My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. School based reform includes school choice, charter schools and tuition.

2. 1983 - National Commission of Education on Educational Excellence's report A Nation At Risk, many states and districts increased curriculum requirements for graduation and instituted core curriculum requirements.

2.1. In the 1980's major reform shifted from the federal to the state to the local levels.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Conservative Perspective

3.1.1. Transmitting cultural views through what is taught in the classroom

3.1.2. Traditional Academic Curriculum

3.1.3. Success or failure is the result of individual effort rather than social and economic factors

3.1.4. School's role is to maximize economic and social productivity.

3.1.5. http://www.search4clarity.com/education/perspective/conservative

3.2. Traditional Vision of Education

3.2.1. view schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family unity, and individual initiative.

4. History of U.S. Education

4.1. G.I. Bill of Rights

4.1.1. offered 16 million servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue high education.

4.2. No Child Left Behind

4.2.1. 2001 passed by Presidend G. W. Bush.

4.3. Race to the Top

4.3.1. 2009 passed by President Barack Obama. This initiative awards funding to states that demonstrate plans to adopt high academic standards, build data systems to improve assessment, recruit and retain quality school staff, and turn around low achieving schools.

4.4. Common School

4.4.1. Horace Man led the struggle for free public education. Liberals and Conservatives view Mann as one of America's greatest educational reformers. Mann believed that schools can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility are beliefs responsible for the faith and support many people give to U.S. public schools. p.68

4.5. Timeline of Historical Events in US. Education p.87

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Theoretical Perspectives p.117

5.1.1. Functional Theory

5.1.1.1. Creates structures, programs, and curricula to promote social unity.

5.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes p.121

5.2.1.1. Education is also related to individuals' sense of well-being and self esteem.

5.2.1.1.1. Colleagues Colemen and Jencks suggests that the differences between schools account for very little of the differences in student achievement.

5.2.2. Employment

5.2.2.1. Statistics show that people who graduate from college earn more than non college graduates.

5.2.2.1.1. Education does not over ride job experience. p.122

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Generic Notions

6.1.1. John Dewey p.188, rested on the notion that children were active, organic, beings, growing and changing, and thus required a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development.

6.2. Key Researchers

6.2.1. John Dewey p.187-190,

6.2.2. Maxine Green p.188

6.3. Goal of Education

6.3.1. Education should make a conscious attempt to balance the social role of the school with its effect on the social, intellectual, and personal development of individuals.

6.4. Role of Teacher

6.4.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowlege flows; rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. p.189

6.4.2. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study. p.189

6.4.3. The teacher also writes the curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum. p.189

6.5. Method of Instruction

6.5.1. Children learn both individually and in groups. p.189

6.5.2. Field trips and projects that reconstructed some aspect of the child's course of study was an integral part of Dewey's Method of Instruction.

6.5.3. Tables and Chairs that suggested collaboration were encouraged for group work. p. 189

6.6. Curriculum

6.6.1. The curriculum should integrate academic and vocational disciplines.

6.6.2. Favor child-centered curriculum based on imagination and intuition.

6.6.3. Curriculum changes based on the children's interest and needs.

6.7. Pragmatism

6.7.1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau p.187, Emphasis on experience and on the child in a state of nature, constantly growing and changing.

6.7.2. Theodore Brameld p.187, viewed the schools as vehicles for improving and changing society.

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Nature of Teaching

7.1.1. Teacher roles include colleague, friend nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer,administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist.

7.1.2. Aspects of a teacher include caring, empathetic, and well rounded. Someone that can be a role model for students, parents, and other professionals. p.234

7.2. Professionalization

7.2.1. Goodlad suggests that to raise the level of academic preparation for teachers, one needs to create a more cohesive curriculum, and professionalize teacher education by enlarging its clinical component.

