Nootropic Stack

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Nootropic Stack by Mind Map: Nootropic Stack

1. Synthetic B1

1.1. Sulbutiamine

1.1.1. Dosage

1.1.1.1. Solubility: fat soluble, take with meals

1.1.1.2. Recommended: 400mg a day, 4 times a week

1.1.1.3. Others: 200-600mg divided into two doses a day

1.1.1.4. Minimum: 200mg a day

1.1.1.5. Maximum: 1200mg a day

1.1.2. Half-Life

1.1.2.1. Half-life: 5 hours

1.1.2.2. Peak plasma time: 20-60 minutes

1.1.2.3. Effects duration: 6-8 hours

1.1.3. Mechanism of Action

1.1.3.1. Synthetic molecule which consists of two Thiamine (Vitamin B1) molecules bound together by a sulfur group

1.1.3.2. Crosses the blood-brain barrier fairly efficiently

1.1.3.3. Raises the levels of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters in the brain

1.1.3.4. May be helpful with neurotransmission

1.1.3.5. Potentiation of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic transmission

1.1.4. Benefits

1.1.4.1. Improves memory and episodic memory

1.1.4.2. Useful in alleviating fatigue

1.1.4.3. Increase motivation by enhancing the effects of dopamine

1.1.4.4. Increase in energy and mental alertness

1.1.4.5. Promote increased brain energy and cognitive function

1.1.4.6. Generally improved mood and enhanced feeling of well-being

1.1.4.7. Helping users to convert food into energy more efficiently

1.1.4.8. Improvement of strength to relaxation

1.1.4.9. Used by athletes interested in improving not only strength but also recovery time

1.1.4.10. Known to help improve one's stamina and endurance

1.1.5. Side Effects

1.1.5.1. Sulbutiamine has few reported adverse effects at therapeutic dosages

1.1.5.2. In one study involving 1772 patients, a dose of 400mg per day produced side effects in 0.6% of people

1.1.5.3. The most noted effect was nausea (0.3%)

1.1.5.4. Some respond well with high dosages while others don't. It is advised to start low and see how you react.

1.1.5.5. Some may experience headaches at a high dose. Recommended pair with choline.

1.1.6. References

1.1.6.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulbutiamine

1.1.6.2. http://examine.com/supplements/Sulbutiamine/

1.1.6.3. http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=3565071

1.1.6.4. http://www.smarternootropics.com/sulbutiamine/

2. Acetylcholine Precursors

2.1. Uridine Monophosphate (UMP)

2.1.1. Dosage

2.1.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take with food out of prudence, not an absolute requirement

2.1.1.2. Recommended: 300 mg a day

2.1.1.3. Others: 150-250mg 1-2 times a day

2.1.1.4. Minimum: 150mg a day

2.1.1.5. Maximum: 500mg a day

2.1.2. Half-Life

2.1.2.1. Half-life: 2-5 hours

2.1.2.2. Peak plasma time: 1-2 hours

2.1.3. Mechanism of Action

2.1.3.1. Naturally occurring substance manufactured by the liver

2.1.3.2. It is a nucleotide and is an important building block of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

2.1.3.3. Increases the synthesis of cellular membranes, because of major building blocks of RNA

2.1.3.4. RNA has an integral role in the formation and encoding of memories via Long-Term Potentiation

2.1.3.5. Can be found in many different dietary sources like tomatoes, broccoli, beer, and brewer's yeast

2.1.3.6. Monophosphate form of the supplement is less expensive and may be taken orally or sublingually

2.1.3.7. Increases the synthesis of cellular membranes

2.1.3.8. Glycosylated pyrimidine-analog containing uracil attached to a ribose ring (or more specifically, a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond

2.1.3.9. Thought to benefit synaptic functions due to increasing levels of brain phosphatidylcholine, which is a component of dendrite membranes

2.1.3.10. Via providing phoshpatidylcholine, Uridine supposedly helps to create membranes and dendrites which may aid synaptic function

2.1.3.11. Activation of the P2Y2 receptor appears to promote the actions of NGF via its own receptor (TrkA), which ultimately appears that agonists of the P2Y2 receptor augment NGF-induced neuronal growth

2.1.3.12. Appears to enhance dopamine output from activated neurons without significantly affecting basal levels of dopamine

2.1.3.13. Thought to aid Alzheimer's Disease due to helping with synaptic connections, which appear to be reduced in the state of Alzheimer's

2.1.3.14. Uridine administration increases CDP-choline levels in the brain

2.1.3.15. Can increase brain phosphocholine levels in rats and humans where a 3-6% in choline levels in serum result in an increase of 10-22% phosphocholine in the brain

2.1.3.16. Increases the synthesis of cellular membranes

2.1.3.17. Synergistic with Fish Oil

2.1.4. Benefits

2.1.4.1. Potentially cognitive enhancing properties

2.1.4.2. Thought to have cognitive benefits

2.1.4.3. Can help to improve both working memory and fluid intelligence

2.1.4.4. Better memory function

2.1.4.5. Can allow you to write, read, or simply just concentrate on a task at hand with what seems like much less conscious effort

2.1.4.6. Helpful in enhancing the neurons of the brain

2.1.4.7. Protecting the brain itself to some degree, working synergistically with fish oil

2.1.4.8. Method to improve age related memory loss

2.1.4.9. Boosts mood by increasing levels of dopamine in the brain

2.1.4.10. Which not only improves your mood but your motivation, anxiety, and energy as well

2.1.4.11. Increases the synthesis of a powerful brain chemical known as phosphatidylcholine

2.1.4.12. Then it increases the production of neurites

2.1.4.13. Neurites are projections from neurons, and are capable of either sending or receiving signals from the neurons

2.1.4.14. Essentially, more neurites means more possible connections within the brain

2.1.4.15. Can help to slow down the process of brain aging

2.1.4.16. Repairs brain membrane fluidity, so scientists think that it might actually improve the health of your brain cells

2.1.5. Side Effects

2.1.5.1. As far as side effects are concerned, Uridine is a very safe and well-tolerated supplement

2.1.5.2. It can be taken by every healthy adult

2.1.5.3. As long as the dosage recommendations are followed, the only side effects that might be present include headaches, fatigue, nervousness, and some gastrointestinal distress

2.1.5.4. Of course, these are usually very mild and usually the result of taking too large of a dose

2.1.5.5. There is also some evidence to suggest that this supplement may lower levels of vitamin B12

2.1.5.6. The solution to this is to take a B12 and B9 supplement

2.1.5.7. Other studies have shown that the Omega-3 supplement DHA is synergistic when taken in combination with Uridine

2.1.6. References

2.1.6.1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16055952

2.1.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19400698

2.1.6.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16631143

2.1.6.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12737935

2.1.6.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1663114

2.1.6.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15939540

2.1.6.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683870

2.1.6.8. http://www.biologicalpsychiatryjournal.com/article/S0006-3223%2804%2901261-2/abstract

2.1.6.9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7972861

2.1.6.10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477148

2.1.6.11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16319319

2.1.6.12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17184749

2.1.6.13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17056809

2.1.6.14. http://examine.com/supplements/Uridine/

2.1.6.15. http://nootriment.com/uridine-supplements/

2.1.6.16. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014709

2.2. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)

2.2.1. Dosage

2.2.1.1. Solubility: lipid soluble, take with fat morning/noon

2.2.1.2. Recommended: 800mg a day

2.2.1.3. Others: 400mg 1-3 times a day

2.2.1.4. Minimum: 400mg a day

2.2.1.5. Maximum: 5000mg a day

2.2.2. Half-Life

2.2.2.1. Half-life: 20-24 hours, 16-30 hours

2.2.2.2. Peak plasma time: rose after 1 hour, peak at 3-4 hours

2.2.3. Mechanism of Action

2.2.3.1. One of the most important effects of is to increase choline supply in the brain

2.2.3.2. Hydrophobic lipid that is found in the fatty substance lecithin

2.2.3.3. Are almost always derived from the lecithin in soy (GMO free)

2.2.3.4. Critical substance used in the process of creating other lipids that help the brain function

2.2.3.5. Something as essential as the Omega-3 DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid are all produced through a process called phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis

2.2.3.6. This process morphs Phosphatidylcholine into various, and important, fatty acids

2.2.3.7. Those brain fatty acids assist synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by connecting to certain receptors

2.2.3.8. When protein kinase C interacts with pre-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, it allows for these fatty acids to target the receptor

2.2.3.9. Since these fatty acids interact with certain acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine is important to cognition

2.2.3.10. These fatty acids are thus presumed to be important for learning and memory

2.2.3.11. Can be found in eggs, soybeans, mustard, sunflower, and other foods

2.2.3.12. Phosphatidylcholine is a vital substance found in every cell of the human body

2.2.3.13. Used to build and repair new cell membranes

2.2.3.14. One of the most important effects of is to increase choline supply in the brain

2.2.3.15. Can be broken down in the brain into choline and sphingomyelin

2.2.3.16. Sphingomyelin is thought to be essential in the development and protection of nerve cells

2.2.3.17. Choline is a precursor to synthesize Acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that is used in a number of cognitive processes

2.2.3.18. Plays a vital role in the underlying processes involved in memory and learning to attention and sensory perception

2.2.4. Benefits

2.2.4.1. Can improve long-term memory storage, learning capacity, fluid intelligence, reasoning and focus

2.2.4.2. Boost your memory, enhance intellectual skills, improve the health of your brain and even increase concentration

2.2.4.3. Can improve spatial learning and memory

2.2.4.4. Positive effects on human cognition

2.2.4.5. Has a positive effect on brain cell health and can enhance neuroplasticity

2.2.4.6. By ensuring the integrity of your neuron membranes, you can make meaningful improvements to cognitive functioning and neuron communication

2.2.4.7. Exhibits effects as a modulator of inflammation

2.2.4.8. Has even shown to promote a healthy intestinal tract

2.2.4.9. May also be a gradual and effective anti-inflammatory, specifically for the gut

2.2.4.10. May also aid in the transport and delivery of lipids throughout the body (controlled by the liver), help in membrane mediated cell signaling, and the activation of a number of other enzymes

2.2.4.11. Supports liver repair and protecting against all three forms of hepatitis

2.2.4.12. Helps to avoid a build-up of fatty acids and other fat cells within the liver

2.2.4.13. There is also evidence that this supplement may boost the immune system and help to protect against infections and disease

2.2.4.14. Benefits involve energy metabolism of fatty acids and the transportation of fats through cell membranes

2.2.4.15. Neuropsychiatric Disorders

2.2.4.16. Skin Health

2.2.4.17. Fat Metabolism

2.2.4.18. Liver Health

2.2.4.19. Weight Loss

2.2.5. Side Effects

2.2.5.1. Phosphatidylcholine has shown to be remarkably safe in many scientific studies

2.2.5.2. Most side effects are mild, and transitory in nature

2.2.5.3. Naturally occurring in foods we eat

2.2.5.4. Decades of scientific study proving its safety

2.2.5.5. Approved as safe to consume in over the counter supplements

2.2.5.6. Phosphatidylcholine is safe with low risk of serious side effects

2.2.5.7. There are no warnings or notable drug or medication interactions to worry about, either

2.2.5.8. Some of the mild side effects associated with Phosphatidylcholine are excessive sweating, diarrhea, and upset stomach

2.2.5.9. These are generally only present when taken in higher dose levels

2.2.6. References

2.2.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038136/?tool=pmcentrez

2.2.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996791/?tool=pmcentrez

2.2.6.3. http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/7/966.long

2.2.6.4. http://nootriment.com/phosphatidylcholine-benefits/

2.2.6.5. http://www.phosphatidylcholine.org/

2.3. Choline Bitartrate

2.3.1. Dosage

2.3.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

2.3.1.2. Recommended: 1000mg a day

2.3.1.3. Others: 500mg 2 times a day

2.3.1.4. Others: 1500mg a day

2.3.1.5. Minimum: 500mg a day

2.3.1.6. Maximum: 3500mg a day

2.3.2. Half-Life

2.3.2.1. Half-life: 5 hours

2.3.3. Mechanism of Action

2.3.3.1. Choline acts as a precursor for a variety of phospholipids (cell membranes) and neurotransmitters

2.3.3.2. Specifically, acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) is produced with choline as the essential nutrient behind it

2.3.3.3. These neurotransmitters are involved in some crucial brain-body activity, ranging from memory and cognition to muscle control and reflexes

2.3.3.4. Choline is found naturally in many fatty foods including red meat and eggs

2.3.3.5. Choline Bitartrate is simply Choline combined with a chemical salt to help its absorption

2.3.3.6. Once entering the bloodstream the next step for this supplement is to cross over the blood-brain barrier and then enter into the central nervous system

2.3.3.7. It first has to be converted into a different form so not all of the Choline Bitartrate you consume will actually make it to your brain

2.3.3.8. Aids in the synthesis and storage of Acetylcholine

2.3.3.9. Choline also is essential to the proper functioning of the brain and nervous system

2.3.3.10. Most choline in the body is located in fat molecules called phospholipids

2.3.3.11. Essential nutrient

2.3.4. Benefits

2.3.4.1. Improved memory and learning abilities

2.3.4.2. Helps them to recall details faster and more efficiently with much less effort

2.3.4.3. Mental fluidity is improved, meaning that doing tasks like writing, thinking, or even holding conversations is much easier and with less effort

