Instructional Design

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Instructional Design by Mind Map: Instructional Design

1. Phase 10: Evaluation Plan

1.1. Objectives

1.2. Performance Standards

1.3. Data Collection

1.3.1. Direct testing

1.3.2. Analysis of naturally occurring events

1.3.3. Direct/indirect observations

1.3.4. Portfolios

1.3.5. Exhibitions

1.4. Implementation

1.4.1. When

1.4.2. How

1.5. Analysis

1.5.1. Frequency distribution

1.5.2. Frequency graphs or histograms

1.5.3. Descriptive stats

1.5.4. Respondent comments

1.6. Utilization

1.6.1. Evaluation Report

1.6.1.1. Executive summary

1.6.2. Oral Report

2. Phase 11: Implementation Plan

2.1. Model & Rationale

2.1.1. Configuration, linkages, environment, resources (CLER)

2.1.1.1. Configuration

2.1.1.1.1. Designer system

2.1.1.1.2. Client system

2.1.1.1.3. Configurational relationships

2.1.1.2. Linkages

2.1.1.2.1. Formal

2.1.1.2.2. Informal

2.1.1.3. Environment

2.1.1.3.1. Physical

2.1.1.3.2. Social

2.1.1.3.3. Intellectual

2.1.1.4. Resources

2.1.1.4.1. Conceptual

2.1.1.4.2. Influence

2.1.1.4.3. Material

2.1.1.4.4. Personnel

2.1.1.4.5. Institutional

2.1.1.4.6. Time

2.1.1.5. Identifies, manipulates, and capitalizes on various configurational relationships

2.1.2. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)

2.1.2.1. What change is

2.1.2.2. How change affects someone personally

2.1.2.3. Informational and personal

2.2. Plan

2.2.1. Diffusion - Communicating info to a client and target audience about an innovation

2.2.2. Adoption - Decision to use the innovation

2.2.3. Innovation - New to an entity who is considering using it

2.2.3.1. Advantage

2.2.3.2. Compatibility with values/needs/experiences

2.2.3.3. Innovation complexity

2.2.3.4. Ability to try

2.2.3.5. Observable results

2.2.4. Communication

2.2.5. Time

2.2.6. Social system

3. Phase 12: Project Management Considerations

3.1. Schedule

3.1.1. Fixed duration

3.1.2. Variable duration

3.2. Budget

3.2.1. Labor costs

3.2.2. Rental of equipment

3.2.3. Facilities

3.2.4. Production material

3.3. Project Management

3.3.1. Scope/Constraints

3.3.1.1. Time available

3.3.1.2. Degree of quality

3.3.1.3. Budget

3.3.2. Management activities

3.3.2.1. Starting

3.3.2.2. Managing resources

3.3.2.3. Tracking

3.3.2.4. Project reporting

3.4. Proposal Preperation

3.4.1. Project agreement

3.4.1.1. Statement of purpose

3.4.1.2. Plan of work

3.4.1.3. Milestones and deliverables

3.4.1.4. Budget

3.4.1.5. Schedule

3.4.1.6. Staffing

3.4.2. Legal considerations

3.4.2.1. Contracts may be needed

3.4.2.2. State and federal mandates

3.4.2.2.1. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

3.4.2.2.2. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

3.4.2.2.3. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

3.4.2.2.4. Environmental Resources Act (ERA)

3.4.2.2.5. Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)

