Transitions of Adolescence

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Transitions of Adolescence by Mind Map: Transitions of Adolescence

1. Biological Transitions

1.1. Puberty ("pubertas"-adult)

1.1.1. Genes & Environmental Factors

1.1.2. Health & Nutrition

1.1.3. Exposure to pheromones

1.2. Endocrine System

1.2.1. Produces, circulates, & regulates hormone levels in body

1.2.2. Hormones: substances secreted by glands

1.2.2.1. Organizing role: prenatal "program" brain, ex-sex differences in aggression

1.2.2.2. Activating role: ex-secondary sex characteristics

1.2.3. Feedback Loop (HPG Axis)

1.2.3.1. Hypothalamus, Pituitary (master) gland, Gonads

1.3. Timing of Physical changes

1.3.1. Regions of the world

1.3.1.1. Europe & US have lower age of menarche

1.3.2. Socioeconomic class

1.3.2.1. more access to resources, mature earlier

1.3.3. Ethnic Group

1.3.3.1. Black girls mature earlier than Mexican American girls who mature earlier than white girls

1.3.4. Historical Era

1.3.4.1. Industrialization: better sanitation, better control of disease

1.4. Tanner Stages

1.4.1. 1. Adolescent growth spurt

1.4.2. 2. Development of primary sex characteristics (gonads)

1.4.3. 3. Develop secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair)

1.4.4. 4. Changes in body composition

1.4.5. 5. Changes in circulation & respiration

1.5. Study of Psychosocial Consequences

1.5.1. Cross-sectional study design: compares 2 or more groups of individuals at one point in time

1.5.2. Longitudinal study design: same adolescents tracted over time

1.6. Immediate Impact of Puberty

1.6.1. Self-Esteem varies by gender & ethnicity

1.6.2. Moodiness

1.6.2.1. More fluctuations thru day than adults

1.6.2.2. Not solely due to horomones

1.6.3. Delayed Phase Preference & later melatonin secretion

1.6.3.1. Environmental influences & school start times

1.6.4. Family Relationships

1.6.5. Peer Relationships

1.7. Psychosocial Impact

1.7.1. Perception of being early or late bloomer is more important in affecting one's feelings than the reality

1.7.2. Pros of early: popularity, better self-esteem, more responsible, cooperative, sociable later in adulthood

1.7.3. Cons of early: more drug & alcohol use, precocious sexual activity, greater impact of victimization, less creative, humorless later in adulthood

1.7.4. Early maturing girls have more difficulties than early mature boys

1.7.5. Eating Disorders

1.7.5.1. Body Dissatisfaction

1.7.5.1.1. "Thigh gap"

1.7.5.2. Obesity

1.7.5.3. Disordered eating

1.7.5.4. Bulimia

1.7.5.5. Anorexia

1.7.6. Bullying Cyberbulling

1.8. Physical Health & Care

1.8.1. Paradox: adolescence is a healthy period of lifespan

1.8.2. Nearly 1 in 15 experiences at least one disabling chronic illness

1.8.2.1. Mental Disorders (depression)

1.8.2.2. Respiratory Illnesses (asthma)

1.8.2.3. Muscular & Skeletal Disorders (arthritis)

1.8.3. Threats to health have psychosocial causes (not natural causes)

1.8.4. Mortality

1.8.4.1. Today: 40% of teen deaths due to car accidents and other unintentional injuries; 30% of teen deaths due to homicide and suicide

1.8.4.2. Texting & driving

1.8.4.3. 50 yrs ago: most deaths from illness & disease

2. Social Transitions

2.1. Social Redefinition & Psychosocial Development

2.1.1. Social Redefinition: the process thru which an individual's position or status is reinvented by society

2.1.2. Age of majority: the designated age at which an individual is recognized as an adult; “legal age”

2.1.3. Statutory Rape: sex between 2 individuals, even when it is consensual, when at least one of the persons is below the legal age of consent; in the US, the specific age of consent varies from state to state.

2.2. Elongation of Adolescence

2.2.1. Adolescence lasts longer today than ever before because puberty happens earlier and enter workforce or marriage later in life.