2.3.4.4. Essential to the proper functioning of the brain and nervous system

2.3.4.5. Helps with muscle contraction and movement, even playing a role in coordination

2.3.4.6. Helps fight off arteriosclerosis and a number of memory related diseases and issues

2.3.4.7. Supports nerve development and the growth and production of cell membranes

2.3.4.8. It also actually repairs old and worn out cell membranes, helping them to continue functioning properly

2.3.4.9. Transports fat throughout the body which can also aid in weight loss

2.3.5. Side Effects

2.3.5.1. Generally well tolerated and very safe it is still possible to lead to issues like stomach problems (pain, diarrhea, vomiting)

2.3.5.2. When taken in dosages higher than those ordinarily recommended users might see some dizziness, low blood pressure, increased perspiration and salivation, and/or a fishy body odor

2.3.5.3. If any of these effects present themselves, the best idea is to either discontinue use for a little while, or reduce the dose back to the recommended levels

2.3.6. References

2.3.6.1. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/92/5/1113.full

2.3.6.2. http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/DRI_Vitamins.ashx

2.3.6.3. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/choline/

2.3.6.4. http://nootriment.com/choline-bitartrate/

2.3.6.5. http://examine.com/supplements/Choline/

2.3.6.6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline

2.3.6.7. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@[email protected]+983

3. Amino Acids

3.1. Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

3.1.1. Dosage

3.1.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

3.1.1.2. Recommended: 1000mg a day

3.1.1.3. Others: 500mg a day

3.1.1.4. Others: 500mg 2 times a day

3.1.1.5. Others: 1500mg a day

3.1.1.6. Minimum: 500mg a day

3.1.1.7. Maximum: 2500mg a day

3.1.1.8. There is no need to cycle. Taken regularly, it should continue to be effective long-term

3.1.2. Half-Life

3.1.2.1. Half-life: 4.2 hours

3.1.3. Mechanism of Action

3.1.3.1. Involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial protection

3.1.3.2. It is made in the body, but can also be consumed through food

3.1.3.3. Able to alleviate the effects of aging and disease on mitochondria

3.1.3.4. While increasing the mitochondria’s potential to burn fat

3.1.3.5. ALCAR can also protect neurons and repair certain damage, such as that caused by diabetes and diabetic neuropathy

3.1.3.6. A derived form of the amino acid Lysine

3.1.3.7. The name is a reference to the fact that it was first isolated from meat

3.1.4. Benefits

3.1.4.1. Often used as a brain booster, due to its ability to increase alertness and mitochondrial capacity while providing support for the neurons

3.1.4.2. Thought to help increase the release and/or production of a powerful neurotransmitter known as Acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter plays a vital role in memory formation, learning capacity, and a number of additional cognitive processes

3.1.4.3. Many users also report having a sense or feeling of mental energy, clarity of thought, and calm focus

3.1.4.4. Shown to be very effective at alleviating the side effects of aging, like neurological decline and chronic fatigue

3.1.4.5. Benefit of being a powerful anti-oxidant

3.1.4.6. Helps to improve the efficiency of communication between neurons within the brain

3.1.4.7. Also a very safe method of improving insulin sensitivity and blood vessel health, particularly for people with delicate or weakened cardiac health

3.1.4.8. ALCAR can also protect neurons and repair certain damage, such as that caused by diabetes and diabetic neuropathy

3.1.4.9. Theoretically, ALCAR supplementation for fat burning should work well, but studies on ALCAR in isolation do not show very good results. Fat loss is typically attributed to the increased activity done by people, from the increased energy they have from ALCAR supplementation

3.1.4.10. Can help with a number of health issues and conditions, including promoting heart health and reducing nerve pain

3.1.4.11. It helps boost motivation and promotes fat loss

3.1.4.12. Potential to improve the brain

3.1.4.13. Acetyl L-Carnitine has been shown to reduce ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in mice

3.1.4.14. Can enhance athletic performance

3.1.5. Side Effects

3.1.5.1. ALCAR can also be safely combined with a number of other Nootropic type supplements. This has been known to help increase or potentiate effects, making them both more effective together than if taken separately

3.1.5.2. Acetyl-L-carnitine is LIKELY SAFE for most adults. It can cause some side effects including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and restlessness. It can cause a "fishy" odor of the urine, breath, and sweat

3.1.5.3. More common: abdominal or stomach cramps, diarrhea, headache, nausea or vomiting

3.1.5.4. Less common: abdominal discomfort, body odor, depression, dizziness, impaired vision, loss of appetite or weight, swelling in hands, lower legs, and feet tingling sensation, weakness

3.1.6. References

3.1.6.1. www.drweil.com

3.1.6.2. http://nutritionalengineering.org

3.1.6.3. www.neurosoup.com

3.1.6.4. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-834-acetyl-l-carnitine.aspx?activeingredientid=834&activeingredientname=acetyl-l-carnitine

3.1.6.5. www.charlespoliquin.com

3.1.6.6. http://examine.com/supplements/L-Carnitine/

3.1.6.7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcarnitine

3.2. N-Acetyl L-Tyrsoine (NALT)

3.2.1. Dosage

3.2.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

3.2.1.2. Recommended: 350mg a day

3.2.1.3. Others: 350-500mg a day

3.2.1.4. Minimum: 350mg a day

3.2.1.5. Maximum: 500mg a day

3.2.1.6. Dosage range for L-Tyrosine (not NALT) is 500-2000mg

3.2.2. Mechanism of Action

3.2.2.1. Non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized in the body from Phenylalanine

3.2.2.2. Parent compound in the creation of a number hormones and neurotransmitters

3.2.2.3. Taken and altered via DOPA decarboxylase, L-Dopa transforms into dopamine, but the uses do not stop there. L-Dopa can also convert into a myriad of different chemicals important to mental functioning

3.2.2.4. Some of the most important of these neurotransmitters include dopamine, DOPA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and more

3.2.2.5. To make dopamine, the body uses L-Tyrosine

3.2.2.6. It is also essential in the production of the skin pigment melanin

3.2.2.7. L-dopa is also converted to the neuronal pigment melanin. The synthesis of melanin is considered a protective process because the synthesis itself forces the removal of quinones which can cause neurotoxicity. Melanin continues to be a neuroprotective by chelating and accumulating metals, even mercury and lead

3.2.2.8. Dietary sources of this amino acid include meat, eggs, fish, oats, and dairy products

3.2.2.9. Able to protect the nerves from toxins and it is even able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the reasons why it is effective at raising the levels of key neurotransmitters

3.2.2.10. N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is a form believed to be much more easily absorbed than straight L-Tyrosine for the body; therefore, requires a much lower dosage

3.2.2.11. Plays the role as a control element, helping a number of organs function that are responsible for creation and regulation of a number of hormones. This includes the adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary glands. Additionally, this supplement is involved in the structure of almost every protein in the body

3.2.2.12. Important amino acid when the body is under stress. It is critically involved in the production of stress hormones, especially epinephrine and norepinephrine

3.2.2.13. High dosages of this amino acid supplement can cause restlessness, anxiety and insomnia which can be aggravated by consuming caffeinated drinks

3.2.3. Benefits

3.2.3.1. Can sharpen the memory, if taken on a regular basis

3.2.3.2. Can enhance alertness and focus

3.2.3.3. Can be useful for weight loss. It does this by improving some of the neurobiological disturbances typically caused by dietary restrictions

3.2.3.4. Helps the body adjust to situations of cold and fatigue

3.2.3.5. Can also boost mood, it does this by helping you relax and as well as calming nerves and anxiety

3.2.3.6. Without proper amounts of this supplement some studies suggest that memory and performance may suffer

3.2.3.7. There is also some evidence suggesting that after sleep deprivation it can help people become much more alert

3.2.4. Side Effects

3.2.4.1. Keep your doctor informed before taking any kind of Tyrosine supplement. People on MAO inhibitors should not take N-acetyl-l-tyrosine

3.2.4.2. Tyrosine is LIKELY SAFE in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by adults short-term in medicinal amounts or applied to the skin. Tyrosine seems to be safe when used in doses up to 150 mg/kg per day for up to 3 months. Some people experience side effects such as nausea, headache, fatigue, heartburn, and joint pain.

3.2.4.3. L Tyrosine side effects can include overstimulation, restlessness, anxiety, and insomnia. Rapid heart beat, heart palpitations or arrhythmias are potential side effects that occur from high doses. Can occur in sensitive individuals

3.2.4.4. Too high a dose can cause side effects such as irritability, restlessness, anxiety, and heart rhythm problems

3.2.5. References

3.2.5.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2435046/

3.2.5.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877027/

3.2.5.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582310/

3.2.5.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904493/

3.2.5.5. http://examine.com/supplements/L-Tyrosine/

3.2.5.6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine

3.2.5.7. http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/md1.htm

3.2.5.8. http://www.xbrain.co.uk/benefit-of-l-tyrosine

3.2.5.9. http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/tyrosine

3.2.5.10. http://www.raysahelian.com/tyrosine.html

3.2.5.11. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1037-tyrosine.aspx?activeingredientid=1037&activeingredientname=tyrosine

3.2.5.12. http://www.raysahelian.com/tyrosine.html

3.3. L-Theanine

3.3.1. Dosage

3.3.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon; can be taken with or without food

3.3.1.2. Recommended: 100mg 2 times a day morning/night

3.3.1.3. Others: 50mg a day

3.3.1.4. Others: 100mg a day

3.3.1.5. Others 200mg a day can be taken prior to sleep

3.3.1.6. Others: 50-200mg a day

3.3.1.7. Minimum: 50mg a day

3.3.1.8. Maximum: 200mg a day

3.3.2. Half-Life

3.3.2.1. Half-life: 3-6 hours

3.3.3. Mechanism of Action

3.3.3.1. Naturally occurring amino acid

3.3.3.2. Amino acid found most commonly in green tea (Camellia sinensis)

3.3.3.3. Form of L-Glutamic acid and can increase alpha waves in the brain

3.3.3.4. Alpha waves promote a feeling of relaxed alertness

3.3.3.5. There’s some evidence to suggest that theanine could exert it’s effects from blocking glutamate receptors thus lowering ANS activity and reducing the stress response

3.3.3.6. Research found theanine is able to bind to glutamate receptors, but at has a significantly lower affinity than glutamic acid

3.3.3.7. Appears to possess some GABAeric activity

3.3.3.8. In rats, an injection of theanine was found to increase cerebral GABA contcentrations by 19.8%

3.3.3.9. Theanine does not appear to be a direct GABA analogue

3.3.3.10. Has shown to have effects on serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and other neurotransmitters including norepinephrine

3.3.3.11. Its increases of GABA in the brain help lower activity in the adrenaline systems, another pathway to promote a sense of calm

3.3.4. Benefits

3.3.4.1. Increased alpha waves, which are associated with selective attention mechanisms and mental alertness

3.3.4.2. Both attention promoting and relaxation properties

3.3.4.3. Promote a sense of calm

3.3.4.4. Improved delayed recognition and immediate recall scores with no effect on visuospatial memory via the Rey-Kim test

3.3.4.5. Shown to not only reduce stress but also promote lifespan, health, and focus

3.3.4.6. Might find yourself relaxing and taking on life in calm, alert, and productive way

3.3.4.7. Ability to benefit cognitive and mental states, help counteract beta-amyloid formation, possibly improve body mass, and support healthy blood pressure

3.3.4.8. Scientific studies have concluded that a strengthened immune system is one of the benefits of l-theanine

3.3.4.9. Some evidence suggests that through its stress fighting mechanisms, L-Theanine could help improve the quality and length of life

3.3.4.10. Can support recovery from the high-activity mental state caused by rigorous exercise. It does this by bringing brain waves back to normal levels quickly and helps promote mental regeneration

3.3.4.11. When used in combination with caffeine, can help reduce the increase in blood pressure that results from the stimulation of caffeine. Can also eliminate the jittery, over-wired feeling caffeine can sometimes cause, and, on top of that, synergistically increases the cognitive benefit of caffeine. For this reason, many often combine L-Theaine and caffeine to create a potent and popular nootropic stack

3.3.5. Side Effects

3.3.5.1. It is considered safe and is well-tolerated in humans

3.3.5.2. The oral ingestion of 99% theanine did not produce toxicity in rats at 6,500 mg/kg for 2 weeks or 2,000 mg/kg over a 28 day time frame according to reports. Having 5% of a diet as theanine for 78 weeks also did not produce toxic effects. In a 13 week toxicity test in rats, a No Observable Adverse Effect Limit (NOAEL) of 4,000 mg/kg bodyweight was established, which was the highest dose tested

3.3.6. References

3.3.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419347/

3.3.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373462

3.3.6.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313114/

3.3.6.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042794/

3.3.6.5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224499000448

3.3.6.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214254

3.3.6.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4397636

3.3.6.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21303262

3.3.6.9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19101751

3.3.6.10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22819553

3.3.6.11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16759779

3.3.6.12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16930802

3.3.6.13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12596867

3.3.6.14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4397636

3.3.6.15. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464611000351

3.3.6.16. http://www.koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=0124KJN/2003.36.9.918&DT=1

3.3.6.17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1376667

3.3.6.18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296328

3.3.6.19. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/l-theanine/

3.3.6.20. http://examine.com/supplements/Theanine/

3.3.6.21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-theanine

3.4. Taurine

3.4.1. Dosage

3.4.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

3.4.1.2. Recommended: 1000mg a day

3.4.1.3. Others: 500-2000mg a day

3.4.1.4. Minimum: 500mg a day

3.4.1.5. Maximum: 2000mg a day

3.4.2. Mechanism of Action

3.4.2.1. The most abundant free amino acid found in the body

3.4.2.2. Is unique in that it is able to perform a number of functions individually without being connected to other proteins

3.4.2.3. Non-essential amino acid and is found in foods such as meat, fish, and dairy products; however, supplementation provides superior levels of taurine

