EDU 100: Becoming an effective 21st century teacher by Katrina Hansen

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EDU 100: Becoming an effective 21st century teacher by Katrina Hansen by Mind Map: EDU 100:  Becoming an effective 21st century teacher by Katrina Hansen

1. Professional Identity

1.1. Philosophies of Education

1.1.1. Perennialism

1.1.1.1. "the emphasis of school should be the mastery of content and the development of reasoning skills in the arts and sciences and that thoughtful consideration of the classical works is the way these goals can be achieved" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 46)

1.1.2. Essentialism

1.1.2.1. "there are certain basic or essential knowledge, skills, and understandings students should master...society at large decides in general what these essentials are" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg.48)

1.1.2.2. "Back to the Basics" approach

1.1.3. Progressivism

1.1.3.1. "the focus of education should be students rather than content and that whatever is taught should be meaningful" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 50)

1.1.3.1.1. I view my teaching philosophy as progressive. While I do agree with aspects of other philosophies I most strongly associate with a progressivist approach. I believe in creating life long learners. I think it is important to teach students how to learn. This is especially important in our ever changing society. Knowing how to learn enables students to adapt to the changes they will inevitably be faced with.

1.1.3.2. "the purpose of education is to prepare students to be lifelong learners in an ever-changing society" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 50)

1.1.4. Existentialism

1.1.4.1. "students need to find their own ways of thinking and develop their own conclusions" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 52)

1.1.5. Social Reconstructivism

1.1.5.1. "schools are seen as agents of the reformation of society rather than as transmitters of knowledge" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 53)

1.2. Psychology

1.2.1. Humanism

1.2.1.1. "the acquisition of information and the individual’s personalization and internalization of that information" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 59)

1.2.2. Behaviourism

1.2.2.1. B.F. Skinner

1.2.2.2. "the consequences of any behavior will cause an increase, decrease, or no change in the likelihood of that behavior occurring again" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg.

1.2.3. Information Processing

1.2.3.1. "how the brain processes information by attending to stimuli, receiving information, processing information, storing information in long-term and short-term memory, and retrieving information" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 61)

1.2.4. Constructivism

1.2.4.1. "learners combine existing information with new information such that the new knowledge provides personal meaning" (Martin & Loomis, 2014, pg. 63)

1.3. Becoming a Reflective Teacher

1.3.1. Openmindedness

1.3.1.1. "an active desire to listen to more sides than one, to give full attention to alternate possibilities, and to recognize the possibility of error" (Grant & Zeichner, pg. 105)

1.3.1.2. Being openminded is respecting different perspectives. It is important to step back and modify ones teaching relative to students' views and beliefs. It is inevitable that we will have very multicultural classes so to stick to a traditional teaching style has potential to be unsuccessful. We need to accept our students' differences and celebrate them.

1.3.2. Responsibility

1.3.2.1. "careful consideration of the consequences to which an action leads" (Grant & Zeichner, pg. 105)

1.3.2.2. "hidden curriculum"

1.3.2.3. Reflection on how our actions impact our students is critical. Students can be easily influenced by their teachers, which makes it especially important that we are aware of our actions and how they impact our students

1.3.3. Wholeheartedness

1.3.3.1. "openmindedness and responsibility must be central components in the life of a reflective teacher" (Grant & Zeichner, pg. 105)

1.3.4. Being a reflective teacher is important because it helps one to recognize the different needs of students and adapt their teaching appropriately. Although being a reflective teacher is time consuming and difficult, I believe it is well worth it. By self reflecting one can adjust their lessons and pedagogy to meet the needs of all students.

