My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Old World Education

1.1.1. Colonial Era (religious, Puritan Old Deluder Laws, utilitarian, civic, native American, African American)

1.1.2. Age of Reform (African American, Women, common school/public education, Universities, urbanization, Traditional vs. Progressive, Committee of Ten)

1.1.3. Post-World War II Era

1.2. New World Education

1.2.1. Standards Era (1980's-2012) (reforms like NCLB, ANAR, RTT.. Democratic-Liberal, Radical-Revisionist, Conservative)

1.3. Timeline of historical events in U.S. education p.87-90

1.4. QUOTES 1

1.4.1. p.63 It is interesting to note, however, that....nine institutions of higher learning were founded prior to the American Revolution. Harvard University (1636) College of William and Mary (1693) Yale University (1701) University of Pennsylvania (1740) Princeton University (1746) Columbia University (1754) Brown University (1764) Rutgers University (1766) Dartmouth College (1769)

1.4.2. p.85 ...Ravitch argued that the preoccupation with using education to solve social problems has not solved these problems and, simultaneously, has led to the erosion of educational excellence.

1.5. key terms

1.5.1. GI Bill of Rights, normal school, town school, dame school,

1.6. Race - segregation and desegregation in schools, in living areas, Boston, Arkansas, cases like Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education (race on p. 77-80 especially. Plus history of it earlier in chapter a couple places.)

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Main elements of the sociology of education

2.1.1. whether or not schooling makes a significant difference in individuals' lives - how schools influence social inequalities - an examination of how school processes affect the lives of children, teachers, and other adults who are involved in the educational enterprise

2.2. Persell's model for analyzing the relationship between school and society: the four interrelated levels of sociological analysis

2.2.1. (1) The societal level (2) The institutional level (3) The interpersonal level (4) The intraphysic level

2.3. Socialization - SCHOOLS, churches, families, and other groups socialize children; when the values, beliefs, and norms of society are internalized within children so that they come to think and act like other members of society.

2.4. The main 3 theoretical perspectives

2.4.1. Functional Theories Stresses the interdependence of the social system; views society as a kind of machine; Functionalists; Emile Durkheim; Think a shared set of values hold society together, and a breakdown of values cause society to fall apart; Educational reform from this view aims to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity. **Most U.S. educators and educational reformers hold this view.

2.4.2. Conflict Theories Think social order is not based on collective agreement, but on the dominant groups imposing their will on subordinate groups through force, cooperation, and manipulation; say the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power; ideologies or intellectual justifications made by the "power" are used to enhance their position by legitimizing inequality; conflict sociologists emphasize struggle; Marx vs Weber (Weberian approach); cultural reproduction theorists (a variation of conflict theory.

2.4.3. Interactional Theories These theories are primarily critiques and extensions of the first two theories; views the first two as macrosociological, "big picture", and therefore too vague to truly help, they focus on the microsociological - the real everyday classroom.

2.5. Effects of schooling on individuals

2.5.1. Knowledge and attitudes; employment; social mobility; inside the schools (things like curriculum and tracking); teacher behavior (influence); student peer groups and alienation/student subcultures

2.6. How schools reproduce social, cultural, and economic inequalities

2.6.1. social stratification/classes; inadequate schools; tracking; De Facto segregation; gender (segregation).

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Schools of Philosphy

3.1.1. Idealism PLATO (pupil of Socrates, who used questions to cause people to consider their life choices, and often made them angry/uncomfortable .. thought the world of matter could not be trusted to explain truth, but that matter constantly changed and our senses deceived us. Saw mathematics as a constant) DIALECTIC METHOD > engage another person in a dialogue, question that persons point of view in questions, this questioning was done in a systematic, logical examination of both points of view, ultimately both parties would reach a synthesis of viewpoints that would be acceptable to both. IDEALISM > ideas mattered above all. GOAL OF EDUCATION > search for truth through ideas rather than the examination of the world of matter .. ideas can change lives. ROLE OF TEACHER > analyze and discuss ideas with students. Use the dialectic method for abstract notions but aim to connect analysis with action. discusses, asks questions, selects materials, establishes an environment all guided to teachers desired outcome (( guided questions )). Doctrine of REMINISCENCE -> says the role of a teacher is to bring out what is already in a students mind. Teacher sees self as a role model to be copied by students. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION > primarily use the dialectic method, may lecture from time to time to cover background material. CURRICULUM > study of classics, and 3 R's. Evidence/date is part of the truth. but not the full/whole truth ... love and God (not discovered in facts, but still true) VS how the human body functions (discovered in facts, and true)

