Learning: Theory to Practice

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Learning: Theory to Practice by Mind Map: Learning: Theory to Practice

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Behaviorist Lens

1.1.1. General Overview

1.1.1.1. Behaviorism is a theory examining the idea that human or animal psychology can be accurately studied only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states. All behavior can explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.

1.1.2. Classical Conditioning

1.1.2.1. Overview

1.1.2.1.1. Classical conditioning is a reflexive type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

1.1.2.2. Summary

1.1.2.3. Examples

1.1.2.3.1. Animals

1.1.2.3.2. Humans

1.1.2.4. Eval

1.1.2.4.1. Pros

1.1.2.4.2. Cons

1.1.2.5. Theorists

1.1.2.5.1. Ivan Pavlov

1.1.2.5.2. John B. Watson

1.1.3. Operant Conditioning

1.1.3.1. Overview

1.1.3.1.1. Operant conditioning, sometimes referred to as instrumental learning, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. It encourages the subject to associate desirable or undesirable outcomes with certain behaviors.

1.1.3.2. Summary

1.1.3.2.1. Thorndike

1.1.3.2.2. Skinner

1.1.3.2.3. 3 Types of Responses

1.1.3.3. Examples

1.1.3.3.1. Skinner - Operant Conditioning

1.1.3.3.2. Thorndike - Puzzle Boxes

1.1.3.3.3. Reinforcement Theory

1.1.3.4. Criticisms

1.1.3.4.1. Pros

1.1.3.4.2. Cons

1.1.3.5. Theorists

1.1.3.5.1. B.F. Skinner

1.1.3.5.2. Edward Thondike

1.2. Cognitive Lens

1.2.1. General Overvew

1.2.1.1. In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition.

1.2.2. Information Processing Theory

1.2.2.1. Overview

1.2.2.1.1. As conditioning paradigms were running into trouble, there were exciting developments going on in the computer world. Scientists started to look at the mind in terms of how the computer works, looking for similarities and differences between them.

1.2.2.2. Summary

1.2.2.2.1. Information Processing System

1.2.2.3. Examples

1.2.2.3.1. Information Processing Theory

1.2.2.3.2. Information Processing Theory

1.2.2.4. Eval

1.2.3. Cognitive Load Theory

1.2.3.1. Overview

1.2.3.2. Summary

1.2.3.2.1. Types of Cognitive load

1.2.3.2.2. Guidelines

1.2.3.3. Examples

1.2.3.3.1. Cognitive Load Theory

1.2.3.3.2. Cognitive Load Theory

1.2.3.3.3. Cognitive Load Exercise

1.2.3.4. Theorists

1.2.3.4.1. John Sweller

1.2.4. Elaboration Theory

1.3. Constructivist Lens

1.3.1. General Overview

1.3.1.1. Constructivism is a worldview that posits that learning is an active, constructive process where the learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. Constructivism is a reaction to didactic approaches such as behaviorism and cognitivism. A constructivist approach to learning posits that one creates knowledge; one does not acquire knowledge.

1.3.2. Constructivism

1.3.2.1. Guidelines

1.3.2.1.1. 1) Learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning out of it.

1.3.2.1.2. 2) People learn to learn as they learn: learning consists both of constructing meaning and constructing systems of meaning.

1.3.2.1.3. 3) The crucial action of constructing meaning is mental: it happens in the mind.

1.3.2.1.4. 4) Learning involves language: the language we use influences learning.

1.3.2.1.5. 5) Learning is a social activity: our learning is intimately associated with our connection with other human beings, our teachers, our peers, our family as well as casual acquaintances, including the people before us or next to us at the exhibit.

1.3.2.1.6. 6) Learning is contextual: we do not learn isolated facts and theories in some abstract ethereal land of the mind separate from the rest of our lives: we learn in relationship to what else we know, what we believe, our prejudices and our fears.

1.3.2.1.7. 7) One needs knowledge to learn: it is not possible to assimilate new knowledge without having some structure developed from previous knowledge to build on.

1.3.2.1.8. 8) It takes time to learn: learning is not instantaneous. For significant learning we need to revisit ideas, ponder them try them out, play with them and use them.

1.3.2.1.9. 9) Motivation is a key component in learning. Not only is it the case that motivation helps learning, it is essential for learning.