2. Structures and Institutions that Govern Education in Alberta

2.1. Ministery of Education

2.1.1. Duties

2.1.1.1. Approves new buildings

2.1.1.2. Ensures teacher qualifications

2.1.1.3. Decides on curriculum

2.1.1.4. Details the powers of local authorities and the province

2.1.2. Elected member appointed by premier

2.1.3. Plays a critical role in determining long term educational policies and influencing funding

2.1.4. The School Act

2.1.4.1. Describes the relationship of minister to students, parents and school jurisdictions and provides for the system of administration and financing of education in Alberta and generally deals with the ultimate authority of the Minister with respect to all constituents in the educational system (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.2. Deputy Minister

2.2.1. Appointed by the cabinet

2.2.2. coordinates the work of the department

2.2.3. Planning, school finance, curriculum development, assessment, special education, language programs, renovation/construction of school buildings (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3. School Boards

2.3.1. School Trustees (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.1.1. Day to day admin

2.3.1.2. Hire and pay school personnel

2.3.1.3. Develop transportation systems, provide physical facilities for pupils

2.3.1.4. Close schools, set budgets raise local education taxes

2.3.1.5. Modify/adapt provincial curriculum

2.3.2. Alberta School Boards Association (ASBA)

2.3.2.1. ASBA is a respected and influential provincial association of locally elected school boards. ASBA supports publicly elected school boards in their efforts to ensure that students in Alberta have the opportunity to reach their highest potential. ASBA is the leading voice advocating for public education in Alberta. ASBA is energized by the enthusiastic participation of its members (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.3. Public School Boards Association

2.3.3.1. not-for-profit society, the members of which are school jurisdictions (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.3.2. affirms two characteristics of public education (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.3.2.1. inclusive as a matter of conviction and by design

2.3.3.2.2. it is a deliberate model of a community and, by choice, primarily a model of a civil democratic community

2.3.3.3. Advocates for public education and maintains relations with province (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.4. The Alberta Catholic School Trustees' Association

2.3.4.1. the voice of Catholic trustees in Alberta and the Northwest Territories, and is committed to preserving and enhancing the rights of Catholics to education based on the Gospel of Jesus Christ (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.5. School Councils

2.3.5.1. Parent, teacher, family, community, school

2.3.5.2. Legal status has been given to a variety of apparent advisory committees, school councils, and orientation committees at the school level (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.3.6. Role of School Boards (F. Peters, personal communication, Oct. 7)

2.3.6.1. get power and authority from provincial laws and regulations

2.3.6.2. vary from 7-15 trustees

2.3.6.3. open to all Canadian citizens who are 18+ and live in the jurisdiction

2.3.6.4. act collectively as a cooperate body

2.3.6.5. assisted by professional admin

2.4. Alberta Teacher Association (ATA

2.4.1. Mission statement: "The Alberta Teachers' Association, as the professional organization of teachers, promotes and advances public education, safeguards standards of professional practice and serves as the advocate for its members." (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.4.2. Services of the ATA (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.4.2.1. Governance: sets policies using democratic practice

2.4.2.2. Member Services: deals with individual issues related to teachers and teaching practice

2.4.2.3. Professional Development: develops workshops and resources to enhance teaching practice

2.4.2.4. Teacher Welfare: bargains for improved teacher working conditions and salaries

2.5. Colleges and Universities

2.5.1. Faculties of Education at universities are charged with pre-service teacher education and post graduate studies in education (Canadian and Albertan Schools, Sept. 30)

2.6. Knowing key roles is important to becoming an effective teacher. It is important to know who to turn to for assistance. It is also important to know where to go when faced with change or wanting to implement change within the system. It is important to for teachers to know where they fit in the education system to be an effective 21st century teacher

3. Current Issues in Education

3.1. Inclusion

3.1.1. School Board Requirements for Special Education (Standards for Special Education, 2004)

3.1.1.1. Access: "Students with special education needs are entitled to have access in a school year to an education program in accordance with the School Act. Students with special education needs receive adapted or modified programming that enables and improves learning"(pg. 6-8)

3.1.1.1.1. Informed consent

3.1.1.1.2. Identification

3.1.1.1.3. Assessment

3.1.1.1.4. Specialized Assessment

3.1.1.1.5. Right of Access to Records

3.1.1.1.6. Coordinated Services

3.1.1.2. Appropriateness: "Educational programming and services are designed around the assessed needs of the student and are provided by qualified staff who are knowledgeable and skilled" (pg. 9-11)