3.4.2.4. Digesting fat and absorbing fat soluble minerals

3.4.2.5. Regulates mineral balance, especially calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium

3.4.2.6. Performs as a cell volumizer, drawing water into the muscles and leading to greater nutrient absorption

3.4.2.7. Increases the efficiency and output of neurotransmitters within the brain

3.4.2.8. Also acts as an agonist for GABA and other neurotransmitters found within the brain and nervous system

3.4.3. Benefits

3.4.3.1. Can also benefit the mind and cognition by increasing the efficiency and output of neurotransmitters within the brain, boosting cognitive and mental activity

3.4.3.2. Directly stimulates relaxation and reduces anxiety

3.4.3.3. Found to have a protective effect on the brain

3.4.3.4. Can significantly reduce anxiety, while helping to improve mental focus

3.4.3.5. Helps to regulate transitions between sleep and wakefulness

3.4.3.6. A popular training aid for weight lifters and other athletes

3.4.3.7. Plays a role in achieving and maintaining a healthy body composition by digesting fat and absorbing fat soluble minerals

3.4.3.8. Can help to reduce swelling and inflammation resulting from traumatic brain injury

3.4.3.9. Also great for your eyes, there are high amounts of this compound found in the retina, you can also improve and protect your eyesight

3.4.3.10. Evidence shows that it is capable of protecting against the effects of macular degeneration

3.4.4. Side Effects

3.4.4.1. The upper limit for which one can be relatively assured no side effects will occur over a lifetime has been suggested to be 3g a day

3.4.4.2. People enrolled in research studies have not reported any side effects connected with the use of taurine

3.4.5. References

3.4.5.1. http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/taurine-protects-heart-eyes-and-improves-glucose-tolerance

3.4.5.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15221507

3.4.5.3. http://www.raysahelian.com/taurine.html

3.4.5.4. http://books.google.com/books?id=lQDEvVtlp-MC&pg=PA265&dq=taurine+muscle+cramps&hl=en&ei=EsrVTdDSE4WftweE3NiQBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CF8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true

3.4.5.5. http://www.allmaxnutrition.com/post-articles/supplements/this-is-your-brain-on-taurine/

4. Racetams

4.1. Piracetam

4.1.1. Dosage

4.1.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

4.1.1.2. Recommended complementing a stack: 1500-1600mg a day

4.1.1.3. Others: 3000-5000mg a day Others: 1600mg 3 times a day Others: 2400mg twice a day Others: 1200-4800mg a day

4.1.1.4. Minimum: 800-1200mg a day

4.1.1.5. Maximum: 10000-20000mg a day

4.1.2. Half-Life

4.1.2.1. Half-life: 4-5 hours, average 5 hours

4.1.2.2. Peak plasma time: 20 min - 1.5 hours

4.1.2.3. Effects duration: 4-6 hours

4.1.2.4. May take 14 days to notice benefits

4.1.2.5. Peak benefits may not be noticed until up to 90 days

4.1.3. Method Of Action

4.1.3.1. Influences neuronal and vascular functions

4.1.3.2. Influences cogntivie function without acting as a sedative or stimulant

4.1.3.3. Positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor

4.1.3.4. Improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic (ACh) receptors

4.1.3.5. May have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes

4.1.3.6. Increase cell membrane permeability

4.1.3.7. Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity

4.1.3.8. By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow

4.1.3.9. Stimulates the Corpus Callosum

4.1.3.10. Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus

4.1.3.11. Enhances Brain Metabolism

4.1.3.12. Increase Nerve Growth

4.1.3.13. Create more synapses and connections

4.1.4. Benefits

4.1.4.1. Greater memory retention and improved learning

4.1.4.2. Enhance verbal memory in healthy college students

4.1.4.3. Treating cognitive impairment in alcoholism

4.1.4.4. May lower depression and anxiety, however depression may be an adverse effect

4.1.4.5. Mild boost to brain function

4.1.4.6. Increases communication between both hemispheres

4.1.4.7. Involved in speech and creative thinking, creativity boosts

4.1.4.8. Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory

4.1.4.9. Has a significant antioxidant effect

4.1.4.10. Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation

4.1.4.11. May be able to prevent or reduce signs of Alzheimer's

4.1.4.12. Improving cognitive impairments

4.1.4.13. Improvement in overall mental performance, without mental impairment as well

4.1.4.14. Help perform better by increasing alertness to the task at hand

4.1.5. Side Effects

4.1.5.1. Very few mild side effects, generally rare

4.1.5.2. Very low toxicity, very well-tolerated

4.1.5.3. Side effects accociated with higher than recommended doses

4.1.5.4. Or in those who have sensitivity

4.1.5.5. No known drug interactions

4.1.5.6. Side effects include: headaches, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, GI tract issues, depression

4.1.5.7. Studies showed safe at mega doses of 20-45g

4.1.5.8. Not recommended if you have prevous allergies, liver issues, kidney issues, brain issues involved in cerrebral hemorrhaging, or under the age of 16

4.1.6. References

4.1.6.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piracetam

4.1.6.2. http://www.healthstairs.com/piracetam.php

4.1.6.3. http://nootriment.com/piracetam-mechanism-of-action/

4.1.6.4. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/6331-what-is-piracetams-mechanism-of-action/

4.1.6.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1794001

4.1.6.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12006732

4.1.6.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/785952

4.1.6.8. http://examine.com/supplements/Piracetam/

4.1.6.9. https://www.purenootropics.net/piracetam/piracetam-studies/piracetam-half-life-for-plasma/

4.1.6.10. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/58390-the-racetams-half-life-and-potency/

4.2. Aniracetam

4.2.1. Dosage

4.2.1.1. Solubility: fat-soluble, take with fat morning/noon

4.2.1.2. Recommended: 750mg a day

4.2.1.3. Others: 750-1000mg a day

4.2.1.4. Others: 750mg 1-3 times a day

4.2.1.5. Others: 1200mg 1-2 times a day

4.2.1.6. Minimum: 500-750mg a day

4.2.1.7. Maximum: 2500mg a day

4.2.2. Half-Life

4.2.2.1. Half-life: about 2 hours

4.2.2.2. Peak plasma time 20-30 minutes

4.2.2.3. Effects duration: 3-5 hours

4.2.2.4. May take 14 days to notice benefits

4.2.2.5. Peak benefits may not be noticed until up to 90 days

4.2.3. Mechanism Of Action

4.2.3.1. Ampakine nootropic of the racetam chemical class

4.2.3.2. Selectively modulate the AMPA receptor

4.2.3.3. An N-side chain modified derivative of the original racetam

4.2.3.4. Very potent racetam and for being an ampakine

4.2.3.5. One of the main functions is on the glutamate system in the brain

4.2.3.6. Glutamate is a potent neurotransmitter

4.2.3.7. But the brain happens to become easily desensitized to its presence

4.2.3.8. This means that you need more and more glutamate to get the same effect

4.2.3.9. Shown to decrease sensitivity to glutamate

4.2.3.10. Meaning that the same amount of glutamate has more effectiveness

4.2.3.11. Can increase the effects of glutamate which leads to an increase in brain activity

4.2.3.12. Increases glutamate by slowing the kinetics of fast synaptic transmission

4.2.3.13. Raise glutamate caused currents in whole-cell recordings

4.2.3.14. Indirectly contributes to neurotransmission via activating nicotinic (post-synaptic) acetylcholine receptors

4.2.3.15. Thus contributing to the cholinergic (acetylcholine-producing) system

4.2.4. Benefits

4.2.4.1. Ability to shoot up cognitive test scores by as much as 30%

4.2.4.2. Central nervous system support and cognitive enhancement

4.2.4.3. Promote formation of new synapses

4.2.4.4. Exhibit neuroprotection towards artificially-induced amnesia

4.2.4.5. Enhance synaptic plasticity

4.2.4.6. Cognition enhancement and antidepressant effects

4.2.4.7. Shown potential as an anxiolytic

4.2.4.8. Catered to creativity and holistic thinking

4.2.4.9. Helps with I/O, getting things into the memory and getting things out of the memory

4.2.5. Side Effects

4.2.5.1. Very few mild side effects, generally rare

4.2.5.2. Very low toxicity, very well-tolerated

4.2.5.3. Side effects accociated with higher than recommended doses

4.2.5.4. Or in those who have sensitivity

4.2.5.5. No known drug interactions

4.2.5.6. Side effects include: headaches, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, GI tract issues, depression

4.2.5.7. Not recommended if you have prevous allergies, liver issues, kidney issues, brain issues involved in cerrebral hemorrhaging, or under the age of 16

4.2.6. References

4.2.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767

4.2.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC53047/pdf/pnas01073-0571.pdf

4.2.6.3. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/aniracetam/

4.2.6.4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniracetam

4.2.6.5. http://examine.com/supplements/Aniracetam/

4.2.6.6. http://nootriment.com/aniracetam/

4.2.6.7. http://nootriment.com/aniracetam-half-life/

4.3. Oxiracetam

4.3.1. Dosage

4.3.1.1. Solubility: water soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

4.3.1.2. Recommended: 750mg a day

4.3.1.3. Others: 750mg 1-2 times a day

4.3.1.4. Others: 800mg 1-2 times a day

4.3.1.5. Others: 600mg 1-2 times a day

4.3.1.6. Others: 1200mg 1-2 times a day

4.3.1.7. Minimum: 600mg

4.3.1.8. Maximum: 4800mg

4.3.2. Half-Life

4.3.2.1. Half-life: 8 hours

4.3.2.2. Peak plasma time: 15-30 minutes

4.3.2.3. Effects duration: 2-5 hours

4.3.3. Mechanism of Action

4.3.3.1. Has strong oral bioavailability compared to some of its racetam family members

4.3.3.2. Ability to bring about long-lasting increases in neurotransmission in certain synapses

4.3.3.3. May also be blocking NMDA-receptor antagonists

4.3.3.4. Possibility that it increases NMDA-receptor sensitivity, requiring less activity for greater effect

4.3.3.5. Works a bit differently than Aniracetam or Pramiracetam,

4.3.3.6. Even though the direct mechanisms of the racetams are still up for debate

4.3.3.7. Strengthens the septum pellucidum

4.3.4. Benefits

4.3.4.1. Improve memory and learning while helping support the brain and keep it healthy

4.3.4.2. Support semantic memory, verbal recall, and reading

4.3.4.3. Improve overall cognitive functions

4.3.4.4. Including the ability to think more clearly, faster, and fluidly

4.3.4.5. Attention, focus, concentration, and motivation are also improved, sometimes significantly

4.3.4.6. Mild stimulant properties

4.3.4.7. Highly stimulated and able to focus

4.3.4.8. Improvement in spatial and contextual learning abilities

4.3.4.9. Specifically considered to be effective at increasing logical thinking ability

4.3.4.10. And other skills related to critical and analytical reasoning

4.3.4.11. Makes it easier to understand technical information

4.3.5. Side Effects

4.3.5.1. Very few mild side effects, generally rare

4.3.5.2. Very low toxicity, very well-tolerated

4.3.5.3. Side effects accociated with higher than recommended doses

4.3.5.4. Or in those who have sensitivity

4.3.5.5. No known drug interactions

4.3.5.6. Side effects include: headaches, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, GI tract issues, depression

4.3.5.7. Not recommended if you have prevous allergies, liver issues, kidney issues, brain issues involved in cerrebral hemorrhaging, or under the age of 16

4.3.5.8. May be prone to irritability and highly impatient due to speediness

4.3.6. References

4.3.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767

4.3.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1917508/pdf/brjpharm00256-0191.pdf

4.3.6.3. http://www.smarternootropics.com/2014/03/the-best-racetam-a-comparison-of-the-popular-racetams/

4.3.6.4. http://www.mindandmuscle.net/forum/25882-what-s-average-dose-oxiracetam

4.4. Pramiracetam

4.4.1. Dosage

4.4.1.1. Solubility: fat-soluble, take with fat morning/noon

4.4.1.2. Recommended: 200mg a day

4.4.1.3. Others: 150mg a day

4.4.1.4. Others: 200mg 1-2 times a day

4.4.1.5. Others: 250mg 1-3 times a day

4.4.1.6. Others: 300mg 1-2 times a day

4.4.1.7. Others: 300-500mg 1-2 times a day

4.4.1.8. Minimum: 100mg

4.4.1.9. Maximum: 1200mg

4.4.2. Half-Life

4.4.2.1. Half-life: 2-8 hours dose dependent, average 6 hours

4.4.2.2. Peak plasma time: 1-2 hours, felt after 20 minutes

4.4.2.3. Effects duration: 8 hours, all day

4.4.3. Mechanism of Action

4.4.3.1. Has a dipropan-2-ylaminoethyl group rather than an amide

4.4.3.2. Remarkable for high oral-bioavailability and high potency

4.4.3.3. As with other racetams, the direct mechanism is not fully known

4.4.3.4. It has been conjectured that racetams increase acetylcholine receptors,

4.4.3.5. Or are antioxidants, but more study is required

4.4.3.6. Speculation that racetams interact heavily with glutamate receptors

4.4.3.7. But, again, the action is unclear

4.4.3.8. Most likely works by increasing cholinergic neuronal impulse flow

4.4.3.9. In specific regions of the brain based on certain in vitro observations

4.4.3.10. Indirectly increases activity in the hippocampus

4.4.3.11. Increase cholinergic function and activity

4.4.3.12. Via increased high-affinity choline uptake, or HACU in the hippocampus

4.4.4. Benefits

4.4.4.1. Improved memory

4.4.4.2. Reduced delayed verbal recall

4.4.4.3. Evidence suggesting superior to original racetamin

4.4.4.4. Helping with retrieval and orientation

4.4.4.5. Improve some test scores on cognitive ability up to three hours after being taken

4.4.4.6. Increase cerebral blood flow

4.4.4.7. Improved reference (long-term) memory

4.4.4.8. Improved spatial and learning

4.4.4.9. Exhibit neuroprotection towards artifically (scopolamine)-induced amnesia

4.4.4.10. Via HACU, or pumping acetylcholine synthesis and release

4.4.5. Side Effects

4.4.5.1. Very few mild side effects, generally rare

4.4.5.2. Very low toxicity, very well-tolerated

4.4.5.3. Side effects accociated with higher than recommended doses

4.4.5.4. Or in those who have sensitivity

4.4.5.5. No known drug interactions

4.4.5.6. Side effects include: headaches, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, GI tract issues, depression