3.4.2.3. Common legal problems in training

3.4.2.3.1. Failure to perform training

3.4.2.3.2. Emotional trauma or physical injury from training

3.4.2.3.3. Intellectual property infringement

3.4.2.3.4. Discriminatory content

3.4.2.3.5. Injury due to human error

3.4.2.3.6. Access to training

3.4.2.3.7. Testing and evaluation

3.4.2.3.8. Failure to perform

3.4.2.3.9. Inadequate documentation

4. Phase 1: Statement of Intent

4.1. Statement of Intent

4.1.1. Identify Instructional Problem

4.2. Target Audience

4.3. Timeline

4.4. Context

5. Phase 2: Needs Assessment and Goal Analysis

5.1. Instructional Aim

5.2. Performance Assessment

5.2.1. How will instruction help the problem

5.2.2. Needs Assessment

5.2.2.1. Normative

5.2.2.2. Comparative

5.2.2.3. Felt

5.2.2.4. Expressed

5.2.2.5. Anticipated

5.2.2.6. Critical

5.2.3. Goal Analysis

5.3. Learner Personas

6. Phase 3: Learner and Contextual Analysis

6.1. Contextual Levels

6.1.1. Orienting Context

6.1.1.1. Goals

6.1.1.2. Perceived Utility

6.1.1.3. Perception of Accountability

6.1.1.4. Factors

6.1.1.4.1. Learner Factors

6.1.1.4.2. Immediate Environment Factors

6.1.1.4.3. Organizational Factors

6.1.2. Instructional Context

6.1.3. Transfer Context

7. Phase 4: Task Analysis

7.1. Content Structures

7.1.1. Facts

7.1.2. Concepts

7.1.3. Principles and Rules

7.1.4. Procedures

7.1.5. Interpersonal Skills

7.1.6. Attitudes

7.2. Topic Analysis

7.3. Procedural/Information-Processing Analysis

8. Before You Start

8.1. Designers

8.1.1. Instructional Designer (YOU)

8.1.2. Subject Matter Expert

8.1.3. Evaluator

8.2. Design Models

8.2.1. ADDIE Model

8.2.2. A Basic Model

8.2.2.1. Learners

8.2.2.2. Objectives

8.2.2.3. Methods

8.2.2.4. Evaluation

8.3. Will instruction solve the problem?

9. Phase 5: Instructional Objective

9.1. Domain

9.1.1. Cognitive

9.1.1.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

9.1.1.1.1. Remember

9.1.1.1.2. Understand

9.1.1.1.3. Apply

9.1.1.1.4. Analyze

9.1.1.1.5. Evaluate

9.1.1.1.6. Create

9.1.2. Pychomotor

9.1.2.1. Dave's Model

9.1.2.1.1. Imitate

9.1.2.1.2. Manipulate

9.1.2.1.3. Precision

9.1.2.1.4. Articulation

9.1.2.1.5. Naturalization

9.1.2.2. Simpson's Model

9.1.2.2.1. Perception

9.1.2.2.2. Set

9.1.2.2.3. Guided Response

9.1.2.2.4. Mechanism

9.1.2.2.5. Complex Overt Response

9.1.2.2.6. Adaptation

9.1.2.2.7. Origination

9.1.2.3. Harrow's Model

9.1.2.3.1. Reflex Movement

9.1.2.3.2. Basic Fundamental Movements

9.1.2.3.3. Perceptual Abilities

9.1.2.3.4. Physical Abilities

9.1.2.3.5. Skilled Movements

9.1.2.3.6. Nondiscursive Communication

9.1.3. Affective

9.1.3.1. Theories of Attitude Formation and Change

9.1.3.1.1. Behavioral Learning Theory

9.1.3.1.2. Cognitive Dissonance Theory

9.1.3.1.3. Affective-Cognitive Consistency

9.1.3.1.4. Social Judgment Theories

9.1.3.1.5. Social Learning Theory

9.1.3.1.6. Functional Theories

9.1.3.1.7. Krathwohl’s Taxonomy

9.2. Taxonomy Alignment

9.3. Parsing the Objectives

10. Phase 6: Sequencing Strategies

10.1. Objectives

10.1.1. Expanded Performance-Content Matrix

10.1.1.1. Face, concept, principle/rule, procedure, interpersonal skill, or attitude

10.1.1.2. Recall or application

10.2. Sequencing

10.2.1. Posner and Strike

10.2.1.1. Learning-Related

10.2.1.1.1. Identifiable Prerequisite

10.2.1.1.2. Familiarity

10.2.1.1.3. Difficulty

10.2.1.1.4. Interest

10.2.1.1.5. Development

10.2.1.2. World-Related

10.2.1.2.1. Spatial

10.2.1.2.2. Temporal

10.2.1.2.3. Physical

10.2.1.3. Concept-Related

10.2.1.3.1. Class Relations

10.2.1.3.2. Propositional Relations

10.2.1.3.3. Sophistication

10.2.1.3.4. Logical Prerequisite

10.2.2. Elaboration Theory

10.2.2.1. Content Expertise

10.2.2.1.1. Conceptual Elaboration

10.2.2.1.2. Theoretical Elaboration

10.2.2.2. Task Expertise

10.2.3. Gagne

10.2.3.1. Conditions of Learning

10.2.3.1.1. Intellectual skills (procedural knowledge)

10.2.3.1.2. Verbal information (declarative knowledge)

10.2.3.1.3. Cognitive strategies (techniques of thinking, analyzing, and solving problems)

10.2.3.1.4. Motor skills (executing movements)

10.2.3.1.5. Attitudes (mental states that influence the choice of actions)

10.2.3.2. Instructional Events

10.2.3.2.1. Gaining attention (reception)

10.2.3.2.2. Informing learners of the objective (expectancy)

10.2.3.2.3. Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)

