Post-U.S Civil War

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Post-U.S Civil War by Mind Map: Post-U.S Civil War

1. Jim Crow

1.1. Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s.

1.1.1. Under Jim Crow law African Americans carried a status of second class citizens.

1.1.2. Violence was used to keep blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy

1.1.2.1. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings.

1.1.2.2. Lynchings were public murders carried out by mobs.

1.1.2.3. They weren't only hung but they were also shot and some were burned at the stake, beaten with clubs, or dismembered.

1.1.2.4. "Many whites claimed that although lynchings are distasteful, they were necessary supplements to the criminal justice system because blacks were prone to violent crimes, especially the rapes of white women. Arthur Raper investigated nearly a century of lynchings and concluded that approximately one-third of all the victims were falsely accused (Myrdal, 1994, p. 561)."

1.1.3. Jim Crow etiquette

1.1.3.1. A black man could not offer to shake hands with white men because that would imply that they were equals. Black men could not offer to shake hands or offer any part of his body to any white women because he would run the risk of being accused of rape.

1.1.3.2. Black people and White people could not eat together. If they did whites had to be served first.

1.1.3.3. Black males could not light a white woman cigarette. Blacks were to be introduced to whites never whites to blacks. Whites did not use curtesy titles to refer to black people. Blacks always had to use curtesy titles when referring to white people.

1.1.3.4. If a black person rode in a car where a white person was driving they had to sit in the back seat. White drivers always had the right of way over black drivers.

1.1.4. Blacks had "simple" rules to follow when conversing with whites. They went from not insinuating that a white person is lying to never commenting on the appearance of a white female.

1.2. After 1877, and the election of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, southern and border states began restricting the liberties of blacks.

1.2.1. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) legitimized Jim Crow laws and the Jim Crow way of life.

1.2.1.1. Plessy v. Ferguson was about Plessy a seven-eights white and one-eights black and therefore was considered black, sat in a white-only railroad coach.

1.2.1.2. Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and declared him guilty.

1.2.2. If any black people broke any of the Jim Crow norms, they would be risking their homes, jobs and lives. Some of these offenses included but not limited to drinking from whites only water fountains or trying to vote.

1.3. Separate but Equal

1.3.1. By law Black people were equal to white people. But had to be separate.

1.3.2. Black people in reality weren't equal to white people. Whites passed and used laws such as Jim Crow laws to keep black people separate and inferior, yet claiming that black people were being treated equally.

2. The Spanish-American War

2.1. The U.S.S. Maine

2.1.1. Charles Sigsbee was the Captain of the ship. During the three weeks that the ship was n Havana he saw no Cuban rebels.

2.1.2. In 1898 is when the Ship was blown up. The captain describes what he was doing and what he experienced during the explosion.

2.1.3. The Navy conducted an investigation into the explosion, but never found who was responsible for the explosion of the ship. The press thought that the Spanish were the ones that blew up the ship.

2.1.4. The paper just like people everywhere and Congress were rallying to avenge the U.S.S. Maine.

2.2. War

2.2.1. Congress appropriated $50 million dollars to prepare for war. President McKinley insisted that Spain agree to a cease fire with Cuban rebels. Spain agreed, then President McKinley asked congress for authority to use military force to end the Cuban conflict. This meant declaring war.

2.2.2. The U.S Army was not fully prepared for war because after the Civil War the country drastically reduced its Army size. one waited in Florida for the invasion of Cuba.

2.2.3. Commodore Dewey had his men paint the ships a dull gray color so that they would be less visible to their enemies. He also ordered his men to throw overboard everything made of wood, because splintered wood was more dangerous for his men than enemy shells.

2.2.4. On May the first the Olympia led the fleet in the attack to the Spaniards. The Spanish were shooting at the U.S fleets way before they were in range.. When the Olympia was in range they turned and opened fire on the Spanish.

2.2.5. They won the battle with little casualties.

2.2.6. Cuban soldiers nearly won their independence from Spain.

3. How Did Jews Become White Folks?

3.1. Euroraces

3.1.1. European immigrants including Jews had been largely assimilated into the white population.

3.1.2. Theories of Eugenics

3.1.2.1. Racist science suggested breeding for a better race.

3.1.2.2. Galton Society in 1918 in order to foster research, promote eugenics, and restrict immigration.

3.1.2.3. By the 1920s, scientific racism sanctified the notion that real Americans were white and that real whites came from North-West Europe.

3.2. Jews

3.2.1. Compared with other immigrants, Jews were upwardly mobile.

3.2.2. The existence of anti-immigrant, racist, and anti-Semitic barriers kept the Jewish middle class confined to a small number of occupations.

3.2.3. Jews were pioneers in the garment and movie industries. But were excluded from Mainstream corporate management and and corporately employed professions.

3.2.4. "We shouldn't Jewish succes in organized crime in the 1920s and 1930s as an aspect of upward mobility."