4.4.5.7. No adverse events were reported in a study where 24 healthy male humans were treated 1200mg/day for 10 days to reduce artificially-induced cognitive impairment

4.4.5.8. May increase nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity with extremely high doses over time

4.4.5.9. Not recommended if you have prevous allergies, liver issues, kidney issues, brain issues involved in cerrebral hemorrhaging, or under the age of 16

4.4.6. References

4.4.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767

4.4.6.2. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/pramiracetam/

4.4.6.3. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/4636-pramiracetam/

4.5. Phenylpiracetam

4.5.1. Dosage

4.5.1.1. Solubility: water-soluble, take on an empty stomach morning/noon

4.5.1.2. Recommended: 200mg twice a week

4.5.1.3. Others: 100mg 1-3 times a day 1-4 times a week

4.5.1.4. Minimum: 100mg

4.5.1.5. Maximum: 600mg

4.5.1.6. Not to be taken daily

4.5.1.7. Used in the short term when needed

4.5.1.8. Easy to become tolerant

4.5.1.9. Reduced effectiveness if taken daily for a long peroid of time

4.5.1.10. Recommended cycling 1-3 times a week

4.5.2. Half-Life

4.5.2.1. Half-life: 3-5 hours

4.5.2.2. Peak plasma time: 30 minutes - 2 hour

4.5.2.3. Effects duration: about 2-10 hours, long lasting

4.5.2.4. May take a few days/high doses to notice effects

4.5.3. Mechanism of Action

4.5.3.1. Derivative of piracetam and is estimated to be 30 to 60 times more effective

4.5.3.2. One extra molecule from the Phenyl group was added it became remarkably more potent

4.5.3.3. Can transcend the blood-brain barrier with greater ease than many others nootropics

4.5.3.4. Effects are fast acting and last longer as well

4.5.3.5. Acetylcholine density is increased within the hippocampus

4.5.3.6. The area used for long-term memory

4.5.3.7. Influence on GABA and dopamine receptors

4.5.4. Benefits

4.5.4.1. Improved memory

4.5.4.2. Potentially significantly improved recall

4.5.4.3. Increased learning capacity

4.5.4.4. Better concentration

4.5.4.5. More focus and mental energy

4.5.4.6. Greater mental energy

4.5.4.7. Eliminates brain fog

4.5.4.8. Reduction in motion sickness

4.5.4.9. Reduction in fear and anxiety

4.5.4.10. Increase in cold tolerance

4.5.4.11. Ability to function on far less sleep than usual

4.5.4.12. Boosted recall speed and even motivation

4.5.4.13. Increases physical stamina, endurance and recovery

4.5.4.14. Improves body's reaction to stress

4.5.5. Side Effects

4.5.5.1. Very few mild side effects, generally rare

4.5.5.2. Very low toxicity, very well-tolerated

4.5.5.3. Side effects accociated with higher than recommended doses

4.5.5.4. Or in those who have sensitivity

4.5.5.5. No known drug interactions

4.5.5.6. Side effects include: headaches, nausea, fatigue, insomnia, GI tract issues, depression

4.5.5.7. Not recommended if you have prevous allergies, liver issues, kidney issues, brain issues involved in cerrebral hemorrhaging, or under the age of 16

4.5.6. References

4.5.6.1. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000

4.5.6.2. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000

4.5.6.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6403074

4.5.6.4. http://www.smarternootropics.com/2013/06/energizing-benefits-of-phenylpiracetam/

4.5.6.5. http://www.braintropic.com/phenylpiracetam/

4.5.6.6. http://nootriment.com/phenylpiracetam-side-effects/

5. Peptide

5.1. Noopept

5.1.1. Dosage

5.1.1.1. Recommended: 15-25 mg a day

5.1.1.2. Others: 10mg 1-3 times a day

5.1.1.3. Others: 15mg 1-2 times a day

5.1.1.4. Minimum: 10mg a day

5.1.1.5. Maximum: 60mg a day

5.1.1.6. No tolerance detected, cumulative benefits

5.1.2. Half-Life

5.1.2.1. Half-life: 20-60 minutes

5.1.2.2. Peak plasma time: 15 minutes - 2 hours

5.1.2.3. Effects duration: Long lasting all day, cumulative effects

5.1.3. Mechanism of Action

5.1.3.1. The first noted mechanism of action is antioxidation

5.1.3.2. The second noted mechanism of action is inhibition of glutamate neurotoxicity

5.1.3.3. Glutamate neurotoxicity leads to quick cell death

5.1.3.4. The third mechanism of action is increased neuronal plasticity

5.1.3.5. The fourth mechanism of action is increases expression of phenylacetic acid, prolyglycine, and cyclo-prolyglycine in the brain, which are endogenous Nootropics

5.1.3.6. Peptide-derived compound

5.1.3.7. Degraded by enzymes in the GI tract and liver

5.1.3.8. 1000 times more potent than the prototypical racetam drug, piracetam

5.1.3.9. Works very differently than other racetams

5.1.3.10. Many don't consider it a racetam at all

5.1.3.11. Modulates AMPA receptors to increase synaptic plasticity

5.1.3.12. Developing new synapses that connect the two hemispheres of the brain

5.1.3.13. The two brain hemispheres also increase communication

5.1.4. Benefits

5.1.4.1. Increased cognitive capacities

5.1.4.2. Increased memory

5.1.4.3. Improve memory retention and retrieval

5.1.4.4. Increased learning ability

5.1.4.5. Improved verbal acuity

5.1.4.6. May increase confidence, social interactions

5.1.4.7. Increased Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

5.1.4.8. Increased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus

5.1.4.9. Boosts mood, lowers anxiety

5.1.5. Side Effects

5.1.5.1. Among the studies cited, doses up to 10mg/kg in rats have shown no toxicity, which when subjected to allometric scaling yields a dose of 2.445mg/kg in humans (or 171 mg for a 70kg person); in fact, Noopept has been shown to be neuroprotective at said dosage.

5.1.5.2. Dosages greater than 60mg a day may overstimulate glutamate receptors.

5.1.5.3. When taken at high doses, users may experience; headaches, fatigue, nausea, issues sleeping, brain fog, and fatigue

5.1.6. References

5.1.6.1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9195198

5.1.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19240853

5.1.6.3. http://www.smarternootropics.com/noopept/

5.1.6.4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977920

5.1.6.5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19234797

6. Herbal Extracts

6.1. Bacopa Monnieri (50% Bacosides)

6.1.1. Dosage

6.1.1.1. Recommended: 300mg a day at night with fat is the standard dosage

6.1.1.2. Others: 275mg a day

6.1.1.3. Minimum: 200mg a day

6.1.1.4. Maximum: 500mg a day

6.1.1.5. Research shows it may take up to 8 weeks in order to be effective

6.1.2. Mechanism of Action

6.1.2.1. Found to improve synaptic transmission in the brain

6.1.2.2. Believed to increase nerve pulse transmission which has to do with the electrical conductivity of various signals between your neurons

6.1.2.3. This effect is especially targeted in the hippocampus which is the part of the brain involved in long-term memory formation, consolidation (or encoding) and recall

6.1.2.4. This herb commonly grows in wetlands and is particularly abundant in India

6.1.2.5. However, it can be found in numerous other countries across Asia as well as warm and humid regions of the United states

6.1.2.6. Its mechanism of action for enhancing cognition is not entirely understood

6.1.2.7. One possible method is by enhancing neuronal transmission, which results in improved dendrite growth, or via the serotonergic system, which positively influences the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine

6.1.2.8. What sets this nootropic apart from many others is that it benefits individuals with healthy cognitive function of all age groups, meaning an individual does not need to be in a state of cognitive decline to experience benefits

6.1.2.9. Provides excellent neuroprotection as well, reducing the effects of oxidative stress

6.1.2.10. Able to protect the brain from mineral buildup, iron overloads in particular

6.1.2.11. Found to improve synaptic transmission in the brain

6.1.2.12. Believed to increase nerve pulse transmission which has to do with the electrical conductivity of various signals between your neurons

6.1.2.13. Bacopa monnieri interacts with the dopamine and serotonergic systems, but its main mechanism concerns promoting neuron communication. It does this by enhancing the rate at which the nervous system can communicate by increasing the growth of nerve endings, also called dendrites. Bacopa monnieri is also an antioxidant

6.1.3. Benefits

6.1.3.1. Can improve several different factors related to memory at the same time including memory formation, retention of concepts, and restoration

6.1.3.2. Able to improve cognition beyond its adaptogenic abilities

6.1.3.3. Improve thought clarity and increase brainpower

6.1.3.4. Improve long-term memory formation, consolidation (or encoding) and faster speed and recall

6.1.3.5. Can improve memory retention and increase specific dimensions of cognition like working and spatial memory

6.1.3.6. Able to remember more information both in the short term and long term

6.1.3.7. Has been shown to improve cognition and reliable for improving memory formation

6.1.3.8. It is both an anti-oxidant and a neuroprotectant with evidence that it can slow down cognitive decline and may even improve learning skills

6.1.3.9. Provides excellent neuroprotection as well, reducing the effects of oxidative stress

6.1.3.10. Has a number of uses including cognitive enhancement, stress relief, adaptogen activities, and as a part of Ayurvedic tradition

6.1.3.11. The ancient Indians recognized this supplement for its cognitive enhancing powers and used it to boost their memory as well as treat epilepsy

6.1.3.12. Excellent stress and anxiety reducer

6.1.3.13. Adaptogen, meaning that it is able to prevent the physical and chemical effects of stress rather than simply suppressing them

6.1.3.14. This reduction in stress also helps improve memory, as anxiety is well known to negatively impact cognition

6.1.3.15. Effective antioxidant and has been used in a number of anti-aging formulas

6.1.3.16. Animal studies have shown this supplement can improve the symptoms of mood disorders

6.1.3.17. Natural nootropics can be just as strong as their lab-produced counterparts these days

6.1.3.18. The effects of Bacopa as a Nootropic will be best experienced with long-term consistent usage

6.1.3.19. This supplement can also keep your memory function high as you age by slowing down some of the symptoms of cognitive decline associated with decreased nerve impulse transmission

6.1.3.20. Used as a treatment for memory loss in the elderly population

6.1.3.21. Contains Hersaponins which is known to have a relaxation-inducing effect. This can help you fall asleep at night and promote more REM sleep so that you wake feeling fully rested

6.1.3.22. Observed to improve conversation and social interaction skills which is why some people take it to help with social anxiety symptoms

6.1.4. Side Effects

6.1.4.1. Because of the sedative effects of Bacopa, some people do not like to use this supplement during the day to prevent untimely fatigue

6.1.4.2. If you do experience drowsiness after taking this herbal supplement, try using a smaller dosage to see if that corrects the problem

6.1.4.3. Generally considered to be safe and you are not likely to experience any type of adverse reactions if you are healthy and follow recommended dosage guidelines

6.1.4.4. Side effects include fatigue, nausea, indigestion, increased perspiration and urination, irregular heart rate, impotence, liver toxicity and the formation of ulcers

6.1.4.5. You should not take Bacopa if you are currently using Anti-Depressants, Thyroid Medications, Calcium Channel Blockers or other sedatives including alcohol

6.1.5. References

6.1.5.1. http://undergroundhealthreporter.com/benefits-of-bacopa-increase-in-helping-prevent-alzheimers-and-dementia

6.1.5.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410544

6.1.5.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18611150

6.1.5.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735137

6.1.5.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21409525

6.1.5.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12093601

6.1.5.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11498727

6.1.5.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590480

6.1.5.9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366957

6.1.5.10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12046860

6.1.5.11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343408

6.1.5.12. http://nootriment.com/bacopa-monnieri/

6.1.5.13. http://examine.com/supplements/Bacopa+monnieri/

6.1.5.14. http://www.smarternootropics.com/bacopa/

6.2. Lion's Mane (10:1 Extract 30% Polysaccharide)

6.2.1. Dosage

6.2.1.1. Can be taken with or without food

6.2.1.2. Recommended: 500mg 2 times a day morning/night

6.2.1.3. Others: 500mg-1000mg 1-3 times a day

6.2.1.4. Minimum: 500mg a day

6.2.1.5. Maximum: 3000mg a day

6.2.1.6. Research shows it may take up to 8 weeks in order to be effective

6.2.2. Mechanism of Action

6.2.2.1. An edible mushroom with nootropic and antioxidant properties

6.2.2.2. Increases nerve growth factor (NGF), providing neuroprotection

6.2.2.3. The polysaccharide extract in particular is noted for its immunostimulatory effects, which explains its use as an antioxidant

6.2.2.4. Able to stimulate myelination (the production of the myelin sheath)

6.2.2.5. This is the protective layer that forms around the axon of a neuron and is essential for the nervous system to function correctly

6.2.2.6. Evidence that this extract can boost neuronal regrowth after a crushing injury

6.2.2.7. A Nobel Prize was awarded for this discovery because no other substance is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and stimulate the production of NGF

