Does modeling best practices for preservice teachers increase the degree to which these best prac...

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Does modeling best practices for preservice teachers increase the degree to which these best practices are utilized in their own teaching? by Mind Map: Does modeling best practices for preservice teachers increase the degree to which these best practices are utilized in their own teaching?

1. Videomodeling

1.1. Deiker, et. al 2009

1.2. Interactive Video

2. Case Methods (Outdated language?) see Merseth (1990s)

3. Anchored instruction

4. Making Thinking Visible

4.1. "We teach as we are taught, not how we are taught to teach" (Blume, 1971).

4.2. (defined as learning within a meaningful, problem-solving context (Bransford, Sherwood, Hasselbring, Kinzer, & Williams, 1990).

5. Idea: use a HAT or other indicator when stepping outside the lesson to model teacher thinking.

6. Lit Review

6.1. 32 results after filter (reading abstract)

6.1.1. Eliminated studies for which Modeling was part of the method, but not utilized as an IV.

6.2. Database search

6.2.1. ERIC Preservice Teachers AND Model* Preservice Teachers AND Scaffold* Teacher Education Faculty AND Best Practices Good Teaching AND Modeling AND preservice teachers

6.2.2. PsychInfo Preservice Teachers AND Model* Video Modeling AND Preservice Teacher*

6.2.3. Snowballing.

7. Social Learning Theory

8. Inclusion

8.1. SET

8.2. UDL

8.2.1. Ralabate et al. (2012) examined UDL implementation at the state and local levels and found that although it enjoys broad recognition, and is included in many state technology plans, there is confusion about what UDL is, how it relates to other initiatives, and how to implement it.

8.2.2. UDL is difficult to describe in that there are no reliable, valid, or widely avail- able measures for universal screening, progress monitoring, implementation fidelity, or outcome assessments (Edyburn, 2010).


10. Need for link between theory and practice.

10.1. Explicit connection between model and theory enables the learning to go beyond "useful tricks" into a demonstration of theory --> Practice (Mieke Lunenberg

10.2. This is increasingly important given the contemporary trend in support of "research based practice."

10.3. Anderson's 6 Dimensions

11. New chapter: Explore means of implementation (see "Implementation Research: A review of the literature"

11.1. See Joyce & Showers

12. Moving target. Where Teacher faculty cannot model best practices themselves, use video modeling?

13. Methods for Research Design

13.1. Observe Teacher Educators (Faculty) for evidence of modeling, connection to student's own teaching, connection to theory (Mieke Lunenberg

13.1.1. "Member Check" after observation (Merriam 1997)

13.2. Cmparison or Control group? Comparison may be more valid, but how to do?

13.3. Design Exemplars

13.3.1. See Kennedy, et. al 2014 for design idea!

13.3.2. Dieker et sl 2009

13.4. Survey Ed Faculty about why they do or do not demonstrate/model best practices.

13.5. Group study effectiveness when this method IS used.

13.6. Validity Measures

13.6.1. Use of a Panel (eg. committee?) to assess content validity. (Cf. Spooner, Baker, Harris, et. al.)

13.6.2. Procedural fidelity checklists

13.6.3. Inter observer agreement (if necessary)

14. Student Teaching "Modeling" of master teacher?

14.1. From "Student" to "Co-Teaching"

14.2. Active involvement as a way to break down barriers. (Stamopolous)

15. Preservice Teacher Beliefs

16. Technology/ TPACK/ICT

17. Scaffolding

17.1. Higher Order Thinking Skills Through Scaffolding

17.2. Anderson's 6 dimensions

18. Teaching Teachers how to teach = content. Showing teachers how to teach = modelng. Those who can, teach, those who can't teach teachers?

18.1. Important to DEBRIEF / Think out loud about model to ensure students in fact recognize the modeling and have opportunity to consider its import. (Wubbels, Korthagen, and Broekman)

18.1.1. Dialogue about how modeling applies to specific cases.

18.2. Some instructional strategies are based on development and content. Not all are deemed "age appropriate" or content appropriate. How to address this?

18.2.1. Live modeling / Role Playing Role playing sometimes seen as "childish" to Teacher Educators (Wideen et al. (1998)

18.3. Process of Teacher Education: Demonstrate, Articulate, Practice, Apply

19. NEW CHAPTER: Sub-study: case study examination of PT faculty to identify modeling (c.f. Lunenberg et al., 2007)

20. Best practices in education is a moving target. As faculty distance temporally from the classroom, the rift between what "WAS" best practice and what "IS" becomes wider. While it is easy to report on what one 'ought' to do, modeling is both more challenging and more effective. (Bell Interview)

21. Increasing pressure on teacher performance reflects on teacher preparation programs. Are we doing enough to prepare teachers to be effective teachers?

21.1. Focus on teacher performance, we forget to focus on how learning occurs.


23. Implicit vs. Explicit modeling

23.1. This could be a separate study or a subset.



26. Metacommentary (Wood and Geddis (1999)

27. Public theory (scholastic) vs. Personal theory (from practice) (Bullough, R. V. (1997)), (Mieke Lunenberg

27.1. "Dismissal of public theory is dangerous if student teachers begin reinventing the wheel based on limited experience." (Mieke Lunenberg

28. Show and Tell: Modeling and Reflecting as a Critical (and Largely Absent) Tools in Teacher Education

29. Situate Learning (Learning in a specific context) as a relevant factor. See: Putnam and Borko, 2000)

30. Expectations and assessments for Teacher Educators often focus on areas outside their practice of teacher training. (Lunenburg)

31. Policy and Practice

31.1. Often Policy is written, but not followed up in practice (see Kennedy, et. al. 2014)

32. Three Way Comparison: Explicit teaching vs. Video Modeling vs. Live Modeling

32.1. Possibly too big for dis.