2.2.1.1. Truer in industrialized societies, but also occurs in developing countries too.

2.3. Adolescence as Social Invention

2.3.1. Inventionists: Theorists who argue that the period of adolescences is mainly a social construct

2.3.2. During industrialization teens more educated rather than working alongside family members

2.3.2.1. “time of preparation rather than participation suited society’s changing economic needs” (89).

2.3.2.2. Shortage of jobs, machines replaced workers

2.3.3. Child Protectionists: individuals who argued, early 20th century, that adolescents needed to be kept out of the labor force in order to protect them from the hazards of the workplace.

2.3.3.1. Began in the middle class , parents have more to gain by keeping children out of the labor force and educating them for a better adulthood

2.3.4. Teenager: a term populated around 50 yrs ago to refer to young people it connoted a more frivolous and lighthearted image than did “adolescent”

2.3.5. Youth: Youth: today, a term used to refer to individual ages 18-22; it once referred to individuals ages 12-24.

2.3.6. "Emerging adulthood": New life cycle ages 18-25

2.3.6.1. 1. exploration of possible identities before making enduring choices

2.3.6.2. 2. instability in work, romantic relationships, living arrangements

2.3.6.3. 3. a focus on oneself and functioning as an independent person

2.3.6.4. 4. subjective feeling of being between adolescence and adulthood

2.3.6.5. 5. subjective sense that life holds many possibilities

2.3.6.6. Economic influence as well as choice

2.3.6.7. "finding one's self" (91).

2.3.6.8. Generally a period of independence and optimism, and a little floundering and financial instability

2.3.7. Whether a psychological stage of emerging adulthood really exists has yet to be established.

2.4. Changes in Status

2.4.1. 1. Interpersonal

2.4.1.1. Expected to interact differently with elders & children

2.4.1.2. Family role changes- expected to take on more responsibility

2.4.2. 2. Political

2.4.2.1. given "Voice" in decision making of culture: ex. Right to vote

2.4.3. 3. Economic

2.4.3.1. Right to own property & control over income

2.4.3.2. Responsibility to contribute to economic well-being of culture- ex. Paying taxes

2.4.3.3. Find work that children cannot do

2.4.4. 4. Legal

2.4.4.1. "adult" activities: driving, alcoholic purchases, casino gambling

2.4.4.2. Move from juvenile justice system to criminal justice system for offenses

2.4.4.2.1. Today, youth between ages 16-17 are often faced with adult sanctions when they commit serious crimes, such as murder.

2.4.4.2.2. Some adolescents have been ruled incompetent for their cognitive or emotional immaturity

2.4.4.3. Inconsistencies

2.4.4.3.1. 1. Hazelwood v Kuhlmerier

2.4.4.3.2. 2. Board of Education v Mergens

2.4.4.3.3. 3. Hodgson v Minnesota

2.4.4.3.4. 4. Roper v. Simmons

2.5. Process of Social Redefinition

2.5.1. Themes of Redefinition

2.5.1.1. Real or symbolic separation of young from parents

2.5.1.1.1. Bar Mitzvah: (called Bas Mitzvah for referring to both sexes) Judaism, ceremony marking a young person’s transition to adulthood

2.5.1.1.2. Quinceanera: “coming out celebration” in Latino culture, turning 15.

2.5.1.1.3. Ex. Summer camp, boarding schools, college

2.5.1.2. Accentuation of differences between males and females

2.5.1.2.1. ex. Girls expected to be virgins 'till marriage

2.5.1.3. Passing of cultural, historical, or practical information deemed important for adulthood

2.5.1.3.1. Older generation teaches adult tasks, financial matters, work, sex, history or family rituals, community

2.5.1.3.2. Scarification: the intentional creation of scars on some part or parts of body, often as part of an initiation ceremony

2.6. Variations in Social Transitions

2.6.1. No solid transformation into adulthood. certain ages allowed to do certain things

2.6.1.1. i.e. drink at 21, but join military at 18, (happens gradually)

2.6.1.2. Depends on how old individual feels mentally

2.6.1.3. Less importance on family roles

2.6.2. In traditional cultures marked by formal ceremony linked with puberty or menstruation

2.6.3. Circumcision controversy:

2.6.3.1. Procedure in which some part of genitals is cut and permanently altered.

2.6.3.2. Males- foreskin around penis is removed during infancy, common for religious reasons (Jews) or health reasons (decreased risk of urinary tract infections and STDs including HIV infections.