6.2.2.8. These chemicals are known to boost the white blood cell count

6.2.3. Benefits

6.2.3.1. Capable of improving nerve growth factor (NGF), providing neuroprotection, and a number of other cognitive benefits

6.2.3.2. In both animal and human studies, this supplement was able to provide protection against cognitive decline, with significant improvements seen in the human study

6.2.3.3. Boost neuronal regrowth after a crushing injury

6.2.3.4. Positive implications as an anti-anxiety and mood boosting compound

6.2.3.5. may be able to inhibit weight gain as well, able to reduce fat buildup in the liver and adipose tissue by improving fat metabolism

6.2.3.6. Presence of a healthy accumulation of Myelin is known to increase the efficiency with which neurons send electrical transmissions through the cell body

6.2.3.7. Stimulating myelination may increase the speed of thought processing as well as memory recall

6.2.3.8. NGF is also integral to the growth of neurons, the generation of synapses and even the development of new neurons

6.2.3.9. NGF makes it easier for your neurons to form new connections with other neurons and may improve communication between different hemispheres of the brain

6.2.3.10. Several theories of intelligence center on the idea that the more neuronal connections you have, the more fluid intelligence you will have

6.2.3.11. Long Term Potentiation – the process by which memories are encoded as connections between neurons – is made more efficient with higher levels of NGF. For this reason

6.2.3.12. Neuroplasticity and maintaining the brain’s ability to adapt, learn and change even as we grow older

6.2.3.13. Helps to regulate both blood sugar and cholesterol levels

6.2.3.14. May even be helpful at reducing the number and severity of allergies

6.2.3.15. Boost white blood cell count, has such a wide range of immune boosting, restorative, and organ protecting effects

6.2.3.16. Enhancing the function of stomach mucus barriers, accelerating the healing of ulcers, and even reducing general inflammation all over the body

6.2.4. Side Effects

6.2.4.1. As of right now there have not been any reported side effects of using this supplement

6.2.4.2. It seems to be highly safe with no reports of toxicity levels, either

6.2.5. References

6.2.5.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758067

6.2.5.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835171

6.2.5.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19809252

6.2.5.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21383512

6.2.5.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328

6.2.5.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12675022

6.2.5.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941586

6.2.5.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180

6.2.5.9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622452

6.2.5.10. http://nootriment.com/lions-mane/

6.2.5.11. http://altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/Lions-Mane.htm

6.3. Rhodiola Rosea (Salidroside 3%)

6.3.1. Dosage

6.3.1.1. Recommended: 350mg a day 4 days a week

6.3.1.2. Others: 250mg two times per day 4 days a week

6.3.1.3. Minimum: 250mg a day 4 days a week

6.3.1.4. Maximum: 500mg a day 4 days a week

6.3.2. Mechanism of Action

6.3.2.1. Herb used as a traditional Chinese remedy

6.3.2.2. Also find references to this special herb in Scandinavian therapeutic history

6.3.2.3. Thought to actually balance your stress-response system, which includes both the sympathetic nervous system (the so-called 'fight or flight' response) and the parasympathetic nervous system that recharges and heals the body (returning you to a relaxed state)

6.3.2.4. In this way, the supplement acts as an adaptogen

6.3.2.5. After exhaustive exercise, this supplement increases the levels of enzymes, RNA, and protein that are important to muscle recovery

6.3.2.6. Glycogen synthesis in the muscles and liver, along with protein synthesis and anabolic activity, are also all stimulated

6.3.2.7. A full range of anti-oxidant compounds have been found in this substance, leading to a reinstatement of metabolic balance throughout the body

6.3.2.8. Evidence that the supplement can increase health at the cellular level by increasing your body's resistance to toxins

6.3.2.9. Russian researchers have found oral use of Rhodiola Rosea inhibited unhealthy cell growth in rats by 39% and decreased metastasis by 50%

6.3.3. Benefits

6.3.3.1. Thought to help promote physical and cognitive vitality as well as reducing fatigue, even in prolonged stressful situations

6.3.3.2. One of the most important benefits of Rhodiola Rosea powder is that it helps relieve stress

6.3.3.3. Balance your stress-response system, both the sympathetic nervous system (the so-called 'fight or flight' response) and the parasympathetic nervous system that recharges and heals the body (returning you to a relaxed state)

6.3.3.4. Used for increasing energy, stamina, strength and mental capacity

6.3.3.5. In this way, the supplement acts as an adaptogen

6.3.3.6. Shown to help shorten muscle recovery time

6.3.3.7. This also is thought to lead to increased attention span, memory, and strength

6.3.3.8. Acts as an adaptogen

6.3.3.9. Can boost and strengthen your immune system

6.3.3.10. Full range of antioxidants

6.3.3.11. Increase health at the cellular level by increasing your body's resistance to toxins

6.3.3.12. Inhibited unhealthy cell growth in rats by 39% and decreased metastasis by 50%

6.3.3.13. Help the body adapt to and resist physical, chemical, and environmental stress

6.3.4. Side Effects

6.3.4.1. Should not be used in strong doses.

6.3.4.2. Should not be taken simultaneously with stimulant drugs!

6.3.4.3. Considered to be a very safe and well-tolerated supplement there are some side effects associated with its use

6.3.4.4. These are generally mild and similar to what would be expected from any type of mild stimulant including anxiety, agitation, nausea, hyper-salivation, restlessness, and insomnia

6.3.4.5. It should also be noted that most of these were reported in cases of taking very high doses above the recommended levels

6.3.5. References

6.3.5.1. http://examine.com/supplements/Rhodiola+Rosea/

6.3.5.2. http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2007/dec2007_report_nutraceutical_01.htm

6.3.5.3. http://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-rhodiola.html

6.3.5.4. http://en.mr-ginseng.com/rhodiola-rosea/

6.3.5.5. http://nootriment.com/rhodiola-rosea/

6.4. Ashwagandha (2.5% Withanolides)

6.4.1. Dosage

6.4.1.1. Recommended: 500mg a day 4 days a week at night with meals

6.4.1.2. Others: 500mg 1-3 times per day with meals

6.4.1.3. Minimum: 50mg

6.4.1.4. Maximum: 6000mg divided into three doses (2000mg)

6.4.1.5. Recommended cycling 4 days a week to avoid tolerance

6.4.1.6. Can be taken in the morning or at night prior to sleep

6.4.2. Mechanism of Action

6.4.2.1. One of the most powerful herbs in Ayurvedic healing, has been used since ancient times for a wide variety of conditions, and is most well-known for its restorative benefits

6.4.2.2. Stimulate the immune system, adaptogenic, protect against inflammation

6.4.2.3. Can significantly reduce cortisol concentrations and the immunosuppressive effect of stress

6.4.2.4. More research is needed to determine ashwagandha's main mechanism

6.4.3. Benefits

6.4.3.1. Studies have found it to be effective for improving memory, learning, and mental focus

6.4.3.2. Improves learning, memory, and reaction time

6.4.3.3. Improve the formation of memories

6.4.3.4. Helps to restore, strengthen, and protect the immune system

6.4.3.5. Helps combat the effects and reduce stress

6.4.3.6. Reduces anxiety and depression without causing drowsiness

6.4.3.7. Helps reduce brain-cell degeneration

6.4.3.8. And even increase sexual potency of both men and women

6.4.3.9. Has superb anti-anxiety effects as well as mood boosting abilities

6.4.3.10. Long been used to help restore strength and vigor to people who might be experiencing low energy

6.4.3.11. Considered to be an adaptogenic, capable of helping the entire body and mind in a wide variety of ways

6.4.3.12. Potential to help protect against inflammation and cartilage damage associated with joint maladies

6.4.3.13. May also help to normalize high blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity

6.4.3.14. Promoting health at the cellular level, acting as a powerful anti-oxidant, fighting against age related memory loss, and promoting breast, lung, and colon health

6.4.3.15. It provides neuroprotection, anti-cancer effects, enhanced virility, and can even stave off anxiety

6.4.3.16. Shows promise for relieving insomnia and stress-induced depression

6.4.3.17. Can improve physical performance in both sedentary people and athletes

6.4.4. Side Effects

6.4.4.1. Generally very well-tolerated and considered safe for use by healthy adults, there are few considerations to keep in mind

6.4.4.2. Has been shown to cause abortions during certain animal studies

6.4.4.3. Although this was only when extremely large doses were taken, it is probably best if pregnant women avoid taking this supplement

6.4.4.4. Some evidence to suggest that the supplement increases the potency of barbiturate drugs

6.4.4.5. There are not really any serious side effects which have been noted for Ashwagandha extract (aside from the concerns discussed above)

6.4.4.6. However, in some people it is possible that the effect will be to cause sleepiness and drowsiness. That's why it can also help with and improve sleep. In this case take at night instead of in the morning or lowering the dosage

6.4.4.7. Another possible side effect might be restlessness. Of course, a lot of this is dependent upon the person taking it and a number of other factors like what other supplements you are combining it with

6.4.5. References

6.4.5.1. http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2006/jun2006_report_ashwa_01.htm

6.4.5.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252722

6.4.5.3. http://altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/ashwagandha_benefits.htm

6.4.5.4. http://www.chopra.com/ccl/ashwagandha

6.4.5.5. http://examine.com/supplements/Ashwagandha/

6.4.5.6. http://nootriment.com/ashwagandha/

6.5. Schizandrol A (3% Schisandrin)

6.5.1. Dosage

6.5.1.1. Recommended: 50mg a day morning/noon with meals

6.5.1.2. Minimum: 30mg a day

6.5.1.3. Maximum: 100mg a day

6.5.2. Mechanism of Action

6.5.2.1. Extract from Schisandra chinensis which is a woody vine that grows in Northern China and the far East of Russia

6.5.2.2. Intracellular calcium levels have been shown to diminish after administration of Schisandra extracts along with protection from glutamate-related toxicity. Since Nitric Oxide and cortisol levels were so heavily affected by this, it could explain the stress fighting and health giving properties of Schizandrol A

6.5.2.3. Highly energized effects could come from the cholinergic

6.5.2.4. Demonstrated the ability to reduce levels of transaminase, creatine phosphokinase, and lactate levels

6.5.3. Benefits

6.5.3.1. Increased brain function and memory, may be due to it's ability to increase focus and mental energy

6.5.3.2. Used as an “adaptogen” for increasing resistance to disease and stress, increasing energy, and increasing physical performance and endurance

6.5.3.3. Potent adaptogenic properties

6.5.3.4. Promote the body's healthy response to stressors, such as increased stimulant intake or a stringent workout routine

6.5.3.5. May also be a powerful antioxidant

6.5.3.6. Stimulating the immune system and speeding recovery after surgery

6.5.3.7. Preventing early aging and increasing lifespan

6.5.3.8. Improving vision, protecting against radiation, preventing motion sickness, preventing infection, boosting energy at the cellular level, counteracting the effects of sugar, and improving the health of the adrenal glands

6.5.3.9. Clinical trials have found it to increase concentration and even lessen susceptibility to external stresses such as heat and cold

6.5.3.10. Positive effect on visual processing and can make it easier to read or work on your computer for hours on end

6.5.3.11. Preventing against liver damage from alcohol or other toxins

6.5.4. Side Effects

6.5.4.1. Heartburn, upset stomach, decreased appetite, stomach pain, skin rash, and itching

6.5.4.2. Should not be taken by people who have gastroesophageal reflex disease (GERD), epilepsy, peptic ulcers or high brain (intracranial) pressure. Do not take Schizandra if you are pregnant or nursing

6.5.5. References

6.5.5.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2962140/

6.5.5.2. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Review+of+adaptogenic+mechanisms%3A+Eleuthrococcus+senticosus,+Panax...-a0173925922

6.5.5.3. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-376-schisandra.aspx?activeingredientid=376&activeingredientname=schisandra

6.5.5.4. http://www.herbslist.net/schizandra.html

6.6. Ginkgo Biloba Leaf 24% Glycosides

6.6.1. Dosage

6.6.1.1. Recommended: 200mg a day morning/noon with food

6.6.1.2. Others: 120-240mg a day

6.6.1.3. Minimum: 40mg a day

6.6.1.4. Maximum: 240mg a day

6.6.1.5. Takes about 30-60 minutes to take maximum effect

6.6.2. Mechanism of Action

6.6.2.1. Tree native to China and one of the oldest species of trees on earth

6.6.2.2. Leaves contain plant metabolites known as flavonoid glycosides

6.6.2.3. flavonoid glycosides work as an inhibitor of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAF)

6.6.2.4. This can potentially extend neurology and may also be a factor in the neuroprotective effects

6.6.2.5. Able to reduce corticosterone, which is the hormone that regulates how you respond to stress

6.6.2.6. Because of this, ginkgo is likely an adaptogen

6.6.3. Benefits

6.6.3.1. Shown to possess many different uses, especially relating to improving memory, concentration, and the slowing of cognitive decline

6.6.3.2. The most notable benefit of ginkgo biloba extract is its ability to improve short term memory and free recall, especially in older adults affected by cognitive decline

6.6.3.3. Provides a degree of neuroprotection

6.6.3.4. Effective at reducing stress and anxiety as well as boosting mood

6.6.3.5. Likely an adaptogen

6.6.3.6. Able to reduce the effects of oxidative damage, thus it is an effective antioxidant as well

6.6.4. Side Effects

6.6.4.1. For safety, not recommended for pregnant women

6.6.4.2. On rare occasions has been shown to cause an increased risk of bleeding in some users due to the reduced platelet response caused by the PAF inhibiting properties