1.3.2.2. Traditional vs Constructivist

1.3.2.2.1. Traditional vs Constructivist

1.3.3. Constructionism

1.3.3.1. Overview

1.3.3.1.1. Constructionism is a constructivist learning theory and theory of instruction. It states that building knowledge occurs best through building things that are tangible an sharable. Constructionism (in the context of learning) is the idea that people learn effectively through making things. Constructionism is connected with experiential learning and builds on some of the ideas of Jean Piaget.”

1.3.3.2. Constructivism and Constructionism

1.3.3.2.1. Constructism and Constructionism

1.3.4. Schema Theory

1.3.4.1. Overview

1.3.4.1.1. Linguists, cognitive psychologists, and psycholinguists have used the concept of schema (plural: schemata) to understand the interaction of key factors affecting the comprehension process. Simply put, schema theory states that all knowledge is organized into units. Within these units of knowledge, or schemata, is stored information. A schema, then, is a generalized description or a conceptual system for understanding knowledge-how knowledge is represented and how it is used.

1.3.4.2. Key Features

1.3.4.2.1. 1) Schemata are abstract mental structures.

1.3.4.2.2. 2) People build on these structures to understand the world.

1.3.4.2.3. 3) People use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding.

1.3.4.2.4. 4) Because they are an effective tool for understanding the world, the use of schemata makes the automatic processing an effortless task

1.3.4.2.5. 5) People can quickly organize new perceptions into schemata and act effectively without effort.

1.3.4.2.6. 6) When learners build schemata and make connections between ideas, learning is maximally facilitated and is optimally made more meaningful.

1.3.4.2.7. 7) Prior knowledge is important and is a prerequisite for the understanding of new information.

1.3.4.2.8. 8) Internal conflict may arise when new information doesn’t fit with existing schemata.

1.3.4.2.9. 9) People’s schemata have a tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory information. In other words, it is difficult to change existing schemata. People tend to live with inconsistencies rather than change a deeply rooted mental structure.

1.3.4.3. Diagrams

1.3.4.3.1. Schema

1.3.4.3.2. Advanced Organizer

1.3.5. Experiential Learning

1.3.5.1. Overview

1.3.5.1.1. Experiential learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing". Experiential learning is distinct from rote or didactic learning, in which the learner plays a comparatively passive role.

1.3.5.2. Elements

1.3.5.2.1. 1) Reflection, critical analysis and synthesis

1.3.5.2.2. 2) Opportunities for students to take initiative, make decisions, and be accountable for the results

1.3.5.2.3. 3) Opportunities for students to engage intellectually, creatively, emotionally, socially, or physically

1.3.5.2.4. 4) A designed learning experience that includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes, and successes

1.3.5.3. Kolb

1.3.5.3.1. Overview

1.3.5.3.2. Diagrams

1.3.5.3.3. Videos

1.3.5.3.4. 4 Learning Styles

1.3.6. Problem-Based Learning

1.3.7. Discovery Learning

1.4. Social Lens

1.4.1. Social Learning Theory

1.4.1.1. Overview

1.4.1.1.1. he social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. While the behavioral theories of learning suggested that all learning was the result of associations formed by conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, Bandura's social learning theory proposed that learning can also occur simply by observing the actions of others.

1.4.1.2. Albert Bandura

1.4.1.2.1. Key Definition

1.4.1.2.2. Videos

1.4.2. Cognitive Apprenticeship

1.4.2.1. Overview

1.4.2.1.1. Cognitive apprenticeship is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice. Constructivist approaches to human learning have led to the development of a theory of cognitive apprenticeship.

1.4.2.2. Goals

1.4.2.2.1. The method is aimed primarily at teaching the problem-solving processes that experts use to handle complex tasks. Cognitive apprenticeships are intended to enable apprentices to learn strategies and skills in the context of their application to realistic problems, within a culture focused on and defined by expert practice

1.4.2.3. Principles

1.4.2.3.1. 1) Cognitive apprenticeship encourages reflection on differences between novices and expert performance

1.4.2.3.2. 2) Cognitive apprenticeship encourages the development of self-monitoring and correction skills required for the problem solver to alternate among different cognitive activities

1.4.2.3.3. 3) Sequencing: Tasks are sequenced to reflect the changing demands of learning: increasing complexity, increasing diversity, and global before local skills

1.4.2.3.4. 4) Sociology: With exploiting cooperation and the culture of expert practice, cognitive apprenticeship extends situated learning to diverse settings so that students learn how to apply their skills in varied context with intrinsic motivation.