3.3. Whitening Euro-ethnics

3.3.1. Did Jews and other Euro-ethnics become white because they became middle-class?

3.3.1.1. Some of the changes set in motion during the war against fascism led to a more inclusive version of whiteness.

3.3.2. Instead of dirty and dangerous races that would destroy American Democracy, immigrants became ethnic groups whose children had successfully assimilated into the mainstream and risen to the middle class.

3.3.3. Economic prosperity played a powerful role in the whitening process. Changing views on who was white made it easier for EURO-ETHNICS TO BECOME MIDDLE CLASS.

4. Plessy v. Ferguson

4.1. June 7, 1892

4.1.1. Homer Adolph Plessy a 30 year old one-eights black and seven-eights white man. (therefore considered black

4.1.2. Since he was considered black he had to sit in the colored car of the East Louisiana Railroad. He was jailed for sitting in a car marked for whites only.

4.1.3. Went to court and Plessy argued that the Separate Car Act violated the 13th and 14th amendments.

4.2. 1896

4.2.1. This case was taken to the Supreme Court after the lawyer from Massachusetts ruled against Plessy.

4.2.2. The Supreme Court also ruled against Plessy, declared him guilty once again, reiterating the Jim Crow Laws.

4.3. Separate but Equal

4.3.1. Having separate facilities for blacks was constitutional as long as they were equal.

4.3.2. In 1954, Brown v. Board of Education decision struck down the separate but equal doctrine.

4.4. Reconstruction and Its Aftermath

4.4.1. In 1863, The Emancipation Proclamation fred African Americans in rebel states. After the Civil War the 13th amendment emancipated all slaves anywhere in the U.S.

4.4.2. The reconstruction which was implemented by congress lasted from 1866 to 1877. This aimed to reorganized the Southern states after the Civil War.

4.4.3. The South saw Reconstructions as a humiliating and vengeful imposition and were against it.

4.4.4. African Americans enjoyed a period when they were allowed to vote and were allowed to participate in white activities. However, opponents rallied against this and began to find ways of putting the newly freed slaves down.

5. White Negroes and Smoked Irish

5.1. Penal Laws

5.1.1. Under these laws, Catholics were not allowed to vote or serve in Parliament or hold public office in any of the municipal corporations, or live within their towns, they were also forbidden to practice law or serve in the Military or be a civil servant.

5.1.2. Like the Jim Crow laws pressed African Americans, the Penal Laws regulated every aspect of the Irish life. Irish of the Catholic religion formed an oppressed race.

5.1.3. "The Anglo-Irish adopted a more inclusive policy toward Catholics than did the American patriots toward Indians and Africans, calling for the abrogation of the Penal Codes and the extension of the electoral franchise to Catholics."

5.2. Act of Union of 1800

5.2.1. The British presented this act. This was engineered by Prime Minister William Pitt and Secretary Lord Castlereagh.

5.2.2. This Act was pushed through Parliament only by bribery on a scale that would become infamous.

5.2.3. This Act went into effect in 1801, not only merged the two parliaments, it foreclosed the possibility of an independent Irish economy.

5.3. Irish as White?

5.3.1. The Irish in America opted for the privileges and burdens of whiteness.

5.3.2. White skin made the Irish eligible for membership with in the whites.

5.3.3. This did not guarantee their admission, they had to earn it.

6. Race and Voting in the Segregated South

6.1. Voting

6.1.1. More than half-million black men acquired the right to vote in the South during the 1870s, although women did not have the right to vote until 1920.

6.1.2. Black men and women enjoyed freedom of speech and movement , the right of a fair trial, education for their children, and all the other privileges and protections of American citizenship.

6.1.2.1. All of this changed when reconstructed ended in 1877 and federal troops withdrew from the old Confederacy.

6.1.3. White supremacy took over after the troops were not there to protect the rights of the black people.

6.1.4. Segregation and violence against blacks then started.

6.2. Social Protest

6.2.1. Between 1900 and 1950, community leaders in many Southern cities protested segregation.

6.2.2. NAACP was the leading civil rights organization of this era, battled racism by lobbying for federal anti-lynching legislation and challenging segregation laws in court.

6.2.3. The Montgomery Bus Boycott

6.2.3.1. December 1955 in Alabama was one of the first major protest. Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give her bus seat to a white passenger, as required by the city's segregation laws.

6.2.3.2. Rosa Parks got arrested and the NAACP saw an opportunity to challenge segregation laws.

6.2.3.3. Usually more than 75% of Montgomery's black residents regularly used the bus system. On the day of the Boycott, only eight blacks rode buses that day.

6.2.3.4. The boycott lasted 382 days. It ended when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation on the city's buses was unconstitutional.

6.2.4. After The Montgomery Bus Boycott there were many other protest and marches and rallies. Called the Cicil Rights Movement.

6.3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964

6.3.1. Two major civil rights laws wee passed by Congress.

6.3.2. These laws ensured constitutional rights for African Americans and other minorities.