10.2.3.2.4. Presenting the stimulus (selective perception)

10.2.3.2.5. Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)

10.2.3.2.6. Eliciting performance (responding)

10.2.3.2.7. Providing feedback (reinforcement)

10.2.3.2.8. Assessing performance (retrieval)

10.2.3.2.9. Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)

10.3. Strategies

10.3.1. Motivational strategy

10.3.2. Strategy for initial presentation

10.3.3. Generative strategy

10.3.3.1. Recall

10.3.3.1.1. Repetition

10.3.3.1.2. Rehearsal

10.3.3.1.3. Review

10.3.3.1.4. Mnemonic Devices

10.3.3.2. Integration

10.3.3.2.1. Paraphrasing

10.3.3.2.2. Generating questions and examples

10.3.3.3. Organizational

10.3.3.3.1. Outlines

10.3.3.3.2. Categorizing

10.3.3.4. Elaboration

10.3.3.4.1. Generating mental images

10.3.3.4.2. Creating diagrams

10.3.3.4.3. Relating existing knowledge to new info

10.3.4. Strategy for providing feedback to learner

10.3.5. Prescriptions for instructional strategies

10.3.5.1. Fact

10.3.5.1.1. Concrete

10.3.5.1.2. Abstract

10.3.5.1.3. Lists

10.3.5.2. Concept

10.3.5.3. Principles and Rules

10.3.5.3.1. RULEG

10.3.5.3.2. EGRUL

10.3.5.4. Procedures

10.3.5.4.1. Cognitive

10.3.5.4.2. Psychomotor

10.3.5.5. Interpersonal

10.3.5.6. Attitude

11. Phase 7: Sample Lesson

11.1. Description and Pre-instructional Stratagies

11.1.1. Pretests

11.1.1.1. Alert students to what is expected

11.1.1.2. Length of instruction is short and loosely structured

11.1.1.3. Above-average, older, or mature learners

11.1.1.4. Have some familiarity with content

11.1.2. Behavioral objectives

11.1.2.1. Inform exactly what’s expected

11.1.2.2. Used to preface a passage

11.1.2.3. Middle ability students

11.1.2.4. Best with traditional methods like lectures

11.1.3. Overviews

11.1.3.1. Prepare for task

11.1.3.2. Little to no structure

11.1.3.3. Low or high ability students

11.1.3.4. Facts or concepts

11.1.4. Advance organizer

11.1.4.1. Conceptual framework to clarify content

11.1.4.2. Should have a dominant structure

11.1.4.3. Above average ability, maturity, sophistication

11.1.4.4. Factual info

11.1.4.5. Comparative Organizer - Compare new and old content

11.1.4.6. Expository organizer - Incorporates relevant old info

11.2. Gagne

11.3. Plan B

11.4. Assessment

11.5. Rationale for Design

11.5.1. Learning Theories - How you learn

11.5.1.1. Behavioral Learning Theory

11.5.1.1.1. Positive Rewards

11.5.1.1.2. Negative Punishments

11.5.1.2. Social Learning Theory

11.5.1.2.1. Modelling after someone

11.5.1.2.2. Attention

11.5.1.2.3. Retention

11.5.1.2.4. Production

11.5.1.2.5. Motivation

11.5.1.3. Cognitive Theory

11.5.1.3.1. Concerned with the mind

11.5.2. Instructional Theory - How you ensure desired learning occurs

11.5.3. Instructional Design Model - How you create an effective lesson

12. Phase 8: Materiels & Media

12.1. Instructional Media Selection

12.1.1. Preinstructional Strategy

12.1.2. Initial Presentation

12.1.3. Generative Stratagy

12.1.4. Transitions

12.1.5. Cognitive Load

12.1.5.1. Intrinsic - Interactivity of elements

12.1.5.2. Extraneous - Design or layout

12.1.5.3. Goal-Free - Determine what is known, then find shortest path to solution

12.1.5.4. Worked-Example - How to solve by presenting steps

12.1.5.5. Split-Attention - Illustration and text divide attention to comprehend material

12.1.5.6. Redundancy - Text with text and illustration increases load

12.2. Rationale

12.2.1. Heuristics

12.2.1.1. Make it concrete

12.2.1.2. Control the step size

12.2.1.3. Use appropriate pacing

12.2.1.4. Maintain consistency

12.2.1.5. Use cues

12.3. Strengths and Limitations

12.3.1. Group (Lecture)

12.3.1.1. Pro - Familiar convention, quick to design, direct control of class, serves large numbers, easy to change, feasible communication