2.6.4. Female genital mutilation

2.6.4.1. Cutting or removal of the clitoris performed in some cultures as part of the initiation of female adolescents

2.6.4.2. Can also include labia removal

2.6.4.3. Practiced mostly in North Africa (and some countries such as Mali, Somalia, Egypt virtually all women have been circumcised during childhood or adolescence)

2.6.4.3.1. no associated health benefits, carries many risks including infections, chronic pain during urination, menstruation, and sex

2.6.4.3.2. Virtually impossible for woman to achieve orgasm during sex

2.6.4.3.3. Many believe it is a human rights violation!

2.6.5. Baby boom generation: the period following WWII during which the # of infants born was extremely large.

2.6.5.1. Adolescents in the late 1950s-60s

2.6.5.2. Key transitions- getting married, moving out of parents house, completing education

2.6.5.2.1. School, work, romance, residence

2.6.5.3. .

2.6.6. Continuous transitions- passages into adulthood in which adult roles and statuses are entered gradually

2.6.7. Discontinuous transitions-enter adulthood abruptly

2.6.7.1. Globalization & industrialization makes more individuals enter discontinuous transitions

2.6.7.2. 18th and 19th century, entered adult roles earlier to carry on family tradition

2.6.7.2.1. however, lived under adult supervision for longer

2.6.7.2.2. Pattern strengthened sex-role stereotypes

2.6.8. Contemporary society gives little training to adolescent, thrusts them into the adult life.

2.6.8.1. 1. Worker, parent, citizen 3 roles expected to successfully carry out

2.6.8.2. 2. No training in child rearing

2.6.8.3. 3. No preparation for government & community roles

2.6.9. Traditional cultures: much training and preparation for adult roles, work alongside parents. informal education emphasis

2.6.10. Current Trend of Leaving Home

2.6.10.1. 55% of Americans ages 18-24 either live with or are supported by parents

2.6.10.2. Experts say due to increased costs of housing and transportation

2.6.10.3. Similar trend in Europe

2.6.10.4. Form really positive relationships with family

2.7. Transitions into Adulthood in Contemporary Society

2.7.1. Length of Transition has increased

2.7.2. Labor force comes to be more dependant on formal education because globalization

2.7.3. More babies being born in developing countries means shift in where the distribution of adolescents are.

2.7.4. Minority groups have more difficulty transitioning due to poverty, discrimination, segregation, & disproportionate involvement with the justice system

2.7.4.1. Surprisingly, foreign born minority adolescents have generally better mental health, exhibit less problem behavior, and perform better in school than native born Americans from same ethnic group

2.7.4.2. However, “Americanization” means higher # of teens involved in risky behaviors, more family tension

2.7.5. Poverty: associated with failure in school, unemployments, out-of-wedlock pregnancy

2.7.5.1. 1. Dropout rates higher among Hispanics and American Indian teens than other groups

2.7.5.2. 2. College enrollment is lower among Black, Hispanic, Indian youth

2.7.5.3. 3. Unemployment

2.7.5.4. 4. Victims of crime and exposed to more violence

2.7.5.5. 5. Pregnancy higher among blacks and hispanic teens than white teens

2.7.6. How to Ease Transition?

2.7.6.1. 1. Expanding work & volunteer opportunities, improving quality of life

2.7.6.2. 2. "Bridge" workplace opportunities and high school activities

2.7.6.3. 3. Mentoring: give at risk students positive adult role models

2.7.6.3.1. Small but significant positive effect on development, but not sufficient method alone.

2.8. Neighborhood Conditions Influence

2.8.1. Much more concern in last 40yrs

2.8.2. Nonwhite communities prevalent poverty

2.8.3. What is the norm in community?

2.8.3.1. Interpersonal relationships inside & outside family

2.8.3.2. Limited or facilitating access to economic and institutional resources

2.8.4. Few affluent families live in poor areas and few poor families live in affluent areas; difficult to separate family from neighborhood influences