1.4.2.4. Condition of Learning

1.4.2.4.1. The appropriate target knowledge for an ideal learning environment is to include four categories of expert knowledge: domain knowledge, heuristic strategies, control strategies, and learning strategies. The learning setting focuses on the four content categories with situated cooperative problem solving.

1.4.2.5. Role of Faciliator

1.4.2.5.1. The facilitator’s role involves modeling, coaching, and scaffolding to help students acquire an integrated set of cognitive and metacognitive skills through processes of observation, and of guided and supported practice.

1.4.2.6. Instructional Strategies

1.4.2.6.1. 1) Modeling that involves an expert’s carrying out a task so that student observe and build a conceptual model of the processes required to accomplish the task

1.4.2.6.2. 2) Coaching that consists of observing student’s performance and offering hints, scaffolding, feedback, modeling, reminders, and new tasks

1.4.2.6.3. 3) Scaffolding provided by the teacher to help the student carry out a task

1.4.2.6.4. 4) Articulation that gets students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving processes in a domain

1.4.2.6.5. 5) Reflection that enables students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those an expert, peer, and an internal cognitive model of expertise.

1.4.2.6.6. 6) Exploration as a method of teaching sets general goals for students and that encourages students to focus on particular subgoals of interest to them.

1.4.2.7. Videos

1.4.2.7.1. Cognitive Apprenticeship

1.4.2.7.2. Cognitive Apprenticeship

1.4.3. Social Development Theory

1.4.3.1. Vygotsky

1.4.3.1.1. he work of Lev Vygotsky (1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, ""learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function"" (1978, p. 90). In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e. come before) development. Vygotsky has developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development. He developed his theories at around the same time as Jean Piaget was starting to develop his ideas (1920's and 30's), but he died at the age of 38 and so his theories are incomplete - although some of his writings are still being translated from Russian. No single principle (such as Piaget's equilibration) can account for development. Individual development cannot be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which it is embedded. Higher mental processes in the individual have their origin in social processes.

1.4.3.2. Major Themes

1.4.3.2.1. 1) Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).”

1.4.3.2.2. 2) The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.

1.4.3.2.3. 3) The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.

1.4.3.3. Videos

1.4.3.3.1. Social Development Theory

1.4.4. Communities of Practice

1.4.4.1. Overview

1.4.4.1.1. Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. Note that this definition allows for, but does not assume, intentionality: learning can be the reason the community comes together or an incidental outcome of member’s interactions. Not everything called a community is a community of practice. A neighborhood for instance, is often called a community, but is usually not a community of practice. Three characteristics are crucial:

1.4.4.2. 3 Characteristics

1.4.4.2.1. 1) The Domain

1.4.4.2.2. 2) The Community

1.4.4.2.3. 3) The Practice

1.4.4.3. Videos

1.4.4.3.1. What is a Community of Practice?

1.4.5. Situated Learning Theory

1.4.5.1. Overview

1.4.5.1.1. In contrast with most classroom learning activities that involve abstract knowledge which is and out of context, Lave argues that learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture. It is also usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Lave and Wenger (1991) call this a process of “legitimate peripheral participation.” Knowledge needs to be presented in authentic contexts — settings and situations that would normally involve that knowledge. Social interaction and collaboration are essential components of situated learning — learners become involved in a “community of practice” which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. As the beginner or novice moves from the periphery of a community to its center, he or she becomes more active and engaged within the culture and eventually assumes the role of an expert.

1.4.5.2. Elements of Situated Learning

1.4.5.2.1. 1) Content

1.4.5.2.2. 2) Context

1.4.5.2.3. 3) Community

1.4.5.2.4. 4) Participation

1.4.5.3. Videos

1.4.5.3.1. The Situated Learning Theory

1.5. Humanist Lens

1.5.1. General Overview

1.5.1.1. Humanism, a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. A central assumption of humanism is that people act with intentionality and values. This is in contrast to the behaviorist notion of operant conditioning (which argues that all behavior is the result of the application of consequences) and the cognitive psychologist belief that the discovering knowledge or constructing meaning is central to learning. Humanists also believe that it is necessary to study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan. It follows that the study of the self, motivation, and goals are areas of particular interest. Key proponents of humanism include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. A primary purpose of humanism could be described as the development of self-actualized, automomous people. In humanism, learning is student centered and personalized, and the educator’s role is that of a facilitator. Affective and cognitive needs are key, and the goal is to develop self-actualized people in a cooperative, supportive environment.

