Learning Design and Technology

learning design and technology

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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology

1. Reflection on key concepts

1.1. Understanding of Instructional design

1.1.1. I think instructional design involves the process of identifying the skills, knowledge, information and attitude gaps of a targeted audience and creating, selecting or suggesting learning experiences that close this gap, based on instructional theory and best practices from the field.

1.2. What are some factors that affect the effectiveness/success of using reinforcement?

1.2.1. I think these factors should be taken into consideration : 1. Instruction provided as needed 2.Power of the reinforcer 3.Variability of the reinforcer 4.Immediacy of the reinforcer 5.Frequency of the reinforcer

1.3. What are the strength and limitations of the behavioral approach?

1.3.1. I think there are several advantages of behavioral approach. One strength of the behaviourist approach is that it has successfully applied classical and operant conditioning to its theories. Systematic desensitisation is based on classical conditioning and is useful for treating phobias. Another strength of the behaviourist approach is that it uses scientific methods of research. This is a strength because the experiments are objective, measurable and observable. As for the limitation, here are two points I would like to say. One weakness of the behaviourist approach is that it focuses too much on the 'nurture' side of the nature/nurture debate. It suggests that all behaviour is learned but cognitive and biological elements have been proved to affect behaviour. An example of this is the assumption that people learn behaviour by observing others getting rewarded for certain actions. The second weakness of the behaviourist approach is the ethical issues raised by using animals in experiments. This is because animals can not consent to take part and are unable to withdraw.

1.4. Understanding of Robert Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction

1.4.1. When we get a good objective, we need to do design. I think it is a quite useful framework to follow for doing instructional design. The events of instruction are related to the learning process. And the events of instruction lead to various learning outcomes. They also support the internal processes of learning.

1.5. Personal view on using constructivism

1.5.1. I think constructivist approach is an effective way to teach and learn. It encourages active and meaningful learning and promotes responsibility and autonomy. Because it is beneficial in achieving desirable educational goals for students, it is effective in promoting knowledge construction. It is based on learner-centered, a learner needs to focus on and select the relevant input information, organize the information in his mind, and integrate it into his prior knowledge system. The learning process is not only the acquisition or record of knowledge, learners are encouraged to understand knowledge, analyze knowledge in a critical way and collaborate with each other in tasks and discussions to arrive at a shared understanding of the truth in a specific field.

1.6. Mager&Pipe flowchart

1.6.1. The model begins with the discovery of a problem. The problem needs to be measureable and observable so as to expose a performance gap. Furthermore, the problem/gap needs to be clearly described so that a proper solution can be implemented. Someone once wisely said, “A problem well stated is a problem half solved” (Allan, Reynolds, p.83, 1983).Once a problem/gap is recognized the HPT practitioner can go through a series of questions to find the right solution to the performance gap or problem (Rothwell, Hohne, King, 2007).

1.7. Wile's HPT model

1.7.1. I think it is a quite helpful model which achieves certain level of simplicity. The model uses two separate domains and methods for human performance analysis, including internal and external factors. It represents a balance that must exist for human performance to be optimal. An imbalance in any of the domains or paths will lead to suboptimal performance. Its simplicity also leads to specific problem identification and interventions.

2. Learning concepts

2.1. Instructional Design (ID)

2.1.1. Introduction

2.1.1.1. What is ID

2.1.1.1.1. A system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion.

2.1.1.1.2. My understanding

2.1.1.2. What does ID do

2.1.1.2.1. Advice the best training solution

2.1.1.2.2. Identify the problem

2.1.1.2.3. Design pedagogy to help teachers and trainers

2.1.1.2.4. Analyze learner characteristics

2.1.1.2.5. Use technology

2.1.1.3. History of ID

2.1.1.3.1. The origin of instructional design, World War II (Reiser & Dempsey,2012)

2.1.1.4. Model of ID-ADDIE

2.1.1.4.1. Process

2.1.1.4.2. Timeline

2.1.2. Analyze in ADDIE model

2.1.2.1. Key process during analysis

2.1.2.1.1. Identify and clarify the performance problem

2.1.2.1.2. Determine whether it is an instructional problem

2.1.2.1.3. Establish objectives of the instructional program or product

2.1.2.1.4. Needs assessment

2.1.2.1.5. Lay out a project plan for design and development

2.2. Learning theories

2.2.1. What is learning?(Jonassen, 2003)

2.2.1.1. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior

2.2.1.2. Learning is information processing

2.2.1.3. Learning is remembering and recalling

2.2.1.4. Learning is social negotiation

2.2.1.5. Learning is thinking skills

2.2.1.6. Learning is activity

2.2.2. My Reflection

2.2.2.1. I think learning is the process of getting new knowledge,and it happens not only in teaching process but also in playing ,communication or other daily activities.Learning can be motivated by curiosity or problems.

