Diversity Of Life

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Diversity Of Life by Mind Map: Diversity Of Life

1. 2 Domains

1.1. Bacteria

1.1.1. Facts oldest fossils known, 3.5 billion years old, are fossils of bacteria-like organisms often maligned as the causes of human and animal disease Not always true, some produce anitbiodicts help to break down dead organic matter make up the base of the food web in many environments

1.1.2. Structure of a Bacteria Cell shape Cell wall structure Motility (method of movement) Cell Shape Cell Wall Structure Motility

1.1.3. Life Obtaining Nutrients Heterotroph – takes up organic molecules Photoautotroph – uses sunlight to make carbon dioxide into carbon compounds like sugar Photoheterotroph – takes up organic molecules and uses sunlight Chemoheterotroph – uses energy released through chemical reactions Reproduction Produce two identical cells Reproduction is fast Limited Carrying capacities due to food, light and structure Genetic mixing in reproduction of bacteria 1. Transformation 2. Conjugation 3. Transduction

1.2. Eukaryota

2. Biodiversity

2.1. Scientists have identified 1.75 million different species of organisms

2.2. the variety of life in the world

2.3. Diversity

2.3.1. Genetic sum of all different forms of genes present in a particular species Genes are units of inherited information that determine specific characteristics or functions

2.3.2. Species the variety of species and relative abundance of the species in a given area Wide variety = increased chance of survival in environmental changes

2.3.3. Ecosystem Diverse range of habitats with variety of organisms living in them

2.3.4. Phylogeny represents how organisms have evolved and their relation to other species 3 main domains (categories that organisms are broken down into)

2.3.5. Prokaryotes single celled, non membrane bound organelles, less complex, smaller Eukaryote

2.4. Value Of Biodiversity

2.4.1. higher diversity in ecosystem= healthier ecosystem

2.4.2. Helps maintain all aspects of life Pollinating Flowers Breaking down nutrients

2.5. Classification

2.5.1. 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Organisms Cell Type Reproduction Eubacteria Organisms Cell Type Reproduction Protists Organisms Cell Type Reproduction Fungi Organisms Cell type Reproduction Plantae Organisms Cell Type Reproduction Animalia Organisms Cell Type Reproduction

2.5.2. Kingdom Protist most diverse kingdom all species are aquatic 7,8,9,10 kingdoms derived from protists Taxomony Plant like Protists Fungus Like Protists Fungi More that 100,000 species Heterotrophic Eukaryotes Work in Ecosystes to decompose, and recycle nutrients. Dangers of Fungi Hyphae Reproduction Major Phyla

