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Significant Time Periods by Mind Map: Significant Time Periods
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Significant Time Periods


No written records existed; artifacts, fossils, orally passed down

Stone Age

The invention of tools, mastery of fire and the development of language are believed to occur during this time period.

Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age), ~2.5 million BCE - 8000 BCE, Creating tools from stone., Crude, Unrefined

New Stone Age (Neolithic Age), ~ 8000 BCE - 3000 BCE, Tool making and plant/ animal domestication

Early Peoples

Hominin, Australopithecenes, First hominids, Lucy, Hominin, Homo habilis, May have used tools, Home erectus, Develops technology, Fire, First to migrate out of Africa, Homo sapien, Cro Magnon, Larger Brains, Identical to modern humans, Cooperation / spoken language

Hominid, Neanderthal (Homo Neanderthalensis), Co-existed with Homo Sapien, Rudimentary Culture, Burials


Golden Ages

Greek Golden Age, Athens: 5th - 4th C. BCE, Arts, Math/ Science, Philosophy

Indian Golden Age, Gupta Era, Medical, Astronomy, Mathematics

Pax Romana

Greek Dark Age

A period of time in which no written record was kept.

Mycenaean & Dorian Invasions (1200-800 BCE)

Time Designations

Religious Connection, BC: Before Christ, AD: Anno Domini

Religiously Neutral, CE: Common Era, BP: Before Present, BCE: Before Common Era

Bronze Age

A period in time in which bronze was widely used. "People began to use bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons."

From ~3300 - 600 BCE depending on Region

Iron Age

A period in time in which iron was widely used. "People began to use iron, rather than bronze, copper, or stone, to fashion tools and weapons."

From ~1200 BCE - 800 CE depending on Region.

Epochs (Archaeological/ Geological)

A period of time in history or a person's life, typically one marked by notable events or particular characteristics.

Ice Age, ~40,000 BP - ~18,000 BP, Beriniga, A land bridge that scientists believe helped humans cross to the Americas. (Russia ---> Alaska)

River Valley Civilizations

Indus River Valley

Harappan (Indus) Civilization 2500-1500 BCE

Huang He River Valley

Zhou 1200 BC – 500 BC

Shang 1600 BC – 1046 BC

Fertile Crescent

Mesopotamia, Sumer, Sumerian CItyStates: 4th-3rd Mill BCE, 4th millennium BCE (Neolithic+Bronze Ages), Babylonia, 1st babylonian empire: 2nd mill. BCE, 2nd babylonian empire (Chaldeans) (1st millenium BCE)

North-East Africa, Ancient Egypt, Old Kingdom(3000-2000 BC), Pyramids, Middle Kingdom(2000-1300 BC), New Kingdom(1550-1070 BC)

Age of Empires


Assyrian Empire: 2nd-1st Mill BCE, Conquests, Fertile Crescent, Ancient Egypt, Canaan, Mesopotamia

Persian Empire 7th - 4th C. BCE, Conquests, Southwest Asia, Fertile Crescent, Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Indus Valley


Ancient Greece, Macedonia Era(399-300BC)

Maurya Empire 321-185 BC

Rome, Republic, Founded 753 BCE, 509: Etruscan king overthrown: Republic established, 451: Twelve Tables created, Ancient Rome (753 BC – 476 AD), 264-146 Punic Wars, Marian Reforms, Gracchi Brothers, Optimates vs Poulists, 70: Rome controlled the Mediterranean, Byzantine Empire 330 AD – 1453, Empire, 27: Republic collapses, birth of the Empire, Pax Romana, Peak of power between 27 BCE to 180 CE (Augustus’s Rule)

Gupta Empire 320-535 AD

China, Dynasties, List of Dynasties, Warring States Period 402 BC – 201 BC, Qin 221-206 BC, Han 206 BC-220 AD, Dynastic Cycle, Mandate of Heaven, feudalism, Warring States

Islamic Empire, Caliphates, "Rightly guided first four caliphates" - Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali, Umayyad Caliphate (Damascus. 7th- 8th C), Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad, (8th-13th century), Orthodox Caliphate (632- 661), Fatimid Caliphate 909 – 1171

African Civilizations, Kingdom of Aksum comes to power, 100-940 ACE