1.5.2. Self-Theories

1.5.2.1. Overview

1.5.2.1.1. Carol Dweck (currently at Indiana University) describes a series of empirically-based studies that investigate how people develop beliefs about themselves (i.e., self-theories) and how these self-theories create their psychological worlds, shaping thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The theories reveal why some students are motivated to work harder, and why others fall into patterns of helplessness and are self-defeating. Dweck’s conclusions explore the implications for the concept of self-esteem, suggesting a rethinking of its role in motivation, and the conditions that foster it. She demonstrated empirically that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence are less likely to attempt challenging tasks and are at risk for academic underachievement.

1.5.2.2. Views

1.5.2.2.1. Entity View

1.5.2.2.2. Incremental View

1.5.2.3. Videos

1.5.2.3.1. Professor Carol Dweck 'Teaching a growth mindset' at Young Minds 2013

1.5.2.3.2. The power of yet | Carol S Dweck | TEDxNorrköping

1.5.3. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1.5.3.1. Overview

1.5.3.1.1. Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that people possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires. Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on. The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide This five stage model can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization).

1.6. Neuroscience Lens

1.7. Connectivist Lens

1.7.1. Connectivism

1.7.1.1. Overview

1.7.1.1.1. Connectivism is a learning theory which explains how Internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the World Wide Web and among themselves. These technologies include Web browsers, email, wikis, online discussion forums, social networks, YouTube, and any other tool which enables the users to learn and share information with other people. A key feature of connectivism is that much learning can happen across peer networks that take place online. In connectivist learning, a teacher will guide students to information and answer key questions as needed, in order to support students learning and sharing on their own. Students are also encouraged to seek out information on their own online and express what they find. A connected community around this shared information often results.

1.7.1.2. Significant Trends in Learning

1.7.1.2.1. 1) Many learners will move into a variety of different, possibly unrelated fields over the course of their lifetime.

1.7.1.2.2. 2) Informal learning is a significant aspect of our learning experience. Formal education no longer comprises the majority of our learning. Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks.

1.7.1.2.3. 3) Learning is a continual process, lasting for a lifetime. Learning and work related activities are no longer separate. In many situations, they are the same.

1.7.1.2.4. 4) Technology is altering (rewiring) our brains. The tools we use define and shape our thinking.

1.7.1.2.5. 5) The organization and the individual are both learning organisms. Increased attention to knowledge management highlights the need for a theory that attempts to explain the link between individual and organizational learning.

1.7.1.2.6. 6) Many of the processes previously handled by learning theories (especially in cognitive information processing) can now be off-loaded to, or supported by, technology.

1.7.1.2.7. 7) now-how and know-what is being supplemented with know-where (the understanding of where to find knowledge needed).

1.7.1.3. Principles

1.7.1.3.1. 1) Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

1.7.1.3.2. 2) Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

1.7.1.3.3. 3) Learning may reside in non-human appliances.

1.7.1.3.4. 4) Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

1.7.1.3.5. 5) Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

1.7.1.3.6. 6) Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

1.7.1.3.7. 7) Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

1.7.1.3.8. 8) Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.

1.7.1.4. Videos

1.7.1.4.1. Overview of connectivism - Dr George Siemens

1.7.1.4.2. Connectivism

1.7.2. Distributed Cognition

1.7.2.1. Overview

1.7.2.1.1. Distributed Cognition is a hybrid approach to studying all aspects of cognition, from a cognitive, social and organisational perspective. The most well known level of analysis is to account for complex socially distributed cognitive activities, of which a diversity of technological artefacts and other tools and representations are an indispensable part. Edwin Hutchins, a cognitive psychologist and anthropologist, studied how navigation is coordinated on US navy ships around San Diego. From his observations, he posited that the mind is in the world (as opposed to the world being in the mind). That is, the necessary knowledge and cognition to operate a naval vessel do not exist solely within one’s head; knowledge and cognition is distributed across objects, individuals, artefacts, and tools in the environment. The goal of Distributed Cognition is to describe how distributed units are coordinated by analyzing the interactions between individuals, the representational media used, and the environment within which the activity takes place. The unit of analysis can therefore be described as systems that dynamically reconfigure their sub-systems to accomplish functions individuals, artifacts, their relations to each other (e.g. bridge of a ship, airplane cockpit, air traffic control). Distributed Cognition is about defining mechanisms of cognitive processes: e.g. memory in a cockpit encompasses internal processes, physical manipulation of objects, and the creation/exchange of external representations. Distributed Cognition, which often makes use of ethnographically collected data, is not so much a method; more accurately, it is a useful descriptive framework that describes human work systems in informational and computational terms. It is useful for analyzing situations that involve problem-solving. As it helps provide an understanding of the role and function of representational media, it has implications for the design of technology in the mediation of the activity, because the system designers will have a stronger, clearer model of the work. Thus, it is an important theory for such fields as CSCL, CSCW, HCI, instructional design, and distance learning.