7.2.2. Teachers need to be able to share in the important decisions within the schools. p.238

7.2.3. School based management must empower teachers in terms of their decision-making capacities about curriculum, discipline, and other academic areas of importance.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

8.1.1. Emphasized the process of teaching as well as it's content.

8.1.2. Progressive approach to teaching was student centered and was concerned with relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of the child at particular developmental stages.

8.1.3. Stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful way.

8.1.4. Teacher was not a transmitter of knowledge but instead a facilitator of student growth.

8.2. Transformative Tradition p.297

8.2.1. The purpose of teaching is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

8.2.2. Teaching and learning are inextricably linked.

8.2.3. Lecture may be used in this tradition but is more focused on the conversation between the teacher and the student as a learning experience.

8.3. Major Stakeholders in my District:

8.3.1. State senators: Lamar Alexander & Bob Corker

8.3.2. House of Representatives: David "Phil" Roe, John "Jimmy" Duncan Jr., Charles "Chuck" Fleischmann, Scott Desjarlais, Jim Cooper, Diane Black, Marsha Blackburn, Stephen FIncher, Steve Cohen

8.3.3. Tennessee Superintendent "Commissioner": Candice McQueen

8.3.4. Representative on the State School Board: Marsha Blackburn

8.3.5. Wayne County Superintendent: Gailand Grinder

8.3.6. Members of the Local School Board: Patrick Blackburn, Pat Brown, Dwight Bumphus, Greg Eaton, Barry Hanback, Sherman Martin, Andy Yarbrough

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. Individuals with Special Needs

9.1.1. Education of All Handicapped Children Law, 1975: The right of access to public education programs, the individualization of services, the principle of "lease restrictive environment, the scope of broadened services to be provided by the schools and a set of procedures for determining them, the general guidelines for identifying disability, and the principles of primary state and local responsibilities. (p. 364)

9.1.2. Regular Education Initiative: Mainstreamed children with disabilities into regular classes.

9.1.2.1. "inclusion" mainstreamed children with disabilities into the regular classrooms. Critics felt that teacher would lack the ability to education all children together effectively.

9.1.2.2. Least restrictive environment: student who has a disability should have the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent possible.

9.1.2.3. Over representation of students with special needs. As future educators we need to explore the appropriate option for each child on an individual basis.

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. Significant Differences between educational achievement and attainment are based upon race, social class, and gender.

10.2. Student Centered Explanations

10.2.1. within school differences - ability grouping, social class, and gender inequality.

10.2.2. Cultural Deprivation - Students lack the cultural resources such as books and other educational stimuli. Students arrive at school disadvantaged.

10.2.3. School Financing

10.2.3.1. Serrano v. Priest, the California Supreme Court ruled the system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional.

10.2.3.2. Public schools was once financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal taxes. (Property taxes).

10.2.4. Effective School Literature suggests characteristics of how to help the students to achieve academically: A climate of high expectation, strong and effective leadership, accountability processes, monitoring of student learning, a high degree of instructional time on task, and flexibility.

11. Educational Reform

11.1. 1990's President G.H.W. Bush announced goals for education:

11.1.1. Goal 1: By the year 2000, all children will start school ready.

11.1.2. Goal 2: By the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90%.

11.1.3. Goal 3: By the year 2000, American students will leave grades 4,8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter, including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

11.1.4. Goal 4: By the year 2000, students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement.

11.1.5. Goal 5: By the year 2000, every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

11.1.6. Goal 6: By the year 2000, every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conductive to learning.

11.2. President Clinton Goals 2000:

11.3. No Child Left Behind Act:

11.3.1. Key Components: Annual Testing is required of students, States and districts are required to report school by school data, states must set adequate yearly progress goals, schools that don't meet AYP for two years are labeled in need of improvement, and schools must have highly qualified teachers.

11.4. President Obama's Race to the Top

11.4.1. Adopted standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

11.4.2. Building working data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction.

11.4.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effect teachers and principals, especially where they are needed most.

11.4.4. Turning around our lowest achieving schools.