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History by Mind Map: History

1. How British overcame the initial problems and the impacts of its significance?

1.1. Raffles got to know how Tengku Abdul Rahman had become a Sultan instead of his elder brother, Tengku Hussien.

1.2. After listening to the story, Raffles decided that Tengku Hussein should be the rightful Sultan.

1.3. He wanted to then obtain his permission to start the settlement.

1.4. When Tengku Hussein met Raffles, he agreed to be recognised as the Sultan by the British.

1.5. On 6th February 1819, Sultan Hussein and the Temenggong signed a treaty with the British allowing them to build a settlement in the southern part of the Singapore island.

1.5.1. Why was the treaty important to the British?

1.5.2. The treaty gave the British East India Company the right to establish a trading settlement in the southern part of Singapore.

1.5.3. The foundation of Singapore breaks the monopoly and the Dutch are no longer the exclusive sovereigns (supreme ruler) of the eastern seas.

2. Problems faced by British after Singapore was founded.

2.1. The British arrived in Singapore on the 28th January 1819. The following morning, Major William Farquhar arrived there too.

2.2. After Raffles and Farquhar had arrived, they went to the Malay chief of the island, Temenggong Abdul Rahman's house which was the only wooden house among the many village huts.

2.3. Raffles told the Temenggong that the British wanted to establish a trading settlement there.

2.4. The Temenggong was willing to give permission but told Raffles that the island was actually ruled by Sultan Abdul Rahman of the Johor-Riau Sultanate.

2.5. According to the Temenggong, only the Sultan could allow the British to start such a settlement. However, the problem was that the Sultan was under the control of the Dutch.

2.6. It was obvious that the Dutch would never allow the British to occupy Singapore.

3. Why did the British need a third port?

3.1. In early 19th century, the British and the Dutch East India Companies were competing fiercely outside Europe for profit and monopoly of the trading routes.

3.2. Britain had already developed commerce with China, India and the Malay Archipelago.

3.3. The Dutch were the main power in the Malay Archipelago and controlled large regions of it. (including Malacca and Java)

3.4. British were only allowed to trade at Batavia in Java by the Dutch. Prices for using the port and taxes for buying and selling of goods were high too.

3.5. Britain's trade with China had become very profitable.

3.6. Britain had 2 two trading settlements at Penang and Bencoolen. Both settlements were unsuitable for Britain.

3.7. Firstly, both places were very far from the main trading area in the Malay Archipelago. Secondly, Bencoolen was a poor trading centre. It was at the wrong side of Sumatra facing the Indian Ocean instead of the Straits of Malcca.

3.8. Penang was far north of the Straits of Malacca. It was also not very useful for controlling the Straits of Malacca.

3.9. This prompted the British to find a new British trading settlement south of Dutch Malacca.

3.10. This was why British needed a third port.

4. Why was Singapore chosen?

4.1. If a suitable port to the south of Dutch Malacca was found, both the new port and Penang could be used to protect British shipping and trade along the Straits of Malacca. This would allow them to control the Straits of Malacca.

4.2. The ideal place for such a function was Singapore. Adding to its geographical location, Singapore also had natural advantages such as an excellent harbour.

4.3. Singapore was not under direct Dutch control too.

4.4. It also had a fresh supply of water.

4.5. The British also needed a port for a stopover to support the British ships and for refuge from monsoons, for rest, for replenishment of supplies and for refuel of coal for their steam ships.

4.6. Singapore was at the heart of the Malay Archipelago and was at the crossroads.

4.7. The Dutch were not in Singapore and thus Raffles thought he could take the land as he knew that having a British settlement in Singapore will break the monopoly of the Dutch.

5. Problems faced when acquiring Singapore

5.1. The Dutch were strongly against the British trading settlement in Singapore.

5.2. The Dutch claimed that Singapore indirectly belonged to them and were extremely angry with Raffles.

5.3. The E.I.C directors and the government in Britain were angry with Raffles for starting up a trouble with the Dutch.

5.4. The settlement under Farquhar was uncertain.

5.5. Raffles himself fought hard to keep his new settlement and tried to get support from some important and influential men.

5.6. Although the Dutch made official protests to the British, both powers never declared war.

6. How British overcame these problems later and the impacts of its significance?

6.1. The British were anxious not to antagonise the Dutch.

6.2. This was influenced by the need to use Holland(Netherlands) as a strong buffer state against aggressive and powerful European countries.

6.3. The British had already learnt a lesson that a strong enemy country like France could use Holland as a base to launch a military attack on Britain.

6.4. Thus, the British wanted to form a friendly and strong buffer state out of Holland.

6.5. The Holland did not want to anger Britain too as they were also financially weak by the Napoleonic Wars and was on the brink of bankruptcy.

6.6. If Holland and Britain became enemies then Holland would not be able to afford to be involved in any more wars and that would cripple its economy.

6.7. As both sides had no gain from the war, they wanted a peace settlement.

6.8. Finally, the British and Dutch signed a treaty in 1824 allowing the British to keep Singapore.

6.9. According to the treaty, the Malay Peninsula and Singapore came within the British sphere of influence while the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) was under the Dutch.

6.10. The Dutch also agreed to give their port of Malacca to Britain in exchange for the British port of Bencoolen in Sumatra.

6.11. The Dutch wanted Bencoolen as it was near Batavia and all the other British settlements were above the Straits of Malacca sea and the Dutch ports were below the Straits of Malacca

6.12. Through this, the British had 3 ports in the Straits of Malacca: Singapore, Malacca and Penang.