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IDEA by Mind Map: IDEA

1. Autism

1.1. developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction

1.1.1. Assistive Tech: Pictures Visual Schedules Visual indicators such as universal "no" Objects Use of real objects for students who can't grasp 2D representations

1.1.2. Intervention: Early intervention is very important

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. simultaneous hearing and visual impairments

2.1.1. Assistive Tech: Assistive listening Devices (ALDs) Interpreters Use of audiotapes or brail to assist with reading

2.1.2. Intervention: Children under three can find a local "early intervention program“ from their pediatrician. Children over 3 can get assistance from their school district even if they are not yet enrolled in school

3. Deaf / Hearing impaired

3.1. hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing

3.1.1. Subtypes Conductive hearing loss Caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle ear. Sensorineural hearing loss Result from damage to the delicate sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves that supply it. mixed hearing loss a combination of conductive and sensorineural loss and means that a problem occurs in both the outer or middle and the inner ear

3.1.2. Case Study Caroline’s Story Caroline is six years old, with bright brown eyes and, at the moment, no front teeth, like so many other first graders. She also wears a hearing aid in each ear—and has done so since she was three, when she was diagnosed with a moderate hearing loss. For Caroline’s parents, there were many clues along the way. Caroline often didn’t respond to her name if her back was turned. She didn’t startle at noises that made other people jump. She liked the TV on loud. But it was the preschool she started attending when she was three that first put the clues together and suggested to Caroline’s parents that they have her hearing checked. The most significant clue to the preschool was Caroline’s unclear speech, especially the lack of consonants like “d” and “t” at the end of words. So Caroline’s parents took her to an audiologist, who collected a full medical history, examined the little girl’s ears inside and out, ran a battery of hearing tests and other assessments, and eventually diagnosed that Caroline’s inner ear (the cochlea) was damaged. The audiologist said she had sensorineural hearing loss. Caroline was immediately fitted with hearing aids. She also began receiving special education and related services through the public school system. Now in the first grade, she regularly gets speech therapy and other services, and her speech has improved dramatically. So has her vocabulary and her attentiveness. She sits in the front row in class, an accommodation that helps her hear the teacher clearly. She’s back on track, soaking up new information like a sponge, and eager for more.

3.1.3. Assistive Tech Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs) interpreter Captioned Video

3.1.4. Intervention Children suspected of having hearing loss can get tested at no cost to the parents. Special services available to low-income children through the Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program, the child health component of Medicaid.

4. Other Health Impairment

4.1. Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment.

4.1.1. Wide range of possible problems

4.1.2. Assistive Tech: Because some students may require extended time in hospitals some tech is at their disposal Computers with internet Videos Audiobooks etc

5. Specific Learning Disability

5.1. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

5.1.1. Subtyptes Dyslexia Difficulty reading Dysgraphia Difficulty writing Dyscalcula Difficulty with mathematics

5.1.2. Intervention Students can be tested if they show signs of an LD

5.1.3. Assistive Tech: Electronic math software Audio books Graphic organizers

6. Speech or Language Impairment

6.1. A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment.

6.1.1. Subtypes Articulation Speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly Fluency Speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns Voice speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness Language language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say

6.1.2. Intervention First step is to get the child's hearing checked If not a hearing condition, free consulting is available Setting up an IEP for the student

6.1.3. Assistive tech Use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices May include picture boards to very advanced technology

7. Traumatic Brain Injury

7.1. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psycho-social impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

7.1.1. Intervention First check for the signs Physical disabilities Difficulty with thinking Social/behavioral problems Get child evaluated Plan the child's return to school Create a flexable IEP

7.1.2. Assistive Tech Assistive tech depends on area of damage. As such, the tech used would be the same tech used in other disabilities

8. Developmental Delay

8.1. Delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive behavioral development

8.1.1. Intervention First step, concerned parents should talk to their pediatrician Pediatrician can suggest developmental screening If child shows signs of developmental delay, they can go through developmental evaluation

8.1.2. Assistive Tech Tech use is very broad and depends on students developmental needs Computers can assist students with physical developmental needs Sign language for students who cannot speak Etc

9. Emotional Disturbance

9.1. A condition where a student is incapable of coping with the classroom environment that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors

9.1.1. Subtypes Bipolar disorder A serious medical condition that causes dramatic mood swings from overly “high” and/or irritable to sad and hopeless, and then back again, often with periods of normal mood in between. Anxiety disorders Excessive, persistent, seemingly uncontrollable, and overwhelming anxiety Conduct disorders Children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. Eating disorders Extremes in eating behavior—either too much or too little—or feelings of extreme distress or concern about body weight or shape. OCD Characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Psychotic disorders Refers to severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and hallucinations.

