMCV drugs are toxic (transplant - high death rate - weighing up toxicity with CMV death)

1.1.2. genome

1.1.2.1. 200-300 nm diameter

1.1.2.2. largest known human virus genome (>200 potential ORFs)

1.1.2.2.1. many dispensible for replication

1.1.2.2.2. hypothesis, many ORFs for cell tropism, evasion and latency

1.1.2.3. herpes structure but larger

1.1.2.4. virions contain icosahedral nucleocapsid enclosing a linear ds DNA (~230 kbp)

1.1.3. life cycle

1.1.3.1. productive infection

1.1.3.1.1. extensive viral gene expression

1.1.3.1.2. causes cell death

1.1.3.1.3. antiviral drugs: significant toxicity

1.1.3.1.4. no vaccine

1.1.3.1.5. DIRECT CONTACT with mucosal epithelium

1.1.3.1.6. systematic phase of infection lasts for months

1.1.3.2. latent

1.1.3.2.1. 5-10% of circulating T cells for CMV

1.1.4. immune evasion

1.1.4.1. during productive infection

1.1.4.1.1. 25 viral genes

1.1.4.2. latent infection

1.1.4.2.1. antiviral ineffective

1.1.4.2.2. restricted viral genome expression

1.1.4.2.3. site of CMV latency

1.1.4.2.4. how does CMV remain latent

1.1.4.3. reactivation

1.1.4.3.1. occurs sub-clinically in healthy individuals

1.1.4.3.2. allogeneic transplant

2. gamma

2.1. EBV

2.1.1. Latency III

2.1.2. evasion