Topography

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Topography by Mind Map: Topography

1. Committed to Social Justice

2. Caution: Do not oppress. Do not distort. (Olesen)

2.1. Need Different Research Methods

2.1.1. Voice-Centerd Relational Methods

2.1.2. Reconstructing Research Narratives

2.1.3. Writing the Voices of the Less Powerful

2.2. Need more than just English-language publications. Need more than just the voices from the U.S. and the U.K.

3. Vulnerability

3.1. Aye

3.1.1. An attempt to say "NO" to acting like there is something to hide (Behar, 1996, p. 10)

3.1.2. An attempt to be honest about how "[our] work has been tremendously colored by [our emotions and [our] experiences" (Jamison as cited in Behar, 1996, p. 11)

3.1.3. To be vulnerable (read: the exposure of self in research) must be essential to the argument of one's research (Behar, 1996, p. 14). Or else it is misused. And no good.

3.1.4. A mystery of sorts is involved. An unknown. "To WRITE vulnerably is to open a Pandora's box. Who can say what will come flying out?" (Behar, 1996, p. 19)

3.1.5. The end result of making room to vulnerability, emotions, and the personal is that one "[comes] to know others by knowing herself and [comes] to know herself by knowing others" (Behar, 1996, p. 33)

3.2. Ney

3.2.1. "Geertz insists it is inappropriate to interiorize too much 'what is in fact an intensely public activity.'" (Behar, 1996, p. 8)

3.2.2. Personal has nothing to do with an Analysis of Impersonal Social Facts (Behar, 1996, p. 12).

3.2.3. Vulnerability aka Being Personal = Sin (Behar, 1996, p. 13)

3.2.4. Susan Rubin Suleiman (as cited in Behar, 1996, p. 29) alludes to the notion that "good academic writing...aimed for impersonality and objectivity."

3.2.5. Good science is science that is free of individual bias & subjectivity (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 15).

4. The Sociological Imagination

4.1. What does it do?

4.1.1. Mills states "the sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. That is its task and its promise" (6).

4.1.1.1. Denzin (2010) puts it simply as the social imagination is to do (connect) the following...

4.1.1.1.1. History + Biography

4.1.1.1.2. Personal + Public

4.1.2. Allows for an understanding of how "Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his inner life. They have to do with the organization of many such milieu into the institutions of an historical society as a whole, with the ways in which various milieu overlap and interpenetrate to form the larger structure of social and historical life (8).

4.1.2.1. More specifically, one aims to achieve an "understanding of the intimate realities of ourselves in connection with larger social realities." (p. 15)

4.2. How it's done?

4.2.1. Not With Abstracted Empiricism

4.2.1.1. "Abstracted empiricists are systematically a-historical and non-comparative; they deal with small-scale areas and they incline to psychologism. Neither in defining their problems nor in explaining their own microscopic finding do they make any real use of the basic idea of historical social structure (68).

4.2.1.2. Abstracted empiricism eliminates the great social problems and human issues of our time from inquiry (73).

4.2.2. Not With Grand Theory

4.2.2.1. Grand theory fails because "it does not confront the problem usefully; it just goes on elaborating the Concept in terms of others equally abstract" (124).

4.2.3. With A "Classic Focus"

4.2.3.1. How you define the problem will determine how you study the problem. Mills states that "the classic focus, in short, is on substantive problems. The character of these problems limits and suggests the methods and the conceptions that are used and how they are used. Controversy over different views of ‘methodology’ and ‘theory’ is properly carried on in close and continuous relation with substantive problems" (128).

4.2.3.1.1. Bentz & Shapiro (1998) concur saying that your method must be appropriate to the question you are asking. They add that you must have achieved competence in using particular methods that might go about answering your question (p. 10).

5. Issues of Power

5.1. Who holds the Power?

5.1.1. Researchers

5.1.1.1. Then: Hold "power" in that they are the writers of accounts

5.1.1.2. Now: Researchers, the more you think about it, are actually power-less (Olesen, p. ). Their power is...

5.1.1.2.1. Tenuous

5.1.1.2.2. Partial

5.1.1.2.3. Is actually responsibility

5.1.2. Research Participants

5.2. Who owns the data?

5.3. Who does what?

5.3.1. Researcher

5.3.1.1. Researcher provides interpretation...

5.3.1.1.1. ...except when partaking in participatory action research

5.3.1.2. "Get the 'native point of view,' pero por favor without actually 'going native.'" (Behar, 1996, p. 5)