12.3.1.2. Con - Passive learning, not adaptive, instruction stops with questioning, inappropriate for psychomotor, consistency difficult, auditory issues may arise

12.3.2. Distance Education

12.3.2.1. Pro - Large number can "attend" without going to campus, quality equipment can transmit high quality presentations, con experience as it happens, can study and complete anytime and anywhere

12.3.2.2. Con - Quality may be inferior, interactions less fluid, hardware requirements may be expensive, lacks pacing, may have high dropout rate

12.3.3. Self-Paced

12.3.3.1. Pro - Con complete at own pace, increases attention, instructor spends less time making presentations, reduces cost of program

12.3.3.2. Con - Lack of interaction, lead to monotony and lack of interest, self discipline required, procrastination leads to delays, requires team planning with faculty

12.3.4. Small Group

12.3.4.1. Pro - Promotes active learning, allows discussions and working together, acquires experience in listening and oral expression, instructor gains increased awareness of student progress

12.3.4.2. Con - Careful planning to create participation required, feedback needed to keep on track, activities are supplemental, costs may prohibit this approach

12.4. Example

12.4.1. Drill and Practice

12.4.2. Tutorials

12.4.3. Simulations

12.4.4. Games

12.4.5. Hypermedia

12.5. Justification of Developed Media

12.5.1. Mayer's Principles

12.5.1.1. Reducing extraneous overload

12.5.1.1.1. Coherence - Exclusion of extra info in animations/narrations

12.5.1.1.2. Signaling - Learning enhanced with cues to draw attention

12.5.1.1.3. Redundancy - Reduce redundancy stops overload of working memory

12.5.1.1.4. Spatial contiguity - Relevant items presented in close proximity

12.5.1.1.5. Temporal contiguity - Relevant items presented simultaneously

12.5.1.2. Managing essential overload

12.5.1.2.1. Segmenting - Present narrated animation in learner paced segments

12.5.1.2.2. Pre-training - Understand basic infor before viewing animation

12.5.1.2.3. Modality - Animation and narration more effect than animation and text

12.5.1.3. Fostering generative processing

12.5.1.3.1. Personalization - Written in conversational style

12.5.1.3.2. Voice - Narration be spoken in standard accented voice

13. Phase 9: Sample Assessment

13.1. Assessment Instrument

13.1.1. Objective tests

13.1.1.1. Multiple choice

13.1.1.2. True-false

13.1.1.3. Matching

13.1.2. Constructed-response tests

13.1.2.1. Completion (fill in the blank)

13.1.2.2. Short essay

13.1.2.3. Long essay

13.1.2.4. Problem-Solving

13.1.3. Testing skill/behavior

13.1.3.1. Direct testing

13.1.3.2. Analysis of natural results

13.1.3.3. Ratings of behaviors

13.1.3.4. Checklists of behaviors

13.1.3.5. Rating scales

13.1.3.6. Rubrics

13.1.3.7. Anecdotal records

13.1.3.8. Indirect checklist/rating measures

13.1.3.9. Portfolio assessments

13.1.3.10. Exhibitions

13.1.4. Testing attitudes

13.1.4.1. Observation/assessment

13.1.4.2. Questionnaire/survey

13.1.4.3. Interviews

13.1.5. Quality of tests

13.1.5.1. Validity

13.1.5.1.1. Face - Judgement that it appears to assess measure of interest

13.1.5.1.2. Content - involves more specific examination of individual items

13.1.5.2. Reliability

13.1.5.2.1. Test-retest correlates scores on two diff administrations

13.1.5.2.2. Parallel forms correlates scores on similar tests taken at diff times

13.1.5.2.3. Split-half correlates scores on half test with other half

13.1.5.2.4. Internal-consistency reliability is comparable to performing all split half

13.1.5.3. Relative standards - Compare with other learners

13.1.5.4. Absolute standards - Compare against standards

13.2. Alignment

13.3. Context

13.3.1. Formative

13.3.1.1. During development

13.3.1.2. Early in the process

13.3.2. Summative

13.3.2.1. Major outcomes in the end

13.3.2.2. Key info from post tests or final

13.3.3. Confirmative

13.3.3.1. Continuous, long-term, and follow up research

13.3.3.2. Evaluation extends beyond course