2.8.5. Cause & Effect problem

2.8.5.1. Relocating poor families to affluent areas actually had negative effect

2.8.6. Collective Efficacy

2.8.6.1. A communities social capital, derived from its member’s common values and goals & trust.

2.8.7. Poverty

2.8.7.1. Breeds social isolation and social disorganization

2.8.7.1.1. Film: Motel Kids

2.8.7.2. Stresses associated with Poverty undermine the quality of people’s relationships with each other

2.8.7.2.1. 1. Financial strain creating family tension

2.8.7.2.2. 2. Parents not effective at supervising youth, little social support

2.8.7.2.3. 3. Poverty and delinquency

2.8.7.2.4. 4. Exposure to violence: witnessing gun violence DOUBLES adolescent’s risk for Committing violence in future.

2.8.8. Limited Access to Resources

2.8.8.1. "Trading Schools"

2.8.8.2. Schools, health care, transportation, employment opportunities, recreational services

2.8.8.2.1. thus fewer activities to facilitate positive development or help with difficulties

2.8.8.3. Each setting (school, family, peer group) contributes modestly and independently to the course of development

3. Cognitive Transitions

3.1. Changes in Thinking

3.1.1. 1. Thinking about possibilities

3.1.1.1. ex. ways in which lives might be affected by different career choices

3.1.1.2. Moves easily between specific and abstract to generate alternative possibilities

3.1.1.3. Development of deductive reasoning: "if-then" thinking

3.1.2. 2. Thinking about abstract concepts

3.1.2.1. Puns, proverbs, metaphors, & analogies

3.1.2.2. Growth of social thinking (social cognition) during adolescence is directly related to the young person's improving ability to think abstractly

3.1.3. 3. Thinking about thinking (Metacognition)

3.1.3.1. Introspection: thinking about our own emotions

3.1.3.2. Self-consciousness: thinking that others are thinking of us

3.1.3.3. Intellectualization: thinking about our own thoughts

3.1.3.4. Metacognitive Consequences

3.1.3.4.1. Adolescent Egocentrism

3.1.3.4.2. Personal Fable

3.1.3.4.3. Imaginary Audience

3.1.4. 4. Thinking in Multiple dimensions

3.1.4.1. Ability to view things from more than one aspect at a time

3.1.4.2. More sophisticated understanding of probability

3.1.4.3. Understand sarcasm & double-entendres

3.1.5. 5. Seeing knowledge as relative (Relativism)

3.1.5.1. Ability to see things as relative rather than absolute

3.1.5.2. Skepticism becomes common

3.1.5.3. Everything may seem uncertain

3.1.5.4. No knowledge seems completely reliable

3.2. Jean Piaget's View

3.2.1. Stages of Development

3.2.1.1. Sensorimotor stage: Birth-2yrs

3.2.1.2. Preoperational: 2-6yrs

3.2.1.3. Concrete Operational: 6-11 yrs

3.2.1.4. Formal Operations: 11+ yrs

3.3. Information-Processing View

3.3.1. Researchers argue that it should be possible to model human intelligence by breaking down complicated tasks into a series of discrete logic trees, in the same manner a computer programmer might

3.3.1.1. 1. Selective attention & divided attention

3.3.1.2. 2. Working memory & long-term memory

3.3.1.3. 3. Processing speed: faster

3.3.1.4. 4. Organization: approach problem with appropriate strategy in mind and more flexible

3.3.1.5. 5. Metacognition

3.4. Adolescent Brain

3.4.1. Methods to study brain growth & development

3.4.1.1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): technique used to produce images of brain, often while subject is performing some sort of mental task

3.4.1.2. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): technique used to produce images of brain tht shows connections among different regions