1.7.2.2. Videos

1.7.2.2.1. Distributed Cognition

1.8. The Next Lens?

2. Distilling the Research

2.1. How Learning Works

2.1.1. Source

2.1.1.1. 1) Students' prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.

2.1.1.2. 2) How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know

2.1.1.3. 3) Students' motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn

2.1.1.4. 4) To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned

2.1.1.5. 5) Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students' learning

2.1.1.6. 6) Students' current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning

2.1.1.7. 7) To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning

2.2. Community of Inquiry

2.2.1. Source

2.2.1.1. 1) Plan for the creation of open communication and trust

2.2.1.2. 2) Plan for critical reflection and discourse

2.2.1.3. 3) Establish community and cohesion

2.2.1.4. 4) Establish inquiry dynamics (purposeful inquiry)

2.2.1.5. 5) Sustain respect and responsibility

2.2.1.6. 6) Sustain inquiry that moves to resolution

2.2.1.7. 7) Ensure assessment is congrueent with intended processes and outcomes

2.3. Principles for Presentation

2.3.1. Source

2.3.1.1. 1) The Principle of Relevance

2.3.1.1.1. Communication is most effective when neither too much nor too little information is presented

2.3.1.2. 2) The Principle of Appropriate Knowledge

2.3.1.2.1. Communication requires prior knowledge of relevant concepts, jargon, and symbols

2.3.1.3. 3) The Principle of Salience

2.3.1.3.1. Attention is drawn to large perceptible differences

2.3.1.4. 4) The Principle of Discriminability

2.3.1.4.1. Two properties must differ by a large enough proportion or they will not be distinguished

2.3.1.5. 5) The principle of Perceptual Organization

2.3.1.5.1. People automatically group elements into units, which they then attend to and remember

2.3.1.6. 6) The Principle of Compatibility

2.3.1.6.1. A message is easiest to understand if its form is compatible with its meanig

2.3.1.7. 7) The Principle of Informative Changes

2.3.1.7.1. People expect changes in properties to carry information

2.3.1.8. 8) The Principle of Capacity Limitations

2.3.1.8.1. People have a limited capacity to retain and to process information, and so will not understand a message if too much information must be retained or processed

2.4. Adult Learning

2.4.1. Summary of Lindeman's Key Assumptions About Adult Learning

2.4.1.1. 1) Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs and interests that learning will satisfy

2.4.1.2. 2) Adults' orientation to learning is life-centered

2.4.1.3. 3) Experience is the richest source for adults' learning

2.4.1.4. 4) Adults have a deep need to be self-directing

2.4.1.5. 5) Individual differences among people increase with age

3. Multimedia

3.1. Richard Mayer's Work

3.1.1. Multimedia Learning

3.1.1.1. 1) The Promise of Multimedia Learning

3.1.1.1.1. Mayer's Definition Of Multimedia

3.1.1.1.2. 3 Views of Multimedia Messages

3.1.1.1.3. 2 Views of Multimedia Design

3.1.1.1.4. Multimedia Learning

3.1.1.2. 2) Multimedia Instructional Messages

3.1.1.2.1. A multimedia instructional message is a communication using words and pictures that is intended to promote learning.

3.1.1.3. 3) A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

3.1.1.3.1. Multimedia messages that are designed in accordance with how the human brain works are more likely to lead to more meaningful learning.

3.1.1.4. 4) Multimedia Principle

3.1.1.4.1. Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone

3.1.1.5. 5) Spatial Contiguity Principle

3.1.1.5.1. Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented NEAR rather than FAR from each other on the page or screen

3.1.1.5.2. Diagram 1

3.1.1.6. 6) Temporal Contiguity Principle

3.1.1.6.1. Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively

3.1.1.7. 7) Coherence Principle

3.1.1.7.1. Students learn better when extraneous material is excluded rather than included: 1) Learning is HURT when interesting BUT irrelevant words and pictures are added to a multimedia presentation 2) Learning is HURT when interesting BUT irrelevant sounds and music are added to a multimedia presentation 3) Learning is IMPROVED when unneeded words are eliminated from a multimedia presentation

3.1.1.7.2. Coherence Principle

3.1.1.8. 8) Modality Principle

3.1.1.8.1. Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text; that is, students learn better when words in a multimedia message are presented as spoken text rather that printed text.