5.3.1.3. Makes images into montages (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 5)

5.3.1.3.1. Produces bricolage, via the bricoleur, which is "a pieced-together set of representations that are fitted to the specifics of a complex situation." (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 5)

5.3.1.4. As defined by Denzin & Lincoln (2003) a researcher is a bricoleur (p. 5, 9)

5.3.1.4.1. Methodological bricoleur

5.3.1.4.2. Theoretical bricoleur

5.3.1.4.3. Researcher-as-bricoleur-theorist

5.3.1.4.4. Interpretive bricoleur

5.3.1.4.5. Political bricoleur

5.3.1.4.6. Gendered Narrative bricoleur

5.3.2. Research Participants

5.3.2.1. Research Participants construct meaning. They provide data (Olesen, p.).

5.4. Don't

5.4.1. Don't reinforce the status quo (Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 3).

5.4.2. Don't create new divisions btwn colonizer and colonized (Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 3).

5.4.3. Don't speak for every woman in the world. Question your privilege in doing so (Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 13)

5.4.4. Don't "pity" the Third World woman. I am "an Agent. Not a victim (Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 14)

5.4.5. Don't engage in (the creation of) hierarchies between you, the researcher, and the research participant(s) (Ardovini-Brooker, 2002)

6. Mindfulness

6.1. Bentz & Shapiro's (1998) Mindful Inquiry

6.1.1. The Basics

6.1.1.1. Your research is forever connected to you and your lifeworld

6.1.1.2. You in Your Reserach...You are the center of it

6.1.1.3. To put it clearly, they state "our whole conception of mindful inquiry is based on the idea that your research is—or should be—intimately linked with your awareness of yourself and your world." (p. 5).

6.1.2. The Roots

6.1.2.1. Phenomenology

6.1.2.2. Buddhism

6.1.2.3. Hermeneutics

6.1.2.4. Critical Social Science

6.2. Strongly Reflexive Accounts

6.2.1. Huber

6.2.2. Olesen & Krieger (1991)

6.2.2.1. Being self-reflective about one's research, helps with the process of "gathering, creation, and interpretation of data" (Olesen)

6.2.3. Olesen

6.2.3.1. It is a process that involves "scrupulous and open interrogation of the feminist researchers' own postures, views, and practices, turning back on themselves the very lenses with which they scrutinize the lives of the women with whom they work and always looking for tensions, contradictions, and complicities" (Olesen, p. ).

6.2.3.2. Olesen calls for "all feminist qualitative researchers, in making women's lives and contexts problematic" to "render their own practices problematic"

7. Feminist Research

7.1. Theoretical Frameworks + Epistemology

7.1.1. Feminism According to Olesen

7.1.1.1. The Deconstructionist Path

7.1.1.1.1. Concerned with voice and text

7.1.1.2. Feminist Empiricists

7.1.2. Feminist Epistemology (Hesse-Biber, 2007)

7.1.2.1. Feminism + Activism

7.1.2.2. the Academy + Women's Everyday Lives

7.1.2.3. Move away from men's concerns & their activities (p. 6)

7.1.2.4. "Knowledge is achieved...through paying attention to the specificity and uniqueness of women's lives and experiences" (Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 8)

7.1.2.5. Involves women's lived experiences, emotions, and feelings (p. 10)

7.1.2.6. Listening to what has been silenced. Listening to the gaps. Listening to what has been ignored. Do this and get at subjugated knowledge (p. 16)

7.1.3. Feminist Inquiry (Dill, 1987 as cited in Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 6)

7.1.3.1. Takes into account a woman's race, class, and cultural context-bound differences.

7.1.3.1.1. Interconnections

7.1.3.1.2. Intersections

7.1.4. Feminist Epistemology (Ardovini-Brooker, 2002)

7.1.4.1. Women's ways of knowing

7.1.4.2. Women's experiences

7.1.4.3. Women's knowledge

7.1.4.4. Knowledge is contextually specific

7.1.4.5. Find truths

7.1.4.6. Aims to understand women's oppression in order to end it

7.1.5. Feminist Epistemology (Alcoff & Porter, 1993 as cited in Ardovini-Brooker, 2002)

7.1.5.1. Seeks to unmake the web of oppressions and remake the web of life

7.1.6. Feminist Epistemology (Harding as cited in Ardovini-Brooker, 2002)

7.1.6.1. Feminist standpoint

7.1.6.2. Feminist postmodernism

7.1.6.2.1. Socially constructed realities

7.1.6.2.2. Textual analysis of cultural objects, their meaning, their practice

7.1.6.2.3. Impact of culturally constructed meanings

7.1.6.3. Feminist empiricism

7.1.7. Feminist Epistemology (Narayan, 2004)

7.1.7.1. Epistemic advantage is what Narayan proposes that oppressed groups (women, the poor, or racial minorities) come to possess after learning "the practice of both their own contexts and those of their oppressors" (p. 221)