3.4.2. Two waves of growth

3.4.2.1. Toddlerhood

3.4.2.2. Adolescence

3.4.3. Neural Proliferation

3.4.3.1. Early Adolescence

3.4.3.1.1. Formation of many new synapses

3.4.3.1.2. Formation of new neurons

3.4.4. Gray Matter

3.4.4.1. Consists of neural connections

3.4.4.2. Largely in cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the outer folds (outer surface)

3.4.5. Neural Pruning

3.4.5.1. Pruning from back to front of brain

3.4.5.2. Leads to more efficient brain

3.4.5.3. Unused synapses begin to wither

3.4.5.4. Brain's cortex (the outer layer of gray matter) where we do much our our conscious & complicated thinking becomes thinner, but more efficient

3.4.6. Myelination

3.4.6.1. The brain's axons—the long nerve fibers that neurons use to send signals to other neurons—become gradually more insulated with a fatty substance called myelin (the brain's white matter), eventually boosting the axons' transmission speed up to a hundred times.

3.4.6.2. Depositing of myelin on axons of nerve fibers

3.4.6.3. Many areas of brain receive increased myelin at adolescence

3.4.6.4. Speeds the transmission of neural impulses

3.4.6.5. Not complete until early adulthood

3.4.7. Limbic System

3.4.7.1. On hyperdrive

3.4.7.2. Surge of hormones at puberty causes limbic irritability

3.4.8. Frontal Cortex: the "thinking brain"

3.4.9. Prefrontal Cortex: CEO of brain

3.4.9.1. decision making, controlling impulses, prediction consequences, reasoning

3.5. Individual Differences in Intelligence

3.5.1. Measurement of IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

3.5.1.1. 1st test developed in 1905

3.5.1.2. Most widely used and misused psychological instrument

3.5.1.3. Cohort: a group of people born during the same historical era

3.5.2. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intellegence

3.5.2.1. 1. Componential

3.5.2.1.1. Similar to traditional tests measure

3.5.2.2. 2. Experiential

3.5.2.2.1. Creativity

3.5.2.3. 3. Contextual

3.5.2.3.1. "street smarts"

3.5.3. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intellegences

3.5.3.1. 1. Verbal

3.5.3.2. 2. Mathematical

3.5.3.3. 3. Spacial

3.5.3.4. 4. Kinesthetic

3.5.3.5. 5. Self-reflective

3.5.3.6. 6. Interpersonal

3.5.3.7. 7. Musical

3.5.4. Test Performance

3.5.4.1. Research suggests that intelligence is a very stable trait during adolescence

3.5.4.2. SAT predicts one's likelihood of success in college, but only one of many useful factors

3.5.5. Culture and Intellegence

3.5.5.1. Lev Vygotsky: emphasized context in which intellectual development occurs

3.5.5.1.1. Zone of Proximal Development:

3.5.5.1.2. Scaffolding

3.5.5.2. Culturally biased against people who are NOT members of dominate culture

3.5.5.2.1. Base less on verbal skills

3.5.5.2.2. Orient toward performance tasks

3.6. Adolescent Thinking in Context

3.6.1. Social Cognition: ability to figure out what other people think, complex interpersonal relationships

3.6.2. Studies:

3.6.2.1. 1. Impression Formation: how individuals form and organize judgement about other people

3.6.2.2. 2. Social Perspective-taking: how individuals make assessments about the thoughts and feelings of others

3.6.2.3. 3. Conceptions of morality and social conventions: individuals' conceptions of justice, social norms, and guidelines for social interaction

3.6.3. Risk-taking

3.6.3.1. More common among males than females but gender gap as been narrowing over time

3.6.3.2. Emotional and Social factors influence judgment

3.6.3.3. Behavioral Decision Theory

3.6.3.3.1. Decision making is rational and individuals try to maximize benefits of alternative courses of action and minimize costs

3.6.3.4. Personal Fable about Invulnerabiltity

3.6.4. In Classroom

3.6.4.1. American youth have difficulty with critical thinking

3.6.4.1.1. Most secondary school classes reward rote memorization of concrete facts and parroting back the teacher's "correct" answer

3.6.4.2. Schools should teach adolescents ways of...

3.6.4.2.1. 1. Focusing attention

3.6.4.2.2. 2. Improving short- and long-term memory

3.6.4.2.3. 3. Organizing information

3.6.4.2.4. 4. Monitoring thought processes