2.5.3. Classification Order Kimgdom Phylum

3. Viruses

3.1. A virus is a genome enclosed in a protective coat

3.2. Viruses can reproduce only within a host cell

3.3. Treatment

3.3.1. Symptoms of a virus are the result of destruction of specific cells

3.3.2. Some viruses can be treated with vaccines

3.4. Emerging Viruses

3.4.1. HIV

3.4.2. Ebola

3.4.3. Avian Influenza Virus

4. Animal Diversity

4.1. 35 major groups

4.2. 6 main characteristics of an animal

4.2.1. Are eukaryotic

4.2.2. Cells lack cell walls

4.2.3. Multicellular

4.2.4. Heterotrophs that ingest food

4.2.5. Motile at some point in their life cycle

4.2.6. Form a hollow ball of cycles called a blastula during embryological development

4.3. Evolution of Animals

4.3.1. Body plan – each have a unique one

4.3.2. Levels of organization – animals have cells organized into tissues etc

4.3.3. Body symmetry – gives insight into movement, evolution and interaction with prey and predator

4.3.4. Embryological development

4.3.5. Segmentation of the body

4.3.6. Limbs

4.4. Symmetry

4.4.1. Asymmetrical – no symmetry (sponges)

4.4.2. Radial symmetry – central axis and body parts come off of it (like an octopus)

4.4.3. Bilateral – left and right sides are mirror images of each other (humans)

4.5. Vertebrates vs. invertebrates

4.5.1. Vertebrates – have a back bone

4.5.2. Invertebrates - no backbone

4.6. Porifera- Sponges

4.6.1. Cells called ameobocytes produce protein

4.6.2. Proteins develop into needle like structures

4.6.3. Adults are sessile (anchored in one place)

4.6.4. No nervous system

4.6.5. Reproduction – asexual by budding and sexual by using male and female structures in the same individual

4.6.6. Digestion, circulation, excretion and gas exchanged happen in the ameobocytes

4.7. Cnidaria

4.7.1. four major groups of cnidarians

4.7.2. ANTHOZOA which includes true corals, anemones, and sea pens

4.7.3. CUBOZOA the amazing box jellies with complex eyes and potent toxins

4.7.4. HYDROZOA the most diverse group with siphonophores, hydroids, fire corals, and many medusae

4.7.5. SCYPHOZOA the true jellyfish

4.7.6. Cnidarians are said to be the simplest organisms at the tissue grade of organization

5. Worms

5.1. Three different phyla

5.1.1. Platyhelminthes – Flat worms

5.1.2. Nematodes – Round worms

5.1.3. Annelida – Segmented worms

5.2. Platyhelminthes

5.2.1. Structure – germ layers

5.2.2. Ectoderm - develops into the body covering

5.2.3. Mesoderm - develops into an internal tissue- filled region

5.2.4. Endoderm - develops into the digestive sac.

5.2.5. Bilaterally symmetrical with a head and a tail

5.2.6. Centralized nervous system

5.2.7. Three tissue layers

5.2.8. No coelom (body cavity) acoelomate,

5.2.9. No circulatory system and no hard skeleton

5.3. Nemotoda

5.3.1. Nematodes (round worms) bilateral symmetry complete digestive tract body cavity – pseudocoelomate Over half of this phylum is parasitic in nature

5.4. Annelida

5.4.1. Segmented Worms

5.4.2. Two main features for segmented worms Segmented fluid filled compartments to provide support Two sets of muscles – circular and longitudinal

5.4.3. digestion Through gut with mouth and anus Body possesses 3 separate sections a prostomium (head) a trunk and a pygidium (anus)

5.4.4. nervous system Nervous system with an anterior nerve ring, ganglia and a ventral nerve chord

5.4.5. Reproduction Asexual and Sexual

5.4.6. circulatory system Closed circulatory system

5.4.7. gas exchange Moist skin serves as the organ for gas exchange Oxygen absorbed across the skin is transported by the circulatory system

6. Arthropods

6.1. Key Characteristics

6.1.1. Jointed Appendages

6.1.2. Hard exoskeleton made of chitin and protein

6.1.3. Horny substance on the outside of arthropods – hard structure

6.1.4. Segmented body

6.1.5. Must molt to grow

6.2. Phylum Arthropoda

6.2.1. Chelicerates Class – Arachnida Spiders, mites, ticks and scorpions Have two body segments, 8 legs, no antennae or wings Do not go through metamorphosis but hatch from eggs as miniature adults

6.2.2. Uniramia Class: Insecta Have three body segments Most insects possess wings as adults, attached to thorax Undergo complete metamorphosis growing from larva to adult

6.2.3. Crustacea 40 thousand species Crabs, shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, barnacles and almost all zooplankton Key characteristics Have mandibles Compound eyes Live in aquatic ecosystems

6.3. Key insect terms

6.3.1. Head – antennae and mouth parts are attached to the head

6.3.2. Thorax – legs and wings are attached to thorax (normally smaller)

6.3.3. Abdomen – no true appendages on the abdomen (e.g. stinger of a wasp)

7. Mollusca

7.1. Characteristics

7.1.1. Largest marine phylum

7.1.2. Contain a mantle for breathing and excretion

7.1.3. Radula

7.1.4. Most have shells

7.1.5. Foot

7.1.6. Live in a variety of habitats (marine and terrestrial)

7.2. Originated in the sea

7.3. Body Plan

7.3.1. Two regions Head-foot Feeding, sensory, locomotor organs Well developed heads Tentacles are often present Mouth contains radula Tongue like structure Rows of tiny teeth that point backwards and grind the material they would like to consume Also serves as a conveyer belt to move food backwards Visceral mass Digestive system, circulatory, respiratory, and reproductive organs Mantle - two layers of outer skin