9.1.2. Assistive Tech Low Behavior Charts Reward points Mid iPod or other music player Talklight High Educational video games

10. Blindness / Visual impairment

10.1. An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.1.1. Subtypes Near-sighted Can only see things close Far-sighted Cannot see close things clearly strabismus Eyes look in different directions and do not focus simultaneously on a single point congenital cataracts Where the lens of the eye is cloudy retinopathy of prematurity When the light-sensitive retina hasn’t developed sufficiently before birth retinitis pigmentos A rare inherited disease that slowly destroys the retina coloboma A portion of the structure of the eye is missing optic nerve hypoplasia Underdeveloped fibers in the optic nerve and which affects depth perception, sensitivity to light, and acuity of vision cortical visual impairment Damage to the part of the brain related to vision, not to the eyes themselves

10.1.2. Assistive Tech Use "sensory learning" focusing on senses other than vision Use of laptops/other visual learning devices Text-to-voice software

10.1.3. Intervention Early intervention available for very young children Free testing available at no cost to the parents Parents are involved in the creation of their students IEP

11. intellectual Disability

11.1. significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.

11.1.1. Intervention Diagnosed looking at childs IQ Then determine the amount of assistance needed by looking at their weaknesses in dealing with daily life

11.1.2. Case Study Matthew’s Story Matt is 15 years old. Because Matt has an intellectual disability, he has been receiving special education services since elementary school. These services have helped him tremendously, because they are designed to fit his special learning needs. Last year he started high school. He, his family, and the school took a good hard look at what he wants to do when secondary school is over. Does he want more education? A job? Does he have the skills he needs to live on his own? Answering these questions has helped Matt and the school plan for the future. He’s always been interested in the outdoors, in plants, and especially in trees. He knows all the tree names and can recognize them by their leaves and bark. So this year he’s learning about jobs like forestry, landscaping, and grounds maintenance. Next year he hopes to get a part-time job. He’s learning to use public transportation, so he’ll be able to get to and from the job. Having an intellectual disability makes it harder for Matt to learn new things. He needs things to be very concrete. But he’s determined. He wants to work outside, maybe in the park service or in a greenhouse, and he’s getting ready!

11.1.3. Assistive Tech Use of computers Audiobooks Graphic organizers etc

12. Multiple Disabilities

12.1. Simultaneous impairments, the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments

12.1.1. Intervention If the cause is known (or signs are evident) at birth children can be enrolled in an early intervention program

12.1.2. Case Study Sharon’s Story Sharon is an active five year old who loves to spend time with her grandmother. She also loves to fingerpaint and play with the family dog. Sharon has multiple disabilities. When she was born, she didn’t get enough oxygen. As a result, she has an intellectual disability, problems with mobility, and a speech impairment that makes it hard to understand what she’s saying. That doesn’t stop Sharon from chattering, though. She has a lot to say. For Sharon’s parents, it’s been a long road from Sharon’s birth to today. When she was just a baby, she began receiving special services called early intervention. These services help children with disabilities from birth to their third birthday. In early intervention, Sharon learned to crawl and to stand and—finally!—to walk with braces. Now in preschool, Sharon receives special education services. Like early intervention, these services are meant to address her special learning needs. Her parents are very involved. They sit down often with the preschool staff and talk about Sharon’s progress. The team also talks about Sharon’s challenges and how to address them. Last week, for example, Sharon got a picture board to help her communicate. She’s busy learning to use it. Sharon’s parents know that Sharon will always need some support because of her multiple disabilities. But her parents also know how determined Sharon can be when she’s learning something new. She’s going to learn it, by golly, there’s no stopping her.

12.1.3. Assistive tech Depends on the combination of problems Could include the same tools needed for both physical disabilities and intellectual disabilities

13. Orthopedic Impairment

13.1. Impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease and impairments from other causes

13.1.1. Assistive Tech: Wheel chairs Voice to text sofware