3.1.1.2.1. Professional Standards

3.1.1.2.2. Parent Involvement in Decision Making

3.1.1.2.3. Placement

3.1.1.2.4. Individualized Program Planning (IPP), Implementation and Evaluation

3.1.1.3. Accountability: "The obligation to answer for the execution of ones assigned responsibilities" (pg. 12-13)

3.1.1.3.1. Reporting - School Board Policy and Procedures

3.1.1.3.2. Reporting to Parents

3.1.1.3.3. Program Monitoring and Evaluation

3.1.1.3.4. Participation in Provincial Assessment

3.1.1.4. Appeals: "Timely, fair and open process protect the rights of students and parents and address differences of opinion about the education of students with special needs." (pg. 14)

3.1.1.4.1. Special Education Appeals

3.1.2. Inclusion has many benefits. It is a chance for special education students to be included instead of segregated. It is also a great opportunity for interaction between all students of different capabilities. It is amazing to see how students interact with those labeled as "special education students". In the video"Diversity in Alberta Schools: A Journey to Inclusion"students didn't treat students differently based on their disability. As one student said "it's just what the doctor says." Due to the ever changing education system it is inevitable we will be faced with inclusion in our classrooms. My fear is that we are not prepared to teach such students. Very few university classes are offered to discuss the issues and those that do only brush over it briefly. Professional development is a must! Teachers need to be knowledgeable and skilled in teaching all students. With inclusion we need to be modifying our teaching strategies to support these students.

3.2. Bullying/Homophobia

3.2.1. Bullying

3.2.1.1. Bullying is defined as a conscious, willful, deliberate and repeated hostile activity marked by an imbalance of power, intent to harm, and/or threat of aggression. Severe bullying can lead to a feeling of terror on the part of the person being bullied. (M. Phair, personal communication, Nov. 6)

3.2.1.2. "bullying occurs in all schools and in all societies and that strategies for intervention and prevention are vital for ensuring students’ emotional and physical safety"(Walton, 2004, pg. 25)

3.2.1.3. Zero tolerance policy - addresses physical violence, not psychological

3.2.2. Homophobia

3.2.2.1. The topic of homophobic bullying is often absent when discussing bullying

3.2.2.2. "Straightness is imbued with the status of being “normal” and “natural” not only through gender socialization but through construction of sexual otherness as inferior" (Walton, 2004, pg. 26)

3.2.2.3. "Addressing homophobia in anti-bullying programs and integrating LGBT issues in schools are battles of power and ideology" (Walton, 2004, pg. 28)

3.2.2.3.1. Discussing LGBT issues in schools is too often tiptoed around. It is a difficult topic to address because of the different views of families. While some may support it, it may be against another family's religion so they therefore do not support having their child exposed to the topic.

3.2.2.4. "Generic strategies for increased safety in schools simply do not address forms of homophobic violence and, consequently, leave some of the most vulnerable students “unsafe."" (Walton, 2004, pg. 29)

3.2.2.4.1. Homophobic bullying is not a topic to be taken lightly. It is a very prevalent issue in todays education. It is the job of educators to make sure all students feel they have a safe environment to learn. By ignoring the issues of homophobia we are not making a safe space for those students. Including LGBT issues in everyday curriculum and supporting gay-straight alliances are two steps towards creating an inclusive and safe environment for all students.

3.2.2.4.2. What can educators do? (Phair, Nov. 6)

3.2.3. Resources

3.2.3.1. nohomophobes.com

3.2.3.2. Institute for Sexual Minority Studies and Services (ISMSS)

3.2.3.3. Books, Videos, Posters

3.3. Social Justice

3.3.1. Moral education

3.3.1.1. "Theres more to education than teaching literacy and numeracy" (Reynolds, pg. 3)

3.3.1.1.1. Duty to provide moral, socially conscious education

3.3.1.1.2. The "hidden curriculum" is a huge part of todays education. I think an important part of education is to teach our students to be active, responsible citizens. Teaching more than "the basics" is crucial in order to do so. Students should be made aware of global issues and how they can make a difference in the world. There is much more to teaching that math and language arts.