2.2.3. Main theoretical models of learning

2.2.3.1. Behavorism

2.2.3.1.1. Viewpoint in learning

2.2.3.1.2. Basic concepts

2.2.3.1.3. Implication to learning

2.2.3.2. Cognitivism

2.2.3.2.1. Viewpoint in learning

2.2.3.2.2. CIP-Information processing model

2.2.3.2.3. Stage theory

2.2.3.3. Constructivism

2.2.3.3.1. Meaning(David Perkins)

2.2.3.3.2. Viewpoint in learning

2.2.3.3.3. Type

2.2.3.3.4. Evaluation

2.2.3.3.5. Related learning

2.2.3.3.6. My Reflection

2.3. A-Key Types of Analysis

2.3.1. Performance analysis

2.3.1.1. Is it an instructional problem or not?

2.3.1.1.1. Instruction

2.3.1.1.2. Non-instruction

2.3.1.2. Main causes of performance gaps

2.3.1.2.1. Wile's HTP model(Wile, 1996)

2.3.1.3. Useful solutions of performance gaps

2.3.1.3.1. Mager & Pipe Flow chart(Mager&Robert,1984)

2.3.2. Task analysis

2.3.2.1. What is the purpose?

2.3.2.1.1. 1⃣️Determine the instructional goals and objectives

2.3.2.1.2. 2⃣️Define in detail the tasks and sub-tasks

2.3.2.1.3. 3⃣️Specify the knowledge type

2.3.2.1.4. 4⃣️Select learning outcomes

2.3.2.1.5. 5⃣️Prioritize and sequence tasks

2.3.2.1.6. 6⃣️Determine activities and strategies

2.3.2.1.7. 7⃣️Select appropriate media and learning environments

2.3.2.1.8. 8⃣️Construct performance assessments and evaluation

2.3.2.2. What is it ?

2.3.2.2.1. How a task or work is actually performed

2.3.2.2.2. Clarifies conditions needed for competent performance

2.3.2.2.3. Establishes minimum expectations or standards

2.3.2.3. How to do it?

2.3.2.3.1. Convene Expert panel

2.3.2.3.2. Observation of experts

2.3.2.3.3. Interview of experts

2.3.2.3.4. Survey of experts

2.3.2.3.5. Manuals / Books

2.3.2.4. What tool can be used?

2.3.2.4.1. Hierarchical Task Diagram

2.3.3. Learner analysis

2.3.3.1. What need to know about learners ?

2.3.3.1.1. Characteristics

2.3.3.1.2. Entry knowledge

2.3.3.1.3. Attitude toward content

2.3.3.1.4. Prior knowledge

2.3.3.1.5. Motivation to learn

2.3.3.1.6. Education ability and level

2.3.3.1.7. General learning preference

2.3.3.2. Why to do it?(Dick & Carey)

2.3.3.2.1. "Learner characteristics will help the designer develop a motivational strategy for the instruction and will suggest various types of examples that can be used to illustrate points, ways in which the instruction may (or may not) be delivered, and ways to make the practice of skills relevant for learners"

2.3.3.3. How to do it?

2.3.3.3.1. Visit the site

2.3.3.3.2. Talk with learners (interview)

2.3.3.3.3. Train facilities/workplaces

2.3.3.3.4. Questionnaire

2.3.3.3.5. Pretest

2.3.3.4. Assumptions about learners

2.3.3.4.1. Common errors

2.3.3.4.2. Important assumptions

2.4. D-Designing instruction

2.4.1. Learning objectives

2.4.1.1. Goals vs Objectives

2.4.1.1.1. Goal: broad statement of learning outcome

2.4.1.1.2. Objective: specific statement of student-centered performance

2.4.1.2. Why objectives?

2.4.1.2.1. Clear communication of learning

2.4.1.2.2. Inform the learner demonstration of learning

2.4.1.2.3. Communicate expectations

2.4.1.2.4. Provide specifications

2.4.1.3. How to write?

2.4.1.3.1. ABCD format

2.4.2. A framework to guide design

2.4.2.1. Robert Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction(Gagné, R. ,1985)

2.4.2.1.1. Significance(Good, Brophy, 1977)

2.4.2.1.2. Event

2.4.2.1.3. Comment

2.4.2.1.4. My Reflection

2.4.3. Merrill’s 1st Principles of instruction(Merrill, 2002)

2.4.3.1. Detailed principle

2.4.3.1.1. Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving problems

2.4.3.1.2. Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge

2.4.3.1.3. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner

2.4.3.1.4. Learning is promoted when knowledge is applied by the learner

2.4.3.1.5. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world

2.4.3.2. Problem(Jonassen, 2000)

2.4.3.2.1. Well-structured

2.4.3.2.2. Ill-structured

2.4.4. 7 principles of good teaching(Gamson,1987)