7.4. Classification

7.4.1. Class Gastropoda Largest and most diverse Includes snails, conches, slugs Have both marine and terrestrial organisms The shell when present is univalve (one piece) Normally sluggish due to heavy shells Shells are their major defence

7.4.2. Class Cephalopoda All are marine Are active predators Modified foot is in the head region Sensitive to the degree of salinity in the water Often use buoyance chambers to move up and down Swimming happens when they forcefully expell water from the mantle

8. Chordates

8.1. Invertebrate vs Vertebrate

8.1.1. Invertebrate - this is a descriptive term describing animals without a backbone

8.1.2. Vertebrate - this is a taxonomic classification that describes animals that have the specific characteristic of a persistent backbone.

8.2. Characteristics of Chordates

8.2.1. dorsal nerve cord

8.2.2. Notochord

8.2.3. Paired gill slits

8.2.4. Post-anal tail

8.3. Sub Phylum

8.3.1. UROCHORDATE Includes tunicates Their motile larvae display the chordate characteristics The sessile adult retains the pharyngeal apparatus, which it uses for filter feeding

8.3.2. Cephalochordata They are filter feeders that burrow in the substrate of coastal waters and use their pharyngeal gill slits for filter feeding. Many biologists believe the ancestors of vertebrates resembled these animals

8.3.3. Vertebrate presence of a spinal column or backbone characteristics The anterior part of the dorsal hollow nerve cord is enlarged into a brain Two pairs of appendages Closed circulatory system Red blood cells that contain hemoglobin Super Class Agnathans - jawless fish Gnathostomata - jawed animals

8.4. Fish Class

8.4.1. Chondricthyes cartilaginous fishes are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

8.4.2. Osteoicthyes Bony fish Contain swim bladder Have scales

8.5. Amphibia

8.5.1. Often have a double life - live on land but will return to water to reproduce

8.5.2. Moist skin

8.5.3. Three chambered heart

8.6. Class of Vertebrates

8.6.1. Reptilia Internal fertilization Scales 3 chambered heart Amniotic egg Clawed toes

8.6.2. Aves Feathers Hollow bones with air sacs Gizzard Endothermic Amniotic egg 4 chambered heart Forelimbs are wings

8.6.3. Mammalia Presence of hair 4 chambered heart Mammary glands on females (lactation) 3 middle ear bones Viviparous (baby develops inside mothers body) Endothermic

9. Plants

9.1. Classification

9.1.1. Kingdom: Plantae

9.1.2. 12 different phylum

9.1.3. Grouping of Phylum:

9.1.4. 1. NonTracheophytes – non vascular plants Live on soil or on plants, lack roots Most are terrestrial Dense moist habitats Only a few cm tall

9.1.5. 2. Tracheophytes – vascular plants Possess tracheids – which are conducting cells in the xylem (except in angiosperms) In angiosperms – have more specialized cells to do this function Evolution – allowed for pathway for long distance transport of water

9.1.6. Two sub groups

9.1.7. 1. Angiosperms – flowering/ seed plants Flowering plants reproduction takes place within the flower. sporophyte is the dominant part of the life cycle. The gametophytes are microscopic Seeds are now produced to distributed from flowering components

9.1.8. 2. Gymnosperms – non flowering plants naked seeds seed is not covered with a fleshy fruit. sporophyte produces both male and female cones four phyla: conifers, cycads, the ginkgo, and gnetophytes

9.2. Characteristics

9.2.1. Multicellular

9.2.2. Photosynthetic

9.2.3. Contain chlorophyll a and b

9.2.4. Alternation of Generations for reproduction

9.2.5. Develop from embryos