3.1.1.8.2. Modality Principle

3.1.1.9. 9) Redundancy Principle

3.1.1.9.1. Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and text

3.1.1.10. 10) Individual Differences Principle

3.1.1.10.1. Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners, and for high-spatial learners rather than for low-spatial learners

3.1.1.11. 11) Principals of Multimedia Design

3.1.2. Richard Mayer

3.1.3. Multimedia Learning

3.2. Stephen Kosslyn's Work

3.2.1. Source

3.2.1.1. 1) The Principle of Relevance

3.2.1.1.1. Communication is most effective when neither too much nor too little information is presented

3.2.1.2. 2) The Principle of Appropriate Knowledge

3.2.1.2.1. Communication requires prior knowledge of relevant concepts, jargon, and symbols

3.2.1.3. 3) The Principle of Salience

3.2.1.3.1. Attention is drawn to large perceptible differences

3.2.1.4. 4) The Principle of Discriminability

3.2.1.4.1. Two properties must differ by a large enough proportion or they will not be distinguished

3.2.1.5. 5) The principle of Perceptual Organization

3.2.1.5.1. People automatically group elements into units, which they then attend to and remember

3.2.1.6. 6) The Principle of Compatibility

3.2.1.6.1. A message is easiest to understand if its form is compatible with its meaning

3.2.1.7. 7) The Principle of Informative Changes

3.2.1.7.1. People expect changes in properties to carry information

3.2.1.8. 8) The Principle of Capacity Limitations

3.2.1.8.1. People have a limited capacity to retain and to process information, and so will not understand a message if too much information must be retained or processed

3.2.2. Rethinking PowerPoint

3.3. Michael Alley's Work

3.4. Edward Tufte's Work

4. Learning Concepts

4.1. Attention

4.2. Attitudes

4.3. Creativity

4.4. Mastery

4.5. Memory

4.6. Metacognition

4.7. Motivation

5. Teaching Philosophies

5.1. Teacher-Centered

5.1.1. Perennialism

5.1.1.1. Overview

5.1.1.1.1. The aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization

5.1.1.1.2. These ideas have the potential to solve problems in ANY era

5.1.1.1.3. Teach ideas that are everlasting

5.1.1.1.4. Seek enduring truths

5.1.1.1.5. The cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education

5.1.1.2. Proponents

5.1.1.2.1. Robert Maynard Hutchins

5.1.1.2.2. Mortimer Adler

5.1.1.3. Columbia's Common Core

5.1.1.3.1. http://www.college.columbia.edu/core/core

5.1.1.4. Examples

5.1.1.4.1. Mortimer Adler on "The Great Ideas"

5.1.2. Essentialism

5.1.2.1. Overview

5.1.2.1.1. Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systemic, disciplined way.

