My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The textbook states that intelluctual purposes of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills. (pg. 22)

1.2. The textbook states that economic purposes of schooling are to prepare students for future occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor. (pg. 22)

1.3. The textbook defines perspective as a model for understanding, analyzing, and solving educational problems. (pg. 23)

1.4. My paticular perspective is conservative. Conservative perspective is a positive view of U.S. society and capitalism is the best economic system. It has a great degree of individual freedom. Social problems are caused by individuals or groups and those individuals or groups must solve their own problems. (pg. 26)

1.5. My vision of education is traditional. Traditional views show the traditional values of U.S. society. These values can be: hard work, family unity, and individual initiative. (pg. 26)

1.6. Conservatives can support a return to basics. This includes children strengthening literacy or reading skills. This also can include writing and other learning. Also, conservatives believe students and schools should have accountability measures on performance and knowledge. Standards should be set for what students should know at certain grade levels. (pg. 30)

1.7. Lawrence A. Cremin defines education as the deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to transmit, evoke, or acquire knowledge, attitudes, skills, or sensibilities, as well as any outcomes of that effort. (1977, pp. 135-136)

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. The book states that in 1820 it was made known to everyone interested in education that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively. (pg. 67)

2.2. The book also talks about how there was a significant number of girls in the middle of the nineteenth century who attended elementary schools. (pg. 68)

2.3. In 1821 a woman named Emma Willard started the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York. The women had classes such as: mathematics, science, history, and geography. (pg. 68)

2.4. During the years of 1880 and 1920 there were lots of students who were attending public high schools and by 1940 about 6.5 million were enrolled in public high school. Students who went to school before these years attended private academies. (pg. 72)

2.5. The book states that the Cardinal Principles or the main goals of secondary education, were: health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home-membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, and ethical character. (pg. 73)

2.6. The book discusses how traditionalist believed in knowledge-centered education, a traditional subject-centered curriculum, teacher-centered education, discipline and authority, and the defense of academic standards in the name of excellence. (pg. 74)

2.7. The book also discusses how progressives believed in experimental education, a curriculum that responded to both the needs of students and the times, child-centered education, freedom and individualism, and the relativism of academic standards in the name of equity. (pg. 74)

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. The four levels of sociological analysis are: societal level, institutional level, interpersonal level, and intrapsychic level. (pg. 114)

3.2. The book states that a good definition of theory is an integration of all known principles, laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study. (pg. 117)

3.3. The book states that teachers have as many as 1000 interpersonal contacts each day with students in the classroom. (pg. 124)

3.4. The book says teachers are models for students and, as instructional leaders, teachers set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy. (pg. 124)

3.5. The five classes of people in the United States are: upper class, upper middle class, lower middle class, working class, and under class. The working class makes up 40% of the population. (pg. 126)

3.6. The book defines tracking as the placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations. (pg. 127)

3.7. The book says that there are four major types of college students: careerists, intellectuals, strivers, and unconnected. (pg. 125)

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. This chapter of the book discusses how every teacher has their own philosophy of teaching. They have their own ideas, thoughts, ways of teaching, and ways of interacting with other teachers, parents, and students. (pg. 179)

4.2. The book states that an idealist teacher takes an active part in their student's learning. This type of teacher lectures some, but student's are encouraged to analyze, discuss, and apply what they learn to contemporary society. Students work in groups or by themselves. (pg. 182)

4.3. The book states that a realist teacher must present ideas and lessons in a clear and consistent manner. It is the teacher's job to enable student's to learn objective methods of evaluating works of art, music, poetry, and literature. (pg. 185)

4.4. The book says that a realist teacher's curriculum would consist of: math, science, reading, writing, and humanities. They feel students should master these to be a part of society. (pg. 185)

4.5. The book says that Dewey's progressive method rested on the notion that children were active, organic beings, growing and changing, and require a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development. (pg. 188)

4.6. The book states that in a progressive setting, the teacher is not the authoritarian figure which controls all aspects of the class. The teacher acts as a facilitator. The teacher encourages the students and offers suggestions. (pg. 189)

4.7. The book states that in a progressive classroom, the teacher writes the curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum. (pg. 189)