2.4.4.1. 1⃣️Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact

2.4.4.1.1. How?

2.4.4.2. 2⃣️Good Practice Encourages Cooperation/ interaction among Students

2.4.4.2.1. How?

2.4.4.3. 3⃣️Good Practice Encourages Active Learning

2.4.4.3.1. How?

2.4.4.4. 4⃣️Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback

2.4.4.4.1. How?

2.4.4.5. 5⃣️Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task

2.4.4.5.1. How?

2.4.4.6. 6⃣️Good Practice Communicates High Expectations

2.4.4.6.1. How?

2.4.4.7. 7⃣️Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

2.4.4.7.1. How?

2.5. D-Development in ADDIE model

2.5.1. Develop instructional materials

2.5.1.1. Printed materials

2.5.1.2. Visual aids

2.5.1.3. Multimedia

2.5.1.4. Learning management system

2.5.1.4.1. Moodle

2.5.1.4.2. Blackboard

2.5.2. Set the standard of materials

2.5.2.1. Lay out

2.5.2.2. Screen design

2.5.2.3. Font setting

2.5.2.4. Multimedia arrangement

2.5.3. Factors affect the standard of materials

2.5.3.1. Time

2.5.3.2. Equipment

2.5.3.2.1. Hardware

2.5.3.2.2. Software

2.5.3.3. Human resources

2.5.3.3.1. Team spirit

2.5.3.3.2. Appropriate talent

2.5.4. Cognitive load theory of multimedia learning

2.5.4.1. Channels

2.5.4.1.1. Audio: spoken text, music

2.5.4.1.2. Visual: written text, image, animation

2.5.4.2. Aims

2.5.4.2.1. Promote meaningful learning

2.5.4.3. Recommendations

2.5.4.3.1. Co-existed

2.5.4.3.2. Present on the same screen

2.5.4.3.3. Redundancy

2.5.4.3.4. Signaling

2.5.4.3.5. Own pace of learners

2.5.4.3.6. Interactive

2.5.4.4. Present information effectively

2.5.4.4.1. Problems

2.5.4.4.2. Prototypes

2.6. I-Implication in ADDIE model

2.6.1. Pilot Observations

2.6.1.1. Prepare a checklist of course objectives

2.6.1.1.1. Prior learnings

2.6.1.1.2. Time frame

2.6.1.1.3. Technical support

2.6.1.1.4. Equipment needed

2.6.1.1.5. Special vocabulary

2.6.1.1.6. Course materials

2.6.1.2. Document timing of topics presented

2.6.1.2.1. Tool for timetable

2.6.1.3. Observe the exchange of ideas and the communication between the instructor and learners

2.6.1.4. Verify the appropriate order of topics

2.6.2. Periodic Instructor Briefings

2.6.2.1. Do you feel that the course flows well?

2.6.2.2. Are learners grasping the concepts presented?

2.6.2.3. Are the instructor materials meeting your expectations?

2.6.3. Periodic Participant Briefings

2.6.3.1. Ask the learner about their experience

2.6.3.2. Identify ideas for improvement

2.7. E-Evaluation of training

2.7.1. Importance

2.7.1.1. Center of the ADDIE design

2.7.1.2. Ensure goals meet the specified needs

2.7.1.3. Identify on-the-job performance

2.7.1.4. Ensure needs are met

2.7.2. Kirkpatrick's 4 level model

2.7.2.1. Level 1: Reaction

2.7.2.1.1. What?

2.7.2.1.2. Why?

2.7.2.1.3. Instrument

2.7.2.2. Level 2: Learning

2.7.2.2.1. What?

2.7.2.2.2. Why?

2.7.2.2.3. Method

2.7.2.3. Level 3: Behavior

2.7.2.3.1. What?

2.7.2.3.2. Why?

2.7.2.3.3. Method

2.7.2.4. Level 4: Results

2.7.2.4.1. What?

2.7.2.4.2. Why?

2.7.2.4.3. Method

2.7.2.5. My Reflection

2.7.2.5.1. There is no doubt that Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model is useful in evaluation phase. However it can be time-consuming and expensive to use levels 3 or 4 of the model, so it's not practical for all organizations and situations. Especially for organizations that don't have a dedicated training or human resource department, or for one-off training sessions or programs. In a similar way, it can be expensive and resource intensive to "wire up an organization" to collect data with the sole purpose of evaluating training at levels 3 and 4.