7.1.7.2. The argument is that feminist epistemology via awareness of one's location "in the world as women makes it possible for [one] to perceive and understand different aspects of both the world and human activities in ways that challenge male bias of existing perspectives" (p. 213)

7.1.7.3. The inclusion of women's perspectives will change the nature of how science and knowledge is done and understood (p. 213)

7.1.7.4. An effort to reclaim the experiences of the oppressed (i.e. the richness of one's history before colonization took place) (p. 214)

7.1.7.5. Looks different for a western feminist and for the nonwestern feminist

7.1.7.6. Fight the framework that embodies values that are not espoused by feminism (p. 217)

7.1.8. Naturalized Feminist Epistemology (Anderson, 1995)

7.1.8.1. Has to do with how gender influences our ways of knowing/what we consider to be knowledge

7.1.8.2. Frame inquiries as empirical ones to challenge mainstream theorists who mostly rely on empiricism (p. 54)

7.1.8.3. Gender symbolism distorts how we conceptualize knowledge

7.1.8.4. Advance feminist epistemology by exposing androcentrism in social and biological theories (p. 70)

7.1.8.5. Allows for feminist values to be present in scientific projects and, their content and their theoretical applications (p. 79)

7.1.8.6. Transforms the field of theoretical knowledge (p. 81)

7.2. Methodology

7.2.1. Validity

7.2.1.1. Richardson (1993) (as cited in Olesen) states that validity, in her case, from a standpoint of feminist-postmodernism, consists of "blurring genres, probing lived experiences, creating a female imagery, breaking down dualisms, inscribing female labor, and EMOTIONAL RESPONSE"

7.2.1.1.1. Emotion Free Science: Myth? Fact? Myth.

7.2.1.2. Patti Lather's (1993) talks about transgressive validity based in a feminist deconstructionist mode

7.2.1.2.1. Ironic Validity

7.2.1.2.2. Paralogical Validity

7.2.1.2.3. Rhizomatic Validity

7.2.1.2.4. Voluptuous Validity

7.2.2. Objectivity

7.2.2.1. Sandra Harding (as cited in Olesen) states that objectivity is about the researcher truly understanding and grappling with the relation between subject and object. It is not about "denying the existence of, or seeking unilateral control over this relation"

7.2.2.2. Haraway (as cited in Olesen) states that feminist objectivity is about the researcher and the research participants being aware of their knowledges and where they stand while holding each other accountable.

7.2.2.3. "Objective reality can never be captured." (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 8)

7.2.2.4. Haraway (as cited in Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 9) states that "feminist objectivity" is about acknowledging how the knowledge(s) and the truth(s) that are "discovered" are "partial, situated, subjective, power imbued, and relational"

7.2.2.5. Harding calls for strong objectivity which demands that the research practice self-reflexivity so that they are aware of what they are bringing to the research: their values, their attitudes, their agenda (Hesse Biber, 2007, p. 9)

7.2.2.6. Objectivity is being available for criticism (Anderson, 1995, p. 79)

7.3. Issues

7.3.1. Different Voices in Feminism (Hesse-Biber, 2007; Narayan, 2004)

7.3.1.1. Women of Color

7.3.1.2. Western-ized Women

7.3.1.3. Non Western-ized Women

7.3.1.4. Postcolonial Critics

7.3.1.5. Third World feminists

7.3.1.6. Black feminists

7.3.1.7. Global/Postcolonial/Transnational Feminists

8. (Qualitative) Research 101

8.1. Before embarking

8.1.1. Bentz & Shapiro (1998) urges us to remember that "Inquiry and research always take place within a historical and social context, not merely in an intellectual context, such as the postmodern situation in the human and social sciences, but in the wider context of social, political, economic, cultural, technological, and environmental trends of which that intellectual situation is a part" (p. 16)

8.1.2. Remember that race, class, gender, and ethnicity influence the process of inquiry (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 29).