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. The book states that non minority families have moved out of the cities and into the suburbs, leading to a high degree of residential segregation. (pg. 222)

5.2. Willard Walter wrote the following in the textbook, The school is a unity of interacting personalities. The personalities of all who meet in the school are bound together in an organic relation. (pg. 230)

5.3. The NCLB states that teachers are "highly qualified" if they have a college degree, full certification or licensure and knows content knowledge of subjects being taught. (pg. 233)

5.4. According to the textbook, teachers have lots of different roles. A teacher can be a researcher, facilitator of learning, program developer, administrator, decision maker, colleague, and friend. (pg. 234)

5.5. The book states that good teachers are creators. They take the dailiness of teaching and turn each day into a special event. (pg. 235)

5.6. The book also says that good teachers genuinely like their students, have a commitment to their subject matter, are reasonably orderly in terms of their classroom organization, and have at least a working sense of humor. (pg. 235)

5.7. The term out-of-field teaching is used when a teacher is assigned to teach a subject that does not match their training or education. (pg. 236)

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. The book says that the humanist curriculum focuses on students gaining knowledge in the liberal arts. The liberal arts are English, foreign languages, mathematics, history, and science. (pg. 282)

6.2. The book states that social efficiency curriculum was rooted in the belief that different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling. (pg. 283)

6.3. The book also states that the developmental curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society. (pg. 284)

6.4. The book says that social meliorist curriculum focused on students thinking about how they could help solve societal problems or how they could change the society. (pg. 285)

6.5. Debates and conflicts are more likely to occur in public schools because it is hard for there to be agreements on educational topics. The curriculum of education is one of the big debates. (pg. 287)

6.6. Curriculum policy making is considered a state and local matter in the United States. The government controls the educational curriculum in many other countries. (pg. 287)

6.7. The book talks about social relations of cultural relevant pedagogy and how teachers can help their students. Some of these ways are: the teacher-student relationships is fluid, the teacher demonstrates a connectedness with all students, and the teacher encourages a community of learners. (pg. 294)

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. The book states that estate stratification occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth. (pg. 340)

7.2. The book also says that class stratification occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits. (pg. 340)

7.3. The book states that students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. Education can be extremely expensive. Students will need parents for financial support. (pg. 342)

7.4. The book says that data has shown peer groups have a significant influence on student's attitudes toward learning. (pg. 342)

7.5. The book states that students from working-class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve, drop out, and resist the curriculum of the school. (pg. 342)

7.6. The book says that in the last twenty years, gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced. (pg. 343)

7.7. This chapter of the book discussed the following issues: relationship between education, occupation, and the reproduction of social inequalities. (pg. 378)

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. The book states that functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background. (pg. 418)

8.2. The book says that functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences. (pg. 418)

8.3. The book states that cultural difference theorists agree that there are cultural and family differences between working class and nonwhite students, and white middle-class students. (pg. 423)

8.4. The book says that one type of cultural difference theory sees working-class and nonwhite students are resisting the dominant culture of the schools. (pg. 426)

8.5. The book states that Asian-Americans possess family values that place enormous emphasis on educational achievement and have high expectations for their children. (pg. 427)

8.6. The book says that the key is to move past the ideological and to eliminate the social and educational barriers to school success for working-class and nonwhite students. (pg. 427)

8.7. The book states that public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. (pg. 428)

9. Educational Reform

9.1. The book states that Jessica battled against the effects of poverty, drugs, gangs, homelessness, family violence and abuse, and language difficulties to give her students an opportunity to succeed in school and life. (pg. 510)

9.2. The book says that jessica went above and beyond to help her students. She drove them to colleges and helped them fill out applications. (pg. 511)

9.3. This chapter discussed a teacher (Jessica) who spent ten years teaching and decided to go back and be a journalist because it took to much personal sacrifice and she missed writing. (pg. 511)

9.4. The book states that a talented and dedicated teacher can make a difference. (pg. 511)

9.5. The book says that President Obama established the Race to the Top Fund through the historic American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. (pg. 518)

9.6. Intersectional choice plans include public and private schools. Intrasectional school choice policies include only public schools. (pg. 521)

9.7. The chapter states that charter schools are paid for by tax dollars and must be open to all students in the school district. (pg. 523)