3.3.1.2. "Real-world contention helps engage kids in the classroom - they're intrigued, they listen, they participate (Reynolds pg. 4)

3.3.1.3. "An education that teaches kids to think for themselves should surely allow them to apply critical thinking to everything around them, including global issues, social inequalities and the like" (Reynolds, pg. 6)

3.3.2. Questions about Social Justice

3.3.2.1. What is appropriate to teach?

3.3.2.1.1. Who gets to decide the best way to educate our youth?

3.3.2.1.2. Who decides what is appropriate?

3.3.2.2. "How much are the young truly able to make up their own minds?" (Reynolds, pg. 5)

3.3.2.2.1. Students are strongly influenced by their teachers. Due to that teachers have a huge responsibility in shaping students' minds. I believe we need to give students the resources to make their own decisions instead of imposing our beliefs on them.

3.3.2.3. When is it appropriate to teach such issues?

3.3.2.3.1. "Kids need to develop emotionally before they can develop politically" (Reynolds, pg. 6)

4. Serving as an Agent of Change

4.1. Integration of Technology

4.1.1. Technology Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

4.1.1.1. "TPACK is the intersection of teachers’ knowledge of curriculum content, general pedagogies, and technologies" (Harris & Hofer, 2009)

4.1.1.1.1. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: How to use particular technologies

4.1.1.1.2. Technological Content Knowledge: How to select and use technologies to communicate particular content knowledge

4.1.1.1.3. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: How to teach particular content-based material

4.1.1.2. "the activity types approach to instructional planning and preparation is focused squarely upon students’ standards-based, curriculum-related learning processes and outcomes, rather than upon the technologies that can assist in their creation" (Harris & Hofer, 2009)

4.1.2. Integration of technology can be a wonderful tool when used appropriately. It can be a great way to enhance learning. With the constant improvement and discoveries in technology it can be hard for teachers to stay on top of all the new uses of technology. Technology can be used in special circumstances to assist in students learning. In Alberta Educations video about technology they demonstrate it being used as an aid for a student with difficulty reading. There are also great communication apps. Technology can be used to record students who have difficulty putting their thoughts on paper and have an easier time speaking their thoughts. There are many benefits of integrating technology in the classroom when used properly.

4.1.3. Integrating technology can also be important to teach digital citizenship. Technology is such a huge part of todays world and is easily accessible. It is important for teachers to share knowledge on how to act appropriately online. This can include discussing topics of cyber bullying and stressing the importance of using caution with what you share online.

4.2. Relational Teaching

4.2.1. What is a relational teacher? (Nathalie Piquemal)

4.2.1.1. Driven by principles of equality

4.2.1.2. Feels responsible to the people with whom they are in relation with

4.2.1.3. Mindful of differences

4.2.1.4. Is respectful

4.2.1.5. Fair

4.2.2. Principles of a Rational Teacher

4.2.2.1. Commitment to Difference

4.2.2.1.1. "teacher recognizes his/her students’ irreducible otherness, and strives to develop a classroom community that will enable the students to truly be who they are" (Nathalie Piquemal)

4.2.2.2. Respect for Persons

4.2.2.2.1. Commit not only to the work, but to the students and the people in the community

4.2.2.3. Commitment to Reciprocity

4.2.2.3.1. "By privileging common dialogical experiences in an inclusive classroom, teachers may be able to privilege both differences and commonalities, thus developing a sense of community in the classroom while enabling students to maintain their culturally differentiated ways as an inherent part of their otherness" (Nathalie Piquemal)

4.2.2.4. Sense of Care

4.2.2.4.1. "viewing the student as a mental, physical, emotional and spiritual learner, and responding to such needs" (Nathalie Piquemal)

4.3. "Second Wave Teaching"

4.3.1. Educating outside the curriculum

4.3.2. Connections to the real world

4.3.2.1. Making content meaningful

4.3.3. Teaching about real world events

4.4. As Shauna Paul stated, all students have the right to an amazing education. We can provide this through inspiring education, integrating technology, and being rationale teachers. It is important to make positive relationships with students and create a safe learning environment. Joe Cloutier commented that at the Inner City High School they treat students with respect. This is crucial to all schools. With strong relationships based on trust hopefully students feel excited about school and encouraged to strengthen their understanding on specific topics.