6.6.4.3. Headaches and dizziness may also occur in some users

6.6.5. References

6.6.5.1. http://examine.com/supplements/Ginkgo+biloba/

6.6.5.2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginkgo_biloba

7. Aminophospholipids

7.1. Phosphatidlyserine (PS)

7.1.1. Dosage

7.1.1.1. Solubility: lipid soluble, take with fat morning/noon

7.1.1.2. Recommended: 500mg a day

7.1.1.3. Others: 100mg 1-3 times a day

7.1.1.4. Others: 300mg a day

7.1.1.5. Minimum: 100mg

7.1.1.6. Maximum: 550mg

7.1.2. Half-Life

7.1.2.1. Half-life: 24 hours to days

7.1.3. Mechanism of Action

7.1.3.1. Negatively charged aminophospholipid

7.1.3.2. It plays a very important role in the body

7.1.3.3. Making up 2 to 10 percent of your cell's lipids

7.1.3.4. It occurs in every cell in your entire body

7.1.3.5. Plays a key role in the building up of neuronal membranes

7.1.3.6. It works to promote cell-to-cell communication and regulates cell growth

7.1.3.7. Protein kinase C pathways require Phosphatidylserine to function, and Phosphatidylserine helps collect certain proteins in the cell

7.1.3.8. Helped support a multitude of neurotransmitter systems including acetylcholine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine

7.1.4. Benefits

7.1.4.1. Beyond the normal functioning of every cell in your body, some evidence is suggesting that adding in Phosphatidylserine supplements will help kick your brain into high gear

7.1.4.2. Shown to help keep memory strong and cognition sharp

7.1.4.3. While also supporting a strong memory and speeding up memory recall

7.1.4.4. With DHA has shown to improve episodic memory by 42%

7.1.4.5. Helps to give them more mental energy along with improved focus and concentration

7.1.4.6. Positive impact on attention and learning, not to mention general cognitive performance

7.1.4.7. Work to boost memory and overall cognition

7.1.4.8. This also includes an expansion of learning capacity and even an improved speed of memory recall in many cases

7.1.4.9. Benefits of this supplement are considered to be long-term and it may even slow down the aging process on your brain

7.1.4.10. Has been shown to improve performance in athletes, endocrine response to exercise stress, and decrease muscle damage

7.1.4.11. Effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress by blunting the exercise-induced increase in cortisol levels in a dose dependent manner

7.1.4.12. Promotes a desirable hormonal balance for athletes and might attenuate the physiological deterioration that accompanies overtraining and/or overstretching

7.1.4.13. Shown to enhance mood in a cohort of young people during mental stress

7.1.4.14. Strengthen your memory

7.1.4.15. Increase vigilance and attention

7.1.4.16. Boost learning

7.1.4.17. Increase mental acuity

7.1.4.18. Intensify your concentration

7.1.4.19. Relieve depression and improve mood

7.1.4.20. Inhibit exercise and stress induced increases in cortisol

7.1.4.21. Decrease stress—for both young and old

7.1.4.22. Effective at reducing stress and anxiety levels

7.1.4.23. In fact, due to the increase in Dopamine production it is also quite likely to be responsible for inducing an overall feeling of well-being and improving one’s mood in general

7.1.4.24. The Dopamine has even been shown essential to memory, attention, and problem solving abilities

7.1.5. Side Effects

7.1.5.1. Generally Recognized As Safe by the FDA

7.1.5.2. A 2002 safety report determined supplementation in elder people at a dosage of 200 mg three times daily to be safe

7.1.5.3. Well validated through clinical research and proven safe in standard toxicology tests

7.1.5.4. There have already been a large number of human tests and studies related to Phosphatidylserine

7.1.5.5. It has been well validated with a flawless safety record through both clinical research and standard toxicology tests

7.1.5.6. The supplement has been proven compatible with a wide range of medications

7.1.5.7. It is also well-tolerated not only by healthy adults but also elderly patients with heart disease, high blood pressure, and a number of other medical conditions and issues

7.1.5.8. In other words, nearly anyone can safely take this supplement

7.1.5.9. There have been a few side effects associated with this supplement, although they are generally quite rare and mild

7.1.5.10. These can include insomnia and stomach upset or other GI issues

7.1.6. References

7.1.6.1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929432

7.1.6.2. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981104

7.1.6.3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphatidylserine

7.1.6.4. http://www.phosphatidylserine.net/

7.1.6.5. http://examine.com/supplements/Phosphatidylserine/

7.1.6.6. http://nootriment.com/phosphatidylserine/

7.1.6.7. http://www3.nd.edu/~bsmith3/pdf/OBC2004.pdf

7.2. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)

7.2.1. Dosage

7.2.1.1. Solubility: lipid soluble, take with fat morning/noon

7.2.1.2. Recommended: 800mg a day

7.2.1.3. Others: 400mg 1-3 times a day

7.2.1.4. Minimum: 400mg a day

7.2.1.5. Maximum: 5000mg a day

7.2.2. Half-Life

7.2.2.1. Half-life: 20-24 hours, 16-30 hours

7.2.2.2. Peak plasma time: rose after 1 hour, peak at 3-4 hours

7.2.3. Mechanism of Action

7.2.3.1. One of the most important effects of is to increase choline supply in the brain

7.2.3.2. Hydrophobic lipid that is found in the fatty substance lecithin

7.2.3.3. Are almost always derived from the lecithin in soy (GMO free)

7.2.3.4. Critical substance used in the process of creating other lipids that help the brain function

7.2.3.5. Something as essential as the Omega-3 DHA, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid are all produced through a process called phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis

7.2.3.6. This process morphs Phosphatidylcholine into various, and important, fatty acids

7.2.3.7. Those brain fatty acids assist synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by connecting to certain receptors

7.2.3.8. When protein kinase C interacts with pre-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, it allows for these fatty acids to target the receptor

7.2.3.9. Since these fatty acids interact with certain acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine is important to cognition

7.2.3.10. These fatty acids are thus presumed to be important for learning and memory

7.2.3.11. Can be found in eggs, soybeans, mustard, sunflower, and other foods

7.2.3.12. Phosphatidylcholine is a vital substance found in every cell of the human body

7.2.3.13. Used to build and repair new cell membranes

7.2.3.14. One of the most important effects of is to increase choline supply in the brain

7.2.3.15. Can be broken down in the brain into choline and sphingomyelin

7.2.3.16. Sphingomyelin is thought to be essential in the development and protection of nerve cells

7.2.3.17. Choline is a precursor to synthesize Acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that is used in a number of cognitive processes

7.2.3.18. Plays a vital role in the underlying processes involved in memory and learning to attention and sensory perception

7.2.4. Benefits

7.2.4.1. Can improve long-term memory storage, learning capacity, fluid intelligence, reasoning and focus

7.2.4.2. Boost your memory, enhance intellectual skills, improve the health of your brain and even increase concentration

7.2.4.3. Can improve spatial learning and memory

7.2.4.4. Positive effects on human cognition

7.2.4.5. Has a positive effect on brain cell health and can enhance neuroplasticity

7.2.4.6. By ensuring the integrity of your neuron membranes, you can make meaningful improvements to cognitive functioning and neuron communication

7.2.4.7. Exhibits effects as a modulator of inflammation

7.2.4.8. Has even shown to promote a healthy intestinal tract

7.2.4.9. May also be a gradual and effective anti-inflammatory, specifically for the gut

7.2.4.10. May also aid in the transport and delivery of lipids throughout the body (controlled by the liver), help in membrane mediated cell signaling, and the activation of a number of other enzymes

7.2.4.11. Supports liver repair and protecting against all three forms of hepatitis

7.2.4.12. Helps to avoid a build-up of fatty acids and other fat cells within the liver

7.2.4.13. There is also evidence that this supplement may boost the immune system and help to protect against infections and disease

7.2.4.14. Benefits involve energy metabolism of fatty acids and the transportation of fats through cell membranes

7.2.4.15. Neuropsychiatric Disorders

7.2.4.16. Skin Health

7.2.4.17. Fat Metabolism

7.2.4.18. Liver Health

7.2.4.19. Weight Loss

7.2.5. Side Effects

7.2.5.1. Phosphatidylcholine has shown to be remarkably safe in many scientific studies

7.2.5.2. Most side effects are mild, and transitory in nature

7.2.5.3. Naturally occurring in foods we eat

7.2.5.4. Decades of scientific study proving its safety

7.2.5.5. Approved as safe to consume in over the counter supplements

7.2.5.6. Phosphatidylcholine is safe with low risk of serious side effects

7.2.5.7. There are no warnings or notable drug or medication interactions to worry about, either

7.2.5.8. Some of the mild side effects associated with Phosphatidylcholine are excessive sweating, diarrhea, and upset stomach

7.2.5.9. These are generally only present when taken in higher dose levels

7.2.6. References

7.2.6.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038136/?tool=pmcentrez

7.2.6.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996791/?tool=pmcentrez

7.2.6.3. http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/7/966.long

7.2.6.4. http://nootriment.com/phosphatidylcholine-benefits/

7.2.6.5. http://www.phosphatidylcholine.org/

8. Eugeroics

8.1. Modafinil/Armodafinil

8.1.1. Other Names and Types

8.1.1.1. Modafinil (Left Isomer molecule)

8.1.1.1.1. Provigil (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States, South Africa, Israel, Finland)

8.1.1.1.2. Modalert (Generic form of Provigil from India)

8.1.1.1.3. Modiodal (Mexico, Philippines, Spain, France, Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Cyprus, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Norway, Turkey, Japan, Iran)

8.1.1.1.4. Modavigil (Australia, New Zealand)

8.1.1.1.5. Modasomil (Austria, Switzerland)

8.1.1.1.6. Vigil (Germany)

8.1.1.1.7. Alertec (Canada, Ecuador)

8.1.1.1.8. Carim (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay)

8.1.1.1.9. Resotyl (Chile)

8.1.1.1.10. Vigia (Colombia)

8.1.1.1.11. Stavigile (Brazil)

8.1.1.2. Armodafinil (Right Isomer molecule)

8.1.1.2.1. Nuvigil

8.1.1.2.2. Waklert

8.1.1.2.3. Artvigil

8.1.1.2.4. R-Modafinil

8.1.2. Differences between modafinil/armodafinil

8.1.2.1. Modafinil is less 'pure' which means 200mg of Modafinil is equivalent to just 100mg of Armodafinil

8.1.2.2. Less side effect per mg from Armodafinil than Modafinil

8.1.2.3. Modafinil's wakefulness is less consistent and declines faster despite the similar half-life of 12-15 hours

8.1.2.4. Armodafinil was measured at 40% greater levels in the afternoon than Modafinil taken at the same equivalent

8.1.2.5. Armodafinil is the newer, safer, cleaner, longer lasting version of Modafinil.

8.1.2.6. Modafinil is cheaper and easier to get than Armodafinil

8.1.2.7. Both promote long lasting wakefulness, similar benefits, safe

8.1.3. Dosage

8.1.3.1. Solubility: methanol and ethanol soluble, take on an empty stomach without eating for 45 minutes

8.1.3.2. Modafinil

8.1.3.2.1. Recommended: 100-200mg 1-5 times a week

8.1.3.2.2. Minimum: 50-100mg

8.1.3.2.3. Maximum 400-500mg a day

8.1.3.3. Armodafinil

8.1.3.3.1. Recommended: 75-150mg a day 1-5 times a week

8.1.3.3.2. Minimum: 50-75mg a day

8.1.3.3.3. Maximum: 200-300mg a day

8.1.3.4. Not to be used daily, use when needed

8.1.3.5. Recommended 1-5 times a week, 3 times a week

8.1.4. Half-Life

8.1.4.1. Take on an empty stomach for faster effects and absorbtion

8.1.4.2. Half-life: 10-16 hours

8.1.4.3. Peak plasma time: 20 minutes, when taken with food absorbtion may be dalayed by up to 1 hour

8.1.4.4. Effects duration: 15 hours

8.1.5. Mechanism of Action

8.1.5.1. Modafinil is a, Schedule IV, racemic CNS stimulant with unique properties

8.1.5.2. Classified as an eugeroic (wakefulness promoting agent)

8.1.5.3. Its pharmacologic profile is most likened to something in between methylphenidate and amphetamine

8.1.5.4. Currently indicated to treat: excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, and shift work sleep disorder

8.1.5.5. The exact mode of action of modafinil remains elusive; as such, studies in rats, have revealed that the mechanism by which modafinil operates is centered around CNS levels of histamine

8.1.5.6. Shown to be an increase in both histamine, centered in the anterior hypothalamus, and locomotor activity

8.1.5.7. Increase in locomotor activity resulting from modafinil was seen to be on par with that of methylphenidate

8.1.5.8. Unlike methylphenidate, when α-fluoromethylhistidine, a potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, was administered and neuronal histamine concentration were depleted, so was modafinil’s effects

8.1.5.9. Was found to piggyback the orexinergic systems, in mice

8.1.5.10. Orexin neuron-ablated mice, modafinil failed to mount an effect, suggesting hypothalamic orexinergic neurons role within modafinil’s histaminergic pathway, primary

8.1.5.11. Postulated that modafinil increases hypothalamic histamine via attenuation of the GABAergic neurons that influence the orexinergic system

8.1.5.12. The term "modafinil" refers to a racemic mixture of two isomers, R-modafinil and S-modafinil. R-isomer is called armodafinil

8.1.5.13. Modafinil is a racemic mixture of S-modafinil and R-modafinil, while armodafinil is presented by only R-modafinil

8.1.5.14. Modafinil can increase the extracellular levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex of rats and in the caudate nucleus of dogs

8.1.6. Benefits

8.1.6.1. Wakefulness promoting. Increased focused. Improved cognition. Improved physical performance. More outgoing and extraverted. Enhanced mood. Better performance when sleep deprived. Appetite suppression.

