Gradation Mind Map Aidan Chan

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Aidan C
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Gradation Mind Map Aidan Chan by Mind Map: Gradation Mind Map  Aidan Chan

1. Water

1.1. Coastal Erosion

1.1.1. Sand Features

1.1.1.1. Spit - Long ridge of sand that reaches out to shoreline

1.1.1.1.1. Tombolo - Sand spit that conncets island to mainland

1.1.2. Waves

1.1.2.1. Longshore Drift - When waves drive sand up beach horizontally at an angle

1.1.2.1.1. Groynes are placed in water to prevent longshore drift

1.1.2.2. Backwash - Water rolling down beach after broken wave

1.1.2.2.1. Destructive Waves destroy land, strong backwash, steep slopes

1.1.2.3. Constructive Waves - build beaches, gentle slopes, weak backwash

1.1.2.4. Corrosion of materials from chemicals in sea water

1.1.2.5. Erosion

1.1.2.5.1. Attrition

1.1.2.5.2. Abrasion

1.1.2.5.3. Wave- cut cliff

1.1.2.5.4. Wave-cut platform - rock slab breaks off to form wave-cut cliff

1.1.2.5.5. Erosion Process: As the waves hit the rock, they make an undercut and the rock where they hit is worn down. The area that is worn down suffers hydraulic action as the air is pushed into the cracks in the rock with the water, and is compressed by the waves, causing the rock to fracture, collapse, and form wave-cut cliffs

1.1.3. Ocean's Edge

1.1.3.1. Estuaries- Water close to ocean that is affected by tides

1.1.3.2. Fjords - Deep glacial troughs from eroded river valleys to ocean

1.1.3.3. Rias- Long river valleys created by subsiding land or sea levels

1.2. Ground Water (Water found and sourced underground)

1.2.1. Underground Hydro Features

1.2.1.1. Aquifers- full bodies of water stored underground

1.2.1.2. Water Table -> Saturation zone

1.2.2. Karst Topography (limestone eroded landscapes)

1.2.2.1. sinkholes

1.2.2.2. caves

1.2.2.2.1. stalagmites on ground

1.2.2.2.2. stalagtites on top

1.3. Glaciers

1.3.1. Formation

1.3.1.1. 1: Snow falls in high cold altitudes

1.3.1.1.1. 2. Snow accumulates and begins to pack down

1.3.2. Melting

1.3.2.1. Ablation - Melting of snow and ice

1.3.2.2. Isostatic rebound

1.3.2.2.1. When an outer layer of ice is removed, the underlying land bounces back up.

1.3.3. Glacial Erosion

1.3.3.1. Deposition

1.3.3.1.1. Depositing of glacial materials

1.3.3.2. Abrasion

1.3.3.2.1. Outer debris scrapes and polishes underlying land

1.3.3.3. Pluckings

1.3.3.3.1. Glacial water shatters and carries rocks along

1.3.4. Types of Glaciers

1.4. Rivers

1.4.1. Formation

1.4.1.1. Radial Drain

1.4.1.1.1. Streams are like rays of sun, stem outwards from a center point and converge to form a larger river

1.4.1.2. Trellis Drain

1.4.1.2.1. Tributaries enter main channel at 90 degrees due to lateral erosion

1.4.1.3. Dendritic

1.4.1.3.1. Streams like tree branches connected to larger main channel

1.4.2. Stages of Life

1.4.2.1. Young

1.4.2.1.1. Fast, narrow, straight like Spiderman

1.4.2.2. Mature

1.4.2.2.1. Slightly wider, some curve like Chris Pratt in Parks&Rec

1.4.2.3. Old

1.4.2.3.1. Meanders, swerves, and curves

1.4.2.3.2. Very curved and wide, like Oprah Winfrey. Large floodplains arround.

1.4.3. Ends

1.4.3.1. Sandbards

1.4.3.1.1. Deposited sediment from river

1.4.3.2. Deltas

1.4.3.2.1. Estuarine

1.4.3.2.2. Bird's Foot

1.4.3.2.3. Arcuate

1.4.4. Erosion

1.4.4.1. Canyons

1.4.4.1.1. Carving and cutting at ground and sides of valley they run trhough

1.4.4.2. Undercut Ban ks

1.4.4.2.1. River banks are cut underneath by river (meandering)

1.4.5. Protection

1.4.5.1. Levees

1.4.5.1.1. Raised ground to prevent overflow onto land

1.4.5.2. Dikes

1.4.5.2.1. Lowered land patches to prevent overflow

2. Deserts

2.1. Ergs

2.1.1. A sea or waves of sand

2.2. Water

2.2.1. Wadis

2.2.1.1. Dry ditches that carry water to desert areas

2.2.1.1.1. Bahadas (When plural wadis join together)

2.2.2. Flash Floods

2.2.2.1. high amounts of precipitation flow into desert, no vegetation to stop flow

2.2.2.1.1. Playa Lakes (Bodies of water that form after flash floods)

2.3. Wind Erosion

2.3.1. Saltation

2.3.1.1. Bouncing sands along the ground

2.3.2. Deflation

2.3.2.1. Exposing underlying rock

2.3.2.1.1. Toadstools

2.3.2.1.2. Hamadas

2.3.2.1.3. Blowout

2.3.3. Suspension

2.3.3.1. Sands carried away by wind

2.3.4. Loess (windblown dust)

2.4. Plateaus (Highland areas)

2.4.1. Mesas and Buttes (Separated plateaus and smaller eroded mesas)

2.5. Dunes

2.5.1. Longitudinal

2.5.1.1. Parallel formations to wind, little sand

2.5.2. Transverse

2.5.2.1. San abondance, perpendicular sand ridge to wind

2.5.3. Parabolic

2.5.3.1. Found in blowouts, horn in upwind, anchored by vegetation

2.5.4. Barchas

2.5.4.1. downwind horn, migratory dune that forms over small structures

2.5.5. Dune Migration

2.5.5.1. When dunes are moved due to blowing winds

3. Mass Wasting

3.1. High Speed

3.1.1. Landslides (High Speed, Low Water) Rapid movement of rock/soil

3.1.1.1. Scree slopes formed

3.1.2. Mudflow

3.1.2.1. Flowing mud from water absorption

3.1.3. Avalanche

3.1.3.1. Rapid breakaway of snow and ice down mountain

3.2. Low Speed

3.2.1. Soil Creep (Medium Water, Low Speed) Slow soil movement

3.2.2. Slump (Higher Water, Low Speed) Land breaks and slips, primarily structures with high clay content

3.3. High Water Content

3.4. Low Water Content

4. Erosion (Breaking Down and Transporting of Sediment/Materials)

4.1. Physical (Breakdown without Chemical Changes)

4.1.1. Frost Shatter

4.1.1.1. Expanded water breaks apart rock

4.1.2. Crystallization

4.1.2.1. Rock crystals in rock pores break rocks apart

4.1.3. Thermal Expansion

4.1.3.1. Expansion and contraction of rocks

4.1.4. Exfoliation

4.1.4.1. Heavy layers of rock break off in sheets

4.2. Biological

4.2.1. Erosion caused by Plants and Animal Life

4.3. Chemical (change in chemical composition)

4.3.1. Hydrolosis

4.3.1.1. Breakdown of compounds due to water reactions

4.3.2. Oxidation

4.3.2.1. Materials that come in contact with oxygen (rust)

4.3.3. Solution

4.3.3.1. Dissolved materials from chemical processes