5.1.2.1.2. The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge, SKILLS, and academic rigor.

5.1.2.1.3. The core curriculum can and should be able to change.

5.1.2.1.4. Schooling should be practical

5.1.2.1.5. Schooling should prepare students to become valuable members of society

5.1.2.2. Examples

5.1.2.2.1. Columbia Business School

5.2. Student-Centered

5.2.1. Progressivism

5.2.1.1. Overview

5.2.1.1.1. Education should focus on the WHOLE learner, rather than the content of the teacher

5.2.1.1.2. Students should test ideas through active experimentation

5.2.1.1.3. Learning is rooted in the questions a learner generates through experiencing the world

5.2.1.1.4. Curriculum is derived from student interest

5.2.1.2. Proponents

5.2.1.2.1. John Dewey

5.2.1.2.2. Maria Mentessori

5.2.1.2.3. Alfie Kohn

5.2.1.3. Examples

5.2.1.3.1. The Summerhill School

5.2.1.3.2. The Montessori School

5.2.2. Social Reconstructionism / Critical Theory

5.2.2.1. Overview

5.2.2.1.1. Focus energies on alleviating pervasive inequities

5.2.2.1.2. Social reform as the AIM of education

5.2.2.1.3. Discuss problems of poverty, violence, etc

5.2.2.1.4. Create a better society

5.2.2.1.5. Overcome oppression

5.2.2.1.6. Address systems of power

5.2.2.2. Proponents

5.2.2.2.1. George Counts

5.2.2.2.2. Maxine Greene

5.2.2.2.3. Henry Giroux

5.2.2.2.4. Paulo Friere

5.2.2.2.5. Howard Zinn

5.2.2.2.6. Ivan Illich

5.2.2.3. Examples

5.2.2.3.1. Howard Zinn

6. Learning Environments

6.1. Teacher Perspective

6.1.1. Learner Characteristics

6.1.1.1. Increased Diversity

6.1.1.2. Work, Home, and Class

6.1.1.3. Learner's Goals

6.1.1.4. Prior Knowledge

6.1.1.5. Digital Natives

6.1.2. Content

6.1.2.1. Content Goals

6.1.2.2. Sources

6.1.2.3. Structure

6.1.2.4. Activities

6.1.3. Skills

6.1.3.1. Thinking Activities

6.1.3.2. Discussion

6.1.4. Learner Support

6.1.4.1. Other Students

6.1.4.2. Feedback

6.1.4.3. Scaffolding

6.1.4.4. Counseling

6.1.5. Resources

6.1.5.1. Technology

6.1.5.2. Facilities

6.1.5.3. Assistants

6.1.5.4. Teacher Time

6.1.6. Assessment

6.1.6.1. Projects

6.1.6.2. Problems

6.1.6.3. Portfolios

6.1.6.4. Tests

6.1.6.5. Quizzes

6.1.6.6. Essays

6.2. Student Perspective

7. Design Models

7.1. Classroom

7.1.1. Circa 1900

7.1.1.1. Circa 2000

7.2. LMS

7.2.1. LMS's in U.S

7.3. Frameworks

7.3.1. ADDIE

7.3.1.1. Overview

7.3.1.1.1. The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.

7.3.1.2. Phases

7.3.1.2.1. Analysis

7.3.1.2.2. Design

7.3.1.2.3. Development

7.3.1.2.4. Implementation

7.3.1.2.5. Evaluation

7.3.1.3. Weaknesses

7.3.1.3.1. 7 Common Weaknesses of ADDIE

7.3.2. Community of Inquiry

7.3.2.1. Overview

7.3.2.1.1. An community of inquiry is a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding. The Community of Inquiry theoretical framework represents a process of creating a deep and meaningful (collaborative-constructivist) learning experience through the development of three interdependent elements – social, cognitive and teaching presence.

7.3.2.2. Examples

7.3.2.2.1. CoI Model

7.3.3. Backward Design

7.3.3.1. Backward Design Model

7.3.3.1.1. Backward Design Stages

7.3.3.2. rewirED Model

7.3.4. Bloom's Taxonomy

7.3.4.1. Bloom Revised

7.3.4.1.1. http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/effective-practice/revised-blooms-taxonomy/

7.3.5. Gagné's 9 Events of Instruction

7.3.5.1. 1) Gain attention

7.3.5.2. 2) Inform learners of objectives

7.3.5.3. 3) Stimulate recall of prior learning

7.3.5.4. 4) Present the content

7.3.5.5. 5) Provide “learning guidance”

7.3.5.6. 6) Elicit performance (practice).

7.3.5.7. 7) Provide feedback

7.3.5.8. 8) Assess performance

7.3.5.9. 9) Enhance retention and transfer to the job

7.3.6. Merrill's First Principles of Instruction

7.3.6.1. Overview

7.3.6.1.1. Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction is a problem-based theory. Learners use four different phases in this design. The basic definition is that the principles of activation, demonstration, application and integration are necessary to the success of a learner. Educators need to show the learners what is going to be learned rather than telling them about it. They also must be given a chance to “do” and practice what they have learned through a variety of assessments and activities. Lastly, students must be encouraged and motivated to practice the lessons they have learned.

7.3.6.2. Principles

7.3.6.2.1. Activation

7.3.6.2.2. Demonstration

7.3.6.2.3. Application

7.3.6.2.4. Integration

7.3.6.3. Diagrams

7.3.6.3.1. MFP's

7.3.6.4. Videos

7.3.6.4.1. Merrill on Instructional Design

7.3.7. Dick and Carey Model

7.3.8. ARCS

7.3.9. Agile