8.1.6.2. Sleep deprivation has been shown to impair hippocampal-dependent memory

8.1.6.3. Shown to prevent impairment of cognitive function by reducing the number of errors compared to placebo and by upregulating synapsin I expression within the dorsal hippocampus

8.1.6.4. In a study involving sleep deprived ER physicians, modafinil displayed ability to improve performance on tests of higher cognitive function, compared to the baseline, albeit, failed to show gains in performance, with respect to psychomotor tasks

8.1.6.5. Both British and American military units are known to use modafinil to improve cognitive functioning in extended low-sleep, high-stress scenarios

8.1.6.6. In healthy people administration of 100-200 mg of modafinil for 2 hours before testing (arithmetic test) improved memory properties, spatial and visual perception and the time of reaction

8.1.6.7. Short-term memory and accuracy of information processing were improved after taking 200 mg of modafinil

8.1.6.8. There are improvements in the performance of tasks in general: increased motivation, enjoyment of the performed work

8.1.6.9. Studies have successfully shown a correlation between the use of this drug and retaining cognitive function in a healthy state against factors like a lack of sleep

8.1.6.10. Can act as an antidepressant and neuroprotective agent

8.1.6.11. Significantly improves the number of indicators of working memory (the number of stored numbers, counting, symbol recognition). There is controversial data on the improvement of other indicators. Part of the positive effects can be manifested only in people with low IQ

8.1.6.12. The research of doctors deprived of sleep showed that taking Modafinil (200 mg after one sleepless night) improves information processing, makes thinking more flexible and enhances the speed of decision making as compared to placebo. However, the quality of simple procedural action (operation on the simulator) did not improve

8.1.7. Side Effects

8.1.7.1. During the studies and sales (Alertec, Provigil) showed no side effects, except for mild nausea and headache in rare cases

8.1.7.2. Today modafinil is considered to be safer than caffeine and more effective than amphetamines.

8.1.7.3. Modafinil is not able to activate the neural pathway that occurs in case of addiction

8.1.7.4. Has a relatively low threshold of addiction if compare to other drugs

8.1.7.5. Can help to ease the breaking of methamphetamine addiction, alcoholics and gamers

8.1.7.6. Sometimes researchers condemning the drug report loss of appetite as a side effect in 16% of cases (164 people). Some researchers believe this fact causes a weight loss in a week, but statistically this has no confirmations

8.1.7.7. Adverse effects of modafinil are typically associated with stimulation of the central nervous system and may include nervousness, insomnia, tremor, euphoria, personality changes, and agitation

8.1.7.8. Common side effects include: headache, dizziness, nervousness/anxiousness, upset stomach, trouble sleeping (insomnia, dry mouth, loss of appetite, change in urine odor.

8.1.7.9. Sometimes there may be high blood pressure, heart palpitations or abnormal heart rhythm

8.1.7.10. May have some abuse potential, although none have been reported to date

8.1.7.11. Recommended to always remember to stay hydrated, drink plenty of water, and don't forget to eat meals to reduce side effects. Modafinil is not a substitute for proper food, nutrition, and sleep!

8.1.7.12. The side effects appear at higher than recommended doses! DO NOT TAKE MORE THAN 400MG OF MODAFINIL OR 300MG OF ARMODAFINIL!

8.1.8. References

8.1.8.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22617860

8.1.8.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051208

8.1.8.3. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/07/briefing/2007-4325b_04_08_Modafinil%20Label.pdff

8.1.8.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447850

8.1.8.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036079

8.1.8.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17920581

8.1.8.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729534

8.1.8.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997802

8.1.8.9. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/modafinil/

8.1.8.10. http://nztpills.com/modafinil_information.php

8.1.8.11. http://nootriment.com/modafinil-half-life/

8.2. Adrafinil

8.2.1. Dosage

8.2.1.1. Solubility: Soluble in methanol, water, and DMSO, take on an empty stomach without eating for 45 minutes

8.2.1.2. Recommended: 300mg a day

8.2.1.3. Others: 600mg a day

8.2.1.4. Others: 900mg a day

8.2.1.5. Others: 100-900mg a day

8.2.1.6. Minimum: 100mg a day

8.2.1.7. Maximum: 1200mg a day

8.2.1.8. Not to be used daily for long periods of time, use when needed

8.2.1.9. Recommended 1-3 times a week

8.2.2. Half-Life

8.2.2.1. Half-life: 5 hours

8.2.2.2. Peak plasma time: within 1 hour

8.2.2.3. Effects duration: around 7 hours

8.2.3. Mechanism of Action

8.2.3.1. Lafon Labs developed Adrafinil in the 1970s and it quickly became widely used in many European countries to improve wakefulness and for conditions that negatively impact the ability to stay awake

8.2.3.2. Metabolized into Modafinil and therefore has very similar effects on the brain and body

8.2.3.3. Prodrug for Modafinil, meaning that it leads to increased concentrations of Modafinil in your body

8.2.3.4. The drug’s mode of action is not thoroughly understood, but its effectiveness is probably derived from its ability to stimulate adrenergic receptors in the brain selectively

8.2.3.5. Adrafinil targets the receptors that usually respond to norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter linked to concentration and memory

8.2.4. Benefits

8.2.4.1. Most notable for increasing wakefulness, alertness, cognitive function and memory

8.2.4.2. Enhancing energy

8.2.4.3. Improve cognitive function through an increase in mental focus, concentration, and memory

8.2.4.4. Its ability to help regulate sleep cycles has made it useful for treating a variety of sleep disorders, including narcolepsy and hypersomnia

8.2.4.5. Rather than causing hyperactivity, Adrafinil helps your body fight fatigue

8.2.4.6. It is much gentler than standard stimulants as it lacks most of the common side effects

8.2.4.7. Able to fight off fatigue without the negative jittery effects common to most stimulants

8.2.4.8. Quiet and reserved users have also reported feeling more open and talkative when taking Adrafinil

8.2.4.9. Effects might not be immediately noticeable, as they typically build subtly over a period of several days to a few months. This is because Adrafinil selectively stimulates l-adrenergic receptors in the brain. Other stimulants affect a wide range of receptors in the brain leading to possible over stimulation. This is likely why Adrafinil typically has fewer negative side effects

8.2.5. Side Effects

8.2.5.1. Considered safe but there have been a few adverse reactions associated with it

8.2.5.2. Most commonly, these are nausea, headache and anxiety

8.2.5.3. Long-term users, however, can face more severe side effects, such as skin irritation and abnormal increases in liver enzymes

8.2.5.4. Takes longer to take effect since it gets metabolized by the liver

8.2.5.5. It's no more harmful on the liver than Tylenol, or even chronic alcohol consumption

8.2.5.6. Can supplement milk thistle and SAM-e for a healthy liver in combination with adrafinil to help minimize the impact on your liver from regular use

8.2.6. References

8.2.6.1. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/adrafinil

8.2.6.2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1527-3458.1999.tb00100.x/pdf

8.2.6.3. http://examine.com/supplements/Adrafinil/

8.2.6.4. http://www.modafinil-adrafinil.com/

8.2.6.5. http://www.nevapress.com/cnsdr/full/5/3/193.pdf

8.2.6.6. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/adrafinil/

8.2.6.7. http://examine.com/supplements/Adrafinil/

8.2.6.8. http://nootriment.com/adrafinil-liver-toxicity/

9. General Health Stack

9.1. Omega-3 Fish Oil EPA/DHA

9.2. Multivitamin

9.3. Creatine

9.4. Cocoa Powder

9.5. Vitamin D3

9.6. Magnesium Chelated

9.7. Coffee (optional)

9.8. Raw Honey (optional)

9.9. Probbiotic (optional)

9.10. CoQ10 (Optional)

9.11. Vitamin C (optional)

10. Antioxidants, Brain, Muscle, and Liver Health

10.1. N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC)

10.1.1. Dosage

10.1.1.1. Recommended: 1000mg a day morning empty stomach

10.1.1.2. Minimum: 100mg a day

10.1.1.3. Maximum: 2000mg a day

10.1.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.1.2.1. Considered one of the most important supplements in basic health care

10.1.2.2. Serves a variety of purposes ranging from boosting liver health to antioxidant properties

10.1.2.3. Is a prodrug of L-cysteine, which is a precursor to the antioxidant gluthathione

10.1.2.4. Functions as an antioxidant primarily through the synthesis of gluthathione

10.1.2.5. Gluthathione is vital to an antioxidative cycle that isolates and detains free radicals; however, gluthathione eventually degrades

10.1.2.6. Able to accelerate the rate at which gluthathione is produced

10.1.2.7. Also an anti-inflammatory agent, particularly in regards to illnesses of the bowels

10.1.2.8. Also stimulates the release of dopamine, which is able to boost mood and reduce anxiety

10.1.2.9. Also able to reduce symptoms related to anxiety such as nail biting and skin picking

10.1.2.10. Has a number of positive implications for lung health

10.1.2.11. Able to reduce mucus, flu symptoms, and a number of other benefits

10.1.2.12. Supports liver health

10.1.3. Side Effects

10.1.3.1. NAC is well tolerated by most individuals

10.1.3.2. The most common side effects are nausea and constipation

10.1.3.3. Interacts poorly with nitroglycerin and activated charcoal, so they should not be taken at the same time

10.1.4. References

10.1.4.1. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/93142/1/EML_18_eng.pdf?ua=1

10.1.4.2. https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/ebs/picmi/picmirepository.nsf/pdf?OpenAgent&id=CP-2010-PI-03960-3

10.1.4.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751781

10.1.4.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21815068

10.1.4.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277967

10.1.4.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19773711

10.1.4.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128921

10.1.4.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110331

10.1.4.9. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1018-n-acetyl%20cysteine.aspx?activeingredientid=1018&activeingredientname=n-acetyl%20cysteine

10.2. Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)

10.2.1. Dosage

10.2.1.1. Recommended: 400mg a day morning empty stomach

10.2.1.2. Others: 200mg 1-2 times a day

10.2.1.3. Minimum: 50mg a day

10.2.1.4. Maximum: 400mg a day

10.2.1.5. Fat soluble, but does not require fat for absorbtion and can be taken on an empty stomach

10.2.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.2.2.1. Fatty acid that plays a crucial role in energy metabolism

10.2.2.2. Found in very small amounts in meats as well as some fruits and vegetables

10.2.2.3. Able to help fight against certain types of oxidation and inflammation

10.2.2.4. Most prominent benefit is its ability to work with mitochondria in the blood stream to reduce oxidation by Increasing the level of antioxidant enzymes in the body

10.2.2.5. Fight the aging process by reducing oxidative damage in neuronal cells

10.2.2.6. Excellent anti-inflammatory agent

10.2.2.7. Known mimic a caloric surplus, which can in turn improve the body's ability to lose weight by suppressing appetite

10.2.2.8. Speculated that it can work to reduce blood glucose due to its ability to help control metabolic energy

10.2.2.9. Can increase energy levels in higher dosages

10.2.3. Side Effects

10.2.3.1. Possible side effects include headaches or a tingling sensation that could be likened to pins and needles, neither of which are signs of serious issues

10.2.4. References

10.2.4.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipoic_acid

10.2.4.2. http://examine.com/supplements/Alpha-Lipoic+Acid/

10.3. Curcumin/Piperine

10.3.1. Dosage

10.3.1.1. Recommended: 1000mg a day

10.3.1.2. Minimum: 80mg a day

10.3.1.3. Maximum: 2000mg a day

10.3.1.4. Stack with 20mg of piperine, phosphatidylcholine, and fish oil to improve bio availability

10.3.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.3.2.1. Synergizes particularly well with piperine, greatly increasing its bioavailability

10.3.2.2. Paired with phosphatidylcholine to improve bioavailability

10.3.2.3. Also pairs well with fish oil to form an effective antioxidant team

10.3.2.4. Active ingredient in Turmeric and can also be found in ginger in minute quantities

10.3.2.5. Primarily used as a cholinergic and to improve joint health

10.3.2.6. Is a neuroprotectant and nootropic

10.3.2.7. Incredibly effective at defending against glutamate excitotoxicity, which causes neuronal cell death

10.3.2.8. Able to increase Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a secreted protein that is vital to the survival and Proliferation of neurons within the brain

10.3.2.9. Able to reduce the negative influence stress exerts on cognition as well as prevent neuronal cell death caused by Corticosterone, a hormone responsible for how your body responds to stress

10.3.2.10. Evidence that it can reduce age related memory loss by inhibiting the buildup of beta amyloid, a peptide Commonly found in age related degenerative diseases of the brain

10.3.2.11. Can also provide some analgesic (pain relief) benefits as well, particularly following an injury or in persons with poor joint health

10.3.2.12. Benefits for joints include a reduction of inflammation and stiffness with an increase in mobility

10.3.2.13. Able to stimulate autophagy, a process linked with longevity that is able to rid the body of damaged cells

10.3.2.14. When combined with DHA, a major component of fish oil, curcumin is able to greatly promote healthy breast cells

10.3.3. References

10.3.3.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18420184

10.3.3.2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16364299

10.3.3.3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19540859

10.3.3.4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15590663

10.3.3.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18204357

10.3.3.6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17718715

10.3.3.7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900536

10.3.3.8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657536

10.3.3.9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16807698

10.3.3.10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21194249

10.3.3.11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634332

10.3.3.12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21510869

10.4. Inositol (Hexaphosphate/IP6-Inositol)

10.4.1. Dosage

10.4.1.1. Recommended: 2000mg a day morning empty stomach

10.4.1.2. Minimum: 500mg a day

10.4.1.3. Maximum: 5000mg a day

10.4.1.4. A common practice is to take choline with inositol

10.4.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.4.2.1. Chemical found in beans, brown rice, corn, and other high-fiber foods

