# Structures and Forces

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Structures and Forces

1.1.1. wind

## 2. Type of structures

### 2.1. Frame structures

2.1.1. a structure that are made of parts fastened together.

2.1.1.1. Bicycle

### 2.2. shell structures

2.2.1. a strong hollow structure that often makes a good container

2.2.1.1. a egg shell

### 2.3. solid structure

2.3.1. a structure that is often solid all the way through and weighs more then all the other type of structures

2.3.1.1. dam

### 2.4. combanation structure

2.4.1. a structure that is made out of solid,frame and shell .

2.4.1.1. glasses

## 3. external focres

### 3.1. Is when a force is pushing or on pulling on a structure

3.1.1. point of application

3.1.1.1. where the object is hit by force top,middle and bottom

3.1.1.1.1. wrecking ball hitting on TOP of a wall

3.1.2. plane of application

3.1.2.1. the angle an object is hit by( when basket ball players shoot at 90 degrees).

3.1.2.1.1. car crash at 180 degress

3.1.3. magnitude

3.1.3.1. how hard the object was hit

3.1.3.1.1. Hammer hitting a nail

## 4. different type of loads

4.1.1.1.1. a brick

4.1.2.1. live load is a load that can vary and caused by gravity

4.1.2.1.1. a person sitting on a brick

## 5. Center of gravity

### 5.1. is the point of balance for a object or structure.

5.1.1. High COG

5.1.1.1. structures with high COG tend to fall easily (the taller the structure the higher the COG.

5.1.1.1.1. High center of gravity

5.1.2. Low COG

5.1.2.1. structures with low COG or a wide base are more stable.

5.1.2.1.1. football player have a wide base so they dont fall during a tackle

## 6. Internal forces

### 6.1. Is when someone is either pushing or pulling. To have an internal force happening, you must have an external force acting on it.

6.1.1. tension is when you pull a object in 2 directions

6.1.1.1. pulling on elastic band

6.1.2. shear is when 2 parallel forces act in 2 opposite directions

6.1.2.1. Cutting grass

6.1.3. compression is when you push in 2 opposite directions

6.1.3.1. two opposite force pushing on spring

6.1.4. torsion is when you are doing a twist like motion on a object.

6.1.4.1. twisting a figure skater

## 7. Form and function

### 7.1. Function

7.1.1. the use of a structure ( the purpose)

7.1.1.1. the use of the bridge is to transport people to other places

### 7.2. Form

7.2.1. the type of structure it is (solid, frame and shell)

7.2.1.1. form