8.2. Philosophical aka Epistemological Frameworks

8.2.1. Post-Modernism

8.2.2. Positivism

8.2.2.1. Science is its own justification and requires no philosophical justification or validation. Philosophy can provide no genuine knowledge, but can merely clarify scientific method and help determine whether something is scientific or not (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998, p. 27)

8.2.2.1.1. SCIENCE IS ENOUGH!

8.2.3. Through the Anthropological Lense (Behar, 1996, p. 5)

8.2.3.1. "A mode of knowing that depends on the particular relationship formed by a particular anthropologist with a particular set of people in a particular time and place"

8.2.4. Postpositivism (Denzin, 2010)

8.2.5. Poststructuralism (Denzin, 2010),

8.2.6. Foundationalism (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003)

8.2.7. Postfoundationalism (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003)

8.2.8. Feminist

8.2.9. Standpoint Theory

8.3. Models of Interpretation

8.3.1. Constructivist

8.3.2. Participatory

8.3.3. Critical

8.3.4. Feminist

8.3.5. Queer

8.3.6. Critical Race Theory

8.3.7. Cultural Studies

8.3.8. Lat CRT

8.3.9. Marxist

8.3.10. Ethnic

8.3.11. Standpoint Theory

8.4. HIstory (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003)

8.4.1. The Traditional Period

8.4.2. The Modernist Phase

8.4.3. The Moment of Blurred Genres

8.4.4. The Crisis of Representation

8.4.5. The Postmodern Moment of Ethnographic Writing

8.4.6. The Postexperimental Moment

8.4.7. The Future

8.5. The Skeleton of Research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003, p. 30, 32; Hesse-Biber, 2007, p. 4)

8.5.1. You (the Researcher) + Framework/Theory --> A Set of Questions (Epistemology) = ?

8.5.2. To solve for ? do the following: You + Framework/Theory + Methodology/Analysis of A Set of Questions (Epistemology)

8.5.3. The Researcher as a Multicultural Subject --> Theoretical Paradigms and Perspectives --> Research Strategies --> Methods of Collection and Analysis --> The Art, Practices, and Politics of Interpretation and Presentation

8.5.4. Epistemology is the theory of knowledge setting up the room for who can be the knower and what can be known --> Influences what you can study? And how to go about studiying it.

8.5.4.1. How you study what you end up studying is influenced by methodology (the theory of how research is done or should proceed)

8.5.4.2. The steps you take in gathering your evidence is the actual method(s).

9. What is (Qualitative) Research?

9.1. According to Denzin (2010)

9.1.1. Moral

9.1.2. Therapeutic

9.1.3. Allegorical

9.1.4. Political

9.2. According to Stanfield (2006, p. 725 as cited in Denzin, 2010)

9.2.1. The social sciences…should be used to improve quality of life…for the oppressed, marginalized, stigmatized and ignored….and to bring about healing, reconciliation and restoration between the researcher and the researched..

9.3. According to Howell Major (2010) qualitative research is made up of...

9.3.1. Wisdom

9.3.2. Uncertainty

9.4. According to Bentz & Shapiro (1998)

9.4.1. Inquiry and research always take place... in the wider context of social, political, economic, cultural, technological, and environmental trends of which that intellectual situation is a part (16).

9.4.2. The human and social sciences…are largely a human and social attempt to respond to the set of problems distinctive to modern society (18).

9.5. According to Behar (1996)

9.5.1. Behar (1998) talks about anthropology which is a field where qualitative research is performed for the great majority. There is a quote when she talks about the journey that one embarks on when researching that highlights certain aspects that really resonated with me. All these different aspects showcase how complicated and messy research can be (p. 3)

9.5.1.1. Loss

9.5.1.2. Mourning

9.5.1.3. The longing for memory

9.5.1.4. The desire to enter into the world

9.5.1.5. Not knowing how to "do it"

9.5.1.6. The fear of being too "objective"

9.5.1.7. The feeling of arriving late to a "conclusion of sorts"

9.5.1.8. The "utter uselessness" of writing anything

9.5.1.9. The "burning desire" to write something

9.6. According to Denzin & Lincoln (2003)

9.6.1. "Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, and memos to the self. " (p. 4, 5)

9.6.2. "Qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.." (p. 5)

9.6.3. "Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials-case study; personal experience; introspection; life story; interview; artifacts; cultural texts and productions; observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals' lives." (p. 5)

9.6.4. Aims to make the world visible (p. 5)

9.7. According to Denzin (2010)

9.7.1. The ultimate goal is for "qualitative research [to] advance human rights by seeking and telling the truth about what particular people do in their everyday lives and about what their actions mean to them" (p. 50)