10.4.2.2. It is considered a phtyonutrient, which accounts for it's antioxidant properties

10.4.2.3. Used as a substrate, or building block, for many compounds

10.4.2.4. Transmuted inside the body into many forms which aid in the functioning and the firing of neurons, and inositol Transporters are spread throughout the entire human brain

10.4.2.5. Facilitates the opening of calcium stores in the brain which is critical for neurotransmitters like serotonin to be Released and take effect

10.4.2.6. Through this effect on calcium, inositol is critical in gene expression, although the direct routes are still uncertain

10.4.2.7. Neurogenesis, the creation of neurons in the brain, is also related to some of the inositol forms that the body Creates through ingested and endogenous inositol

10.4.2.8. Is an excellent antioxidant that blocks free radicals

10.4.2.9. Supports heart health, kidney health, and liver health

10.4.2.10. Primary benefit of this type of inositol is its ability to promote cell health and inhibit malignant cell growth

10.4.3. References

10.4.3.1. http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v10/n1/full/4001618a.html

10.4.3.2. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/dietandnutrition/inositol-hexaphosphate

10.4.3.3. http://www.phytochemicals.info/phytochemicals/phytic-acid.php

10.5. SAM-e (S-Adenosylmethionine)

10.5.1. Dosage

10.5.1.1. Recommended: 800mg a day morning empty stomach

10.5.1.2. Minimum: 200mg a day

10.5.1.3. Maximum: 1600mg a day

10.5.2. Half-Life

10.5.2.1. Half-Life: about 100 minutes

10.5.2.2. Peak Plasma Time: 3-5 hours

10.5.3. Method of Action/Benefits

10.5.3.1. methyl donating compound that circulates in the blood and provides methyl groups to maintain other metabolic reactions

10.5.3.2. Lowered SAMe levels are associated with depressive symptoms, and supplementation may aid a partial deficiency

10.5.3.3. common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers

10.5.3.4. Transmethylation, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation are the metabolic pathways that use SAM

10.5.3.5. most SAM is produced and consumed in the liver

10.5.3.6. More than 40 metabolic reactions involve the transfer of a methyl group from SAM to various substrates, such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and secondary metabolites

10.5.3.7. taking SAM on a regular basis may help fight depression, liver disease, and the pain of osteoarthritis

10.5.4. Side Effects

10.5.4.1. Gastrointestinal disorder, dyspepsia and anxiety can occur with SAM consumption

10.5.4.2. Long-term effects are unknown

10.5.4.3. SAM is a weak DNA-alkylating agent

10.5.4.4. Another reported side effect of SAM is insomnia; therefore, the supplement is often taken in the morning

10.5.4.5. Other reports of mild side effects include lack of appetite, constipation, nausea, dry mouth, sweating, and anxiety/nervousness, but in placebo-controlled studies, these side effects occur at about the same incidence in the placebo groups

10.5.4.6. Although side-effects are not commonly reported with SAMe, numerous studies note a small set of participants who experience mania after supplementing SAMe

10.5.5. References

10.5.5.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-Adenosyl_methionine

10.5.5.2. http://examine.com/supplements/S-Adenosyl+Methionine/

10.6. Milk Thistle

10.6.1. Dosage

10.6.1.1. Recommended: 400mg morning empty stomach

10.6.1.2. Minimum: 100mg a day

10.6.1.3. Maximum: 600mg a day

10.6.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.6.2.1. Plant used for more than 2000 years to promote longevity and general healthy, especially liver health

10.6.2.2. The two most popular commercial extracts of Milk Thistle, silymarin and silibinin, are present in high quantities within the seeds of the Milk Thistle plant

10.6.2.3. has a wide array of flavolignan and flavanoid extracts including: silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilychristin, and taxifolin

10.6.2.4. This is one reason many people prefer to take the full spectrum Milk Thistle plant as opposed to a single extract

10.6.2.5. Milk Thistle protects many different vital systems in the human body

10.6.2.6. Natural way to help restore and maintain a healthy liver

10.6.2.7. Liver detoxification properties have been recognized for centuries

10.6.2.8. Can help maintain a healthier life by keeping body detoxification high, and scientific studies on Milk Thistle have shown it to have protective properties for liver tissue

10.6.2.9. antioxidant effects are widespread and work through many mechanisms

10.6.2.10. have demonstrated antioxidant capacities through multiple pathways

10.6.3. References

10.6.3.1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835426

10.6.3.2. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326063

10.6.3.3. http://ar.iiarjournals.org

10.7. Instantized BCAA Powder

10.7.1. Dosage

10.7.1.1. Recommended: 6000mg a day morning empty stomach

10.7.1.2. Minimum: 5000mg a day

10.7.1.3. Maximum: 15000mg a day

10.7.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.7.2.1. Supplies three of the nine essential amino acids, making it great support for anyone trying to maintain positive overall health

10.7.2.2. Combination of three essential amino acids: Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine

10.7.2.3. They are combined in a 2:1:1 ratio, which has been determined to be ideal for enhancing all of the benefits of this supplement

10.7.2.4. These specific amino acids count for a large percentage of those within muscle tissue

10.7.2.5. Studies have shown that they account for 35% of all essential amino acids within muscle proteins and 40% of all the preformed amino acids required by mammals for healthy functioning

10.7.2.6. The term instantized refers to the product solubility, instantized dissolves better and doesn't foam

10.7.2.7. The primary benefit of BCAAs is an increased protein synthesis

10.7.2.8. This makes it much easier to build and maintain muscle mass

10.7.2.9. Preventing muscular breakdown and affecting protein synthesis even faster

10.7.2.10. Leucine is helpful in reducing the catabolic effects which dieting (and exercising) help to stimulate

10.7.2.11. Other benefits include improved blood sugar regulation and even helping to treat burn victims

10.7.2.12. May have effects on different brain pathways which lead to a decreased food intake and increased basic metabolic rate

10.7.3. References

10.7.3.1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branched-chain_amino_acid

10.7.3.2. http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/bcaas-the-many-benefits-of-amino-acids.html

10.8. L-Arginine

10.8.1. Dosage

10.8.1.1. Recommended: 4000mg morning empty stomach

10.8.1.2. Minimum: 3000mg a day

10.8.1.3. Maximum: 6000mg a day

10.8.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.8.2.1. May help the body produce protein

10.8.2.2. Known to have some positive effects on libido, though the results aren't conclusive

10.8.2.3. Known to aid in lowering blood pressure conditions in some individuals in some studies

10.8.2.4. Direct precursor to Nitric Oxide, which is responsible for increased blow flow. This directly correlates to improved muscle pumps and may improve your performance in the gym. Additionally, high doses of arginine can raise insulin levels further increasing Nitric Oxide and blood flow

10.8.2.5. May very well stimulate the creation of a growth hormone in the body

10.8.2.6. Promoting growth in your body can significantly increase the abilities of any athlete, and it is especially valuable for promoting growth in areas of your body where that is difficult to accomplish with traditional training

10.8.2.7. Can have a positive effect on mental troubles such as stress and anxiety

10.8.2.8. A large amount of mental anguish can result from stress being placed on an individual, and stress and anxiety are just some of the symptoms that result from this

10.8.2.9. The double-blind study done on this issue showed that base levels of stress were significantly lowered by the supplement. It also showed that the subjects had a decreased level of cortisol

10.8.2.10. Cortisol has long been associated with stress in individual humans

10.8.2.11. Benefits both to your physical and mental well-being

10.8.2.12. Arginine is involved with ridding the body of waste and also in the synthesizing of proteins. This is why it's thought to have regenerative capabilities when involved in various body systems

10.8.3. References

10.8.3.1. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/l-arginine/NS_patient-arginine

10.8.3.2. http://www.berkeleywellness.com/supplements/other-supplements/article/arginine-what-can-it-do#

10.8.3.3. http://books.google.com/books?id=49kLK--eumEC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

10.8.3.4. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/52/6/1084

10.8.3.5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510493

10.9. Beta-Alanine

10.9.1. Dosage

10.9.1.1. Recommended: 3000mg a day morning with food

10.9.1.2. Minimum: 2000mg a day

10.9.1.3. Maximum: 5000mg a day

10.9.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.9.2.1. Promise of improving athletic performance even for the advanced, Beta Alanine is proving to be a new staple in the supplement cabinet

10.9.2.2. Non-essential (meaning it is made inside the human body) amino acid which is now being used to increase athletic performance and recovery

10.9.2.3. Shown to reduce and delay muscle fatigue, typically in pre-workout stacks featuring other components

10.9.2.4. While popular in the weight lifting community, also demonstrates an ability to assist in anaerobic running when taken regularly

10.9.2.5. Even more pronounced effect on older adults

10.9.2.6. The effects of Beta Alanine are not only established, but quite significant

10.9.2.7. Shown to be the rate-limiting factor when it comes to producing carnosine, can increase muscle carnosine synthesis

10.9.2.8. The longer you take the more and more it improves carnosine levels which, in turn, improves athletic performance

10.9.2.9. Muscle carnosine is implicated in increased muscle buffering capacity and a decrease in hydrogen ions, which would account for the improvement in running performance

10.9.2.10. When these hydrogen ions build up, the pH level of the muscle falls, and this interferes with many metabolic processes required for muscle movement

10.9.2.11. Might work as an antioxidant, a helpful, sacrificial peptide, or a calcium sensitivity booster in contractile fibers

10.9.2.12. Shown to improve its effect the longer you use it

10.9.2.13. Decrease muscle fatigue and increase the body's responses to intense exercise

10.9.3. References

10.9.3.1. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/9/1/28

10.9.3.2. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2585553/

10.9.3.3. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095

10.9.3.4. http://link.springer.com

10.10. D-Ribose

10.10.1. Dosage

10.10.1.1. Recommended: 6000mg a day

10.10.1.2. Minimum: 2000mg a day

10.10.1.3. Maximum: 5000mg a day

10.10.2. Method of Action/Benefits

10.10.2.1. Special type of sugar that is naturally produced by the body

10.10.2.2. Used to help improve athletic performance, the symptoms of chronic fatigue disorder, and a number of heart issues

10.10.2.3. A number of these conditions may have their origin in an energy crisis and D-Ribose, as a supplement, may help to increase the entire energy production cycle

10.10.2.4. The main benefit is in the production of ATP, which is the most direct and essential form of energy within the human body

10.10.2.5. Shown to help deal with symptoms that would normally result from the lack of energy; these can include cramping, pain, and even stiffness (especially after exercise)

10.10.2.6. Able to increase overall physical functioning

10.10.2.7. Increased tolerance for exercise, and even benefits to the heart

10.10.2.8. Plays a critical role in helping to rejuvenate and improve heart function, especially in individuals with a history of heart problems

10.10.2.9. Able to protect heart muscle function and helps fight off chronic fatigue syndrome

10.10.2.10. The improved blood pumping effect also improves overall heart function and circulation. More blood is delivered to the skeletal muscles which will lead to less pain and fatigue that might otherwise result from exercise and physical activity

10.10.3. References

10.10.3.1. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-827-RIBOSE.aspx?activeIngredientId=827&activeIngredientName=RIBOSE

10.10.3.2. http://www.endfatigue.com/tools-support/D-ribose.html

10.10.3.3. http://www.superfoods-scientific-research.com/natural-remedies/d-ribose-benefits.html

10.10.3.4. http://www.lef.org/magazine/2008/5/D-Ribose-Energize-Your-Heart-Save-Your-Life/Page-01

11. High Intensity Exercise

11.1. Increases production of neurochemicals that promote brain cell repair

11.2. Improves Memory

11.3. Lengthens attention span

11.4. Boosts decision making skills

11.5. Prompts growth of new nerve cells and blood vessels

11.6. Improves multi-tasking and planning

11.7. Increases IGF-1 and BDNF

11.8. Exercise makes you smarter

11.9. Exercise boosts mood and cognition at a neural level

11.10. Benefits of strength traning

11.11. More Benefits

11.12. Exercises

11.12.1. Squat

11.12.2. Deadlift

11.12.3. Bench Press

11.12.4. Overhead Press

11.12.5. Pull ups

11.12.6. Dips

11.12.7. Row Variations

11.12.8. Machine Variations

11.12.9. These multi-joint exercises encompasses all muscular curvatures and recruits the most muscle fibers for the most efficient and effective workout (“the most bang for the buck”).

12. Diet/Nutraceuticals

12.1. TL;DR: SUMMARY Eat (an anti-inflammatory diet which consists of) high quality clean healthy sources of fat (grass-fed butter, coconut oil, fish oil, avocados, nuts), protein and meat (grass-fed beef, wild-caught fish, pastured chicken, pastured eggs), and carbohydrates (organic non-GMO vegetables, some fruit, little starches). General ranges are 50-90 percent fat, 1-30 percent carbohydrate, and 10-30 percent protein. performance and health. Avoid like the plague: sugar, gluten grains, trans fats, high omega-6 seed and vegetable oils, artificial sweeteners, GMO, “diet” and “low fat” products, highly processed/refined foods and carbohydrates, artificial flavorings, artificial colors, preservatives. Drink filtered fluoride free water. Following these steps will result in: an increased life span, increased health (absence of disease), reduced body fat (reduced circumference of the waist), reduced inflammation, healthier skin, hair, nails, increased energy (both mentally and physically), clearer thought/clarity, reduction of brain fog/fatigue, improved mood and sleep. This is not a “fad”; this is based on science and the human biochemistry for the most optimal diet for mental