3.1.2. Realism ARISTOTLE (and kind of Plato too) a student of Plato, tutored Alexander the Great -- the first philosopher who developed a systematic theory of logic. Only through studying the material world can an individual clarify or develop ideas. In quest for truth, began with world of matter, rather than beginning with ideas. Began with research, and then would speculate or use dialectic reasoning, resulting in a SYLLOGISM > a system of logic consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. (p183) -- A premise is a proposition supporting a conclusion. Necessity of grounding ideas in the living world. Not no ideas, just proof not only opinion. GOAL OF EDUCATION > Plato AND Aristotle believed questions about life/good/beauty/etc could be answered through the study of ideas, using the dialectic method .. but .. Aristotle believed ideas should be studied through the world of matter not simply ideas. The goal of education is to help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve problems in the modern world. ROLE OF TEACHER > they should be steeped in the academic disciplines in order to transmit to their students the knowledge necessary for the human race to continue. Grounded in science, math, and the humanities. Additionally, demonstrate there are definitive ways to judge works of art, music, poetry, and literature. Role is to enable students to learn objective methods of evaluating such works. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION > lecture, and question and answer. support lecture as a method of instruction in order to (used to) give students the knowledge necessary to make the evaluations of judging art and literacy. competency-based assessment? CURRICULUM > basics: science, math, reading, writing, and the humanities. Believe there is a body of knowledge that is essential for a student to know .. which is necessary for the survival of society. Neo-Theism Modern Realism

3.1.3. Pragmatism American philosophy: Pierce, James, and Dewey. Term comes from Greek word "pragma" ("work"). Philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to acheive their desired ends. Interested on present issues, rather that past. Philosophy rooted in Francis Bacon and John Locke. Jean-Jaques Rousseau, a French Philosopher -- believed people were naturally good, and corrupted by society, and needed to get "back to nature." He emphasizes ENVIRONMENT and EXPERIENCE. JOHN DEWEY > intellectually heir to Darwin, though also Hegel. Made his own philosophy -- INSTRUCTIONALISM (pragmatic relationship between school and society) and EXPERIMENTALISM (application of ideas to educational practice on an experimental basis). Philosophy of progressive education. Child-centered progressivism and social-reconstructionism. Behaviorism. Let child choose course of study. GOALS OF EDUCATION > school is a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge needed to improve society. Integration. For Dewey the primary goal of education was growth. Growth leading to more growth. ROLE OF TEACHER > not authoritarian figure. peripheral position of facilitator. encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan/implement courses of study. write curriculum. must have a command of several disciplines to create/implement curriculum. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION > group and individual learning. not memorization. problem-solving, individualized study, and project method. CURRICULUM > integrated curriculum. changes as social order and children's interest and needs change. p190.

3.1.4. Existentialism & Phenomenology Existentialism: pose questions as to how their concerns impact the lives of individuals. Believe individuals were placed on earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos. GOALS OF EDUCATION > should focus on needs of the individual, both cognitively and affectively. That the tensions of the world should be addressed. Phenomenology: Focus on the phenomena of consciousness, perception, and meaning in individual experience. Interested in how objects present themselves to people in their consciousness, and how people order those objects. GOALS OF EDUCATION > emphasize POSSIBILITY, since the individual changes and is in a constant state of becoming. See education as an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic world. BOTH >>>>> ROLE OF TEACHER > p191 METHODS OF INSTRUCTION > p191 CURRICULUM > p191-92

3.1.5. Neo-Marxism Karl Marx. GOALS OF EDUCATION > to transmit/reproduce the dominant ideology and allow students to demystify it. REPRODUCTION THEORIES (argue that the role of education in capitalist societies is to reproduce the economic, social, and political status quo) and RESISTANCE THEORIES (argue that while they agree schools reproduce dominant ideology, they also have the potential to empower students to question it). Feminists + Post-modernists. ROLE OF TEACHER > engage students in critical examination of the world. examine problems and radical alternatives. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION > favor a dialectic approach. use question and answer to move student to new levels of awareness and ultimately to change. rigorous analysis of taken-for-granted aspects of the world. goal of instruction is to reveal underlying assumptions of society. CURRICULUM > what those in power want students to know. teachers much be people who can reconstruct curriculum into a fairer view of the world. (Feminists think this dominant power is men.)

