# Structures & Forces

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Structures & Forces

## 1. Form & Function

### 1.1. Form is what the structure looks like

1.1.1. Car

1.1.1.1. Soccer ball: round shape

### 1.2. Function is what the structure is used for; purpose

1.2.1. Purpose: transporting goods and people

1.2.1.1. Function: For playing soccer

## 2. Internal Forces

### 2.1. Shear

2.1.1. when two opposite parallel forces are used

2.1.1.1. Ripping paper

### 2.2. Compression

2.2.1. when an object is pushed together from 2 sides

2.2.1.1. shoe walking

### 2.3. Torsion

2.3.1. when you twist something

2.3.1.1. twist

### 2.4. Tension

2.4.1. when you pull something apart in two directions

2.4.1.1. Tug of war

### 3.1. Static

3.1.1. Live

3.1.1.1. A changing weight caused by gravity on an object not part of the structure

3.1.1.1.1. People in house

3.1.2.1. gravity pulling the structure down; its own weight without any extra parts

### 3.2. Dynamic

3.2.1. A constantly changing load that is not part of the structure

3.2.1.1. Lightning

## 4. External Forces

### 4.1. A force applied on the outside of the structure

4.1.1. Point of application

4.1.1.1. Where the force is applied on the structure

4.1.1.1.1. Kicking soccer ball

4.1.2. Plane of appilcation

4.1.2.1. The angle at which the force is applied at

4.1.2.1.1. pencil

4.1.3. Magnitude

4.1.3.1. How strong the force is

4.1.3.1.1. breaking bricks

4.1.4. Direction

4.1.4.1. which side the force is applied from; push or pull

4.1.4.1.1. Push or pull

4.1.5. rain

4.1.6. Snow

## 5. Types of structures

### 5.1. Shell

5.1.1. Hollow structure

5.1.1.1. ball

### 5.2. Frame

5.2.1. Many pieces held together

5.2.1.1. Roller coaster

5.2.1.1.1. toothpick patterns

### 5.3. Solid

5.3.1. A object that uses solid construction to support loads

5.3.1.1. Mountain

### 5.4. Combination

5.4.1. A mix of frame, shell or solid

5.4.1.1. house

5.4.1.1.1. car

## 6. Center of Gravity

### 6.1. The center of where the most weight is

6.1.1. center of gravity

6.1.2. Must be supported in order to be balanced

## 7. What is a Force?

### 7.1. A force is a push or pull

7.1.1. A push or pull

8.1.1. Galaxy

## 9. Acropolis

### 9.1. Form & Function

9.1.1. Form: Combination

9.1.2. Function: Tourist Attraction

9.2.1. wind

9.2.2. rain

### 9.3. internal forces

9.3.1. Tension. The wind could blow on the bars and stretch them since they are attached at the top

9.3.1.1. Could snap posts

9.3.1.2. Break roof

9.3.2. Compression: Rain could gather on top and push down on the structure

9.3.2.1. could snap posts

9.3.2.2. Could cause a collapse

### 9.4. How it supports loads

9.4.1. Static

9.4.1.1. Live

9.4.1.1.1. There is no live load

9.4.1.2.1. Its own weight

9.4.2. Dynamic

9.4.2.1. the wind and the rain

9.4.2.1.1. Since the top is lighter, the center of gravity is lower. The vertical bars support loads.

### 9.5. Center of Gravity

9.5.1. In the middle closer to the floor. It's important because having a lower center of gravity helps it withstand external forces and keep it standing for many years.