2.8. Technology support learning

2.8.1. Web 2.0 technology

2.8.1.1. Some Usage

2.8.1.1.1. Online reflection

2.8.1.1.2. Presentation

2.8.1.1.3. Organizer

2.8.1.1.4. Repsitory

2.8.1.1.5. Social

2.8.1.1.6. Online collaboration

2.8.1.2. Impact

3. Summary and Reflection on suggested reading materials

3.1. Merrill’s 1st Principles of instruction

3.1.1. Reference

3.1.1.1. Merrill, M. D. (2002). A Pebble-in-the-Pond Model for Instructional Design. Performance Improvement, 41(7), 39-44.

3.1.2. Notes

3.1.2.1. 5 first principles

3.1.3. My reflection

3.1.3.1. I think Merrill’s first principles framework is a good practice for instructional design, which emphasizes the think on problem. From the picture we can find that five principles are divided into four phases. This four-phase process guides instructional designers and educators to connect their teaching and learning activities in a way. And the process also makes it easy to incorporate new methods to improve student learning. The first step of the process is activation, which aims at recalling students’ prior learning. Then activation is followed by demonstration of new knowledge, student application of knowledge, and student integration of knowledge, all of which based on the real-world problem or task. I think real-world experience is the bedrock of all learning. The goal of the instruction should be to have students solve problems, which is problem-based learning. I think only through authentic learning environment will students grasp the knowledge in a long term. And for the implication of the 5 first principles, I think the task or problem set by teachers should not be too difficult, instead an increasingly degree of difficulty according to students’ performance will be preferable.

3.2. 7 principles of good teaching

3.2.1. Reference

3.2.1.1. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1989). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Biochemical Education, 17(3), 140-141. doi: 10.1016/0307-4412(89)90094-0

3.2.2. Notes

3.2.2.1. 7 principes

3.2.3. My Reflection

3.2.3.1. After reading these 7 principles, I collect some methods which can be used in real practice. 1.Use the Discussion forum, Mail, Whiteboard to interact with students. 2.Encourage students to ask questions of each other, try and answer each others' inquiries, or react to each others work (via the Discussion forum, wiki, or other). Set up groups or learning community for collaboration. 3.Design Assignments to encourage students to apply the concepts learned in the course. Use self and peer assessment to review the assignments.The forum can be a good platform for students to reflect and comment. 4.Let students know what type of feedback to expect from you and how often it will be provided. 5.Use the Calendar tool as one way to keep students on-task. Timed quizzes emphasize time-on-task. 6.Provide students examples of "A"-quality work. Release statistics along with grades, so that students can see how they are performing as compared to the rest of the class (stats can give the mean grade and/or the frequencies). Use the "Selective Release" feature to release course info only as students achieve a certain level of success on a test. 7.Stick to a template for course page design, but remember to vary the style of assignments.

3.3. Why doers do

3.3.1. Reference

3.3.1.1. Wile, D. (2012). Why Doers Do: 15 Years Wiser. Performance Improvement(6), 14-18. doi: 10.1002/pfi.21273

3.3.2. Notes

3.3.2.1. HTP model

3.3.3. My Reflection

3.3.3.1. I think it is a quite helpful model which achieves certain level of simplicity. The model uses two separate domains and methods for human performance analysis, including internal and external factors. It represents a balance that must exist for human performance to be optimal. An imbalance in any of the domains or paths will lead to suboptimal performance. Its simplicity also leads to specific problem identification and interventions.