3.1.6. Post-modernism Developed out of dissatisfaction with modernism. Derrida Baudrillard. p195-97

3.2. Their philosophy of education

3.2.1. Perennialism

3.2.2. Essentialism

3.2.3. Progressivism

3.2.4. Existentialism

3.2.5. Social-reconstructionism

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Highly qualified - Teachers are supposed to be this, meaning well-equipped to educate. Teachers must have at least a 4 year degree and pass certain qualifications. Teachers must be knowledgeable in their content area.

4.2. Role switching - Teachers act in many roles (counselor, doctor, educator, advisor, etc.). This is called role switching. If teachers are not careful, role switching can lead to burnout.

4.3. Consolidation

4.4. Centralization

4.5. De jure segregation / De facto segregation

4.6. bureaucracy (Weber, 1976)

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Pedagogical progressivism/ Romantic progressivism

5.2. Pluralist model

5.3. Orma, informal, and hidden curriculum

5.4. Ability grouping

5.5. Curriculum tracking

5.6. Curriculum stratification

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Abbott vs Burke

6.2. The Coleman Study

6.3. Meritocracy

6.4. Distribution of income

6.5. Educational outcomes (are the result of unequal opportunities)

6.6. Achievement gap / Attainment gap

6.7. Social reproduction

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Serrano vs Priest - (1971) A state supreme court ruled that a system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts was unconstitutional, but did not declare the use of property taxes as illegal. This legal decision began the course of governmental involvement in decreasing inequalities in school financing.

7.2. Gaines (1991) - The study providing evidence that working-class and non-white students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and enact an anti-school culture.

7.3. Significant differences between educational achievement and attainment are based upon RACE, SOCIAL CLASS, and GENDER.

7.4. Interactionism theory - The dynamics between families, schools, and communities is key in understanding and addressing the differences in educational attainment and achievement.

7.5. Student-centered / extra-school explanations

7.6. "Effective school literature"

8. Educational Reform

9. Politics of Education

9.1. Conservative Perspective

9.1.1. Looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals (or groups) to survive - stresses individual initiative/portrays the individual as capable of solving his own problems - people must compete - free market/capitalism is the best.

9.2. Liberal Perspective

9.2.1. Wants free market capitalism but thinks it, if left unchecked, can become inadequate specifically for disadvantaged groups - wants government involvement (to insure equality) - heavy emphasis on equality/equal opportunity - individual effort alone is sometimes insufficient and that the govt sometimes needs to step in on behalf of those in need - stresses groups rather than the individual alone.

9.3. Radical Perspective

9.3.1. Wants democratic socialism over capitalism - sees capitalism as the root of poverty and educational problems - sees the society as the problem and individuals and groups as victims of it.

9.4. Neo-Liberal Perspective

9.4.1. Consevative + Liberal = Neo-Liberal. Austerirty (cutting publis spending on education, because it has not improved anything to spend more money) The market model (supports charter schools and vouchers for private school attendance) stresses the individual, state intervention to ensure educational equality, race/class/acheivement gap - they blame schools, ineffective teachers, and teacher unions as the primary cause for school and student failures.

9.5. Traditional Vision

9.5.1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, etc. - Believes schools should pass on the best of what was and what is. (Think we have been a success). >>>> wants to pass down our values

9.6. Progressive Vision

9.6.1. Views schools as central to solving social problems, as a vehicle for upward mobility, as essential to the development of individual potential, and as an integral part of a democratic society. - Believes schools should be a part of the steady progress to make things better. (Thinks we need change). >>> wants to change society