3.4. Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice

3.4.1. Refernence

3.4.1.1. Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2013). Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice. Educational Research Review, 9(0), 47-64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.08.001

3.4.2. Notes

3.4.2.1. Podcast

3.4.2.1.1. common characteristics in studies

3.4.2.1.2. how the podcasts are used

3.4.2.2. Wiki

3.4.2.2.1. can have impact writing intensive disciplines

3.4.2.2.2. collaborative learning

3.4.2.3. Blog

3.4.2.3.1. can have positive use in writing and critical thinking ability

3.4.2.3.2. individually learning

3.4.2.3.3. reflect on feedback

3.4.2.3.4. produce a final version of work

3.4.2.4. Twitter

3.4.2.4.1. Use in activity

3.4.2.4.2. Impact

3.4.3. My reflection

3.4.3.1. From my perspective, the appropriate use of web2.0 technologies is related to the outcomes of learning. For my understanding of appropriate use, it means the way web2.0 technologies should be correct, and the affordance of the web2.0 technologies should be correct,which requires the certain kind of technology chose should adapt to related learning and teaching environment. For example, Wiki, as one of the Web 2.0 components, indeed it can be used to enhance the teaching and learning process. Wikis in particular actively involve learners in their own construction of knowledge(Boulos, Maramba, &Wheeler, 2006). Wikis are an excellent tool on collaborating work in an online environment, more specifically, they called editable websites where anyone can visit, read, reorganize and update the structure and content as they preferred. As for the teaching and learning, this ease of editing means that the teachers and students can easily expand a forum that can be used for discussion, posting assignments, and various collaborative projects. Wikis have been successfully used in education as early as 1999 (Guzdial 1999). As with most computer technology, their educational uses were first pioneered by computer science academics (Edington et al. 2005) but now the wiki technology is starting to penetrate all fields of academia and the use of wikis for educational (and other ) applications is increasing.(Edington et al. 2005, Schwartz et al. 2004)

3.5. Overcoming the Forgetting Curve

3.5.1. Reference

3.5.1.1. Kohn, A. (2014). Brain Science: Overcoming the Forgetting Curve. from http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/1400/brain-science-overcoming-the-forgetting-curve

3.5.2. Notes

3.5.2.1. The forgetting curve

3.5.2.1.1. Forgetting: 70 percent of knowledge within 24 hours

3.5.2.1.2. Forgetting: Active, adaptive, and even desirable process

3.5.2.2. Cope with the forgetting curve

3.5.2.2.1. Group 1: leave the lab

3.5.2.2.2. Group 2: booster quiz

3.5.2.2.3. Group 3: three successive opportunities to recall the pictures

3.5.2.3. A strategy for moving forward

3.5.2.3.1. Booster training

3.5.3. My Reflection

3.5.3.1. Although people will forget most of things after learning, we can use training to help them increase the retention percentage. And booster training can be a effective way. However, we should be cautious about the details of the boostering, when and how we use it will influce the output of the training. Thus, an optimal method to deliver boostering can help a lot for overcoming the forgetting.

4. Additional Resources

4.1. Video resource

4.1.1. Concrete description of development phase

4.1.1.1. Link:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzYDNWhQWYA&feature=youtu.be

4.1.2. Overview of ADDIE process

4.1.2.1. Link:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jiLLz1SaxGc&list=PLurYhKIDZK5wKvTDgsNINeZC_gcDXxeEx

4.1.3. The Little Albert Experiment in classical conditioning

4.1.3.1. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI&feature=youtu.be

4.1.4. Skinner Box for reinforcement and punishment

4.1.4.1. Link:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA&feature=youtu.be

4.2. Paper resource

4.2.1. Dick and Carey Model

4.2.1.1. Reference

4.2.1.1.1. Chang, S. (2006). The Systematic Design of Instruction (Vol. 54, pp. 417-420). Boston.

4.2.1.2. Notes

4.2.1.2.1. Component of model

4.2.2. Model of process

4.2.2.1. Reference

4.2.2.1.1. Blanchard, P. N. (2007). Effective training : systems, strategies, and practices. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Prentice Hall.

4.2.2.2. Notes

4.2.2.2.1. Need analysis is a methodology process

4.2.2.2.2. Need analysis is a systematic process

4.3. Webpage resource

4.3.1. Cathy Moore's Action Mapping

4.3.1.1. Link: http://blog.cathy-moore.com/2008/05/be-an-elearning-action-hero/

4.3.1.2. Use

4.3.1.2.1. design compelling learning experiences

4.3.1.2.2. helps change what people do

4.3.2. Timeline of instructional design

4.3.2.1. Link: http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaltechnologytimeline.htm

4.3.3. Formative evaluation in the ADDIE model

4.3.3.1. Link: http://business.highbeam.com/436917/article-1G1-203191097/formative-evaluation-addie-model

4.3.3.2. What?

4.3.3.2.1. Feed back

4.3.3.2.2. Close the loop

4.3.3.2.3. Facilitate further refinement of the training program

4.3.4. Kirkpatrick's 4 level model

4.3.4.1. Link: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/kirkpatrick.htm