Deblij Chapter 10: Agricultural Geography

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Deblij Chapter 10: Agricultural Geography by Mind Map: Deblij Chapter 10: Agricultural Geography

1. Field Note

1.1. Timbuktu, Mali: sited along the Niger River on the edge of the Sahara Desert.

1.2. Between the 13-16th centuries, Timbuktu had a great reputation for wealth, which spurred the 1st European explorations along the African Coasts.

1.3. derived from its ability to control the trans-Sahara trade in

1.3.1. gold

1.3.2. salt

1.3.3. ivory

1.3.4. kola nuts

1.3.5. slaves

1.4. Timbuktu has now lost their wealth many centuries ago because sea trade was getting more popular and the city lost their strategic position.

1.5. Timbuktu serves as a reminder that where a place is located in relation to patterns of economic development and exchange is important

1.6. Commodity chain: a series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity exchanged on the world market

1.6.1. each link along the chain adds a certain value to the commodity, producing levels of wealth for the place and the people.

1.6.2. Timbuktu was a very big commodity node (point) in the trade world.

1.7. "Places along the commodity chain do not all benefit equally from the production of a good." Meaning the generation of wealth depends on how production occurs at each step.

1.7.1. Core: has sophisticated technology high skills levels extensive research and development high salaries

1.7.2. Periphery: tend to be associated with low technology less education little research and development lower wages

1.8. The concept of development is both about

1.8.1. being nodes along commodity chains and also about transforming peripheral processes into core ones

1.8.2. redirecting the profit generated through core processes to improve the periphery.

1.9. All theory about how to lift up the poorer parts of the world focus on the illusive concept of development

2. How is Development Defined and Measured?

2.1. The economic and social geography of the world has enormous contrast

2.1.1. On American and African forests, farmers from root crops using ancient methods and tools

2.1.2. On the Great Plains, Ukraine, and Eastern Australia, farmers use expensive, modern machines to plow the land, plant seeds, and harvest grains.

2.1.3. Toolmakers in Papua New Guinea still farm by hand

2.1.4. Factory workers in Japan and S Korea produce automobile by the shipload and distribute to places thousands of miles away

2.2. These contrasts point to a major issue in understanding development:

2.2.1. "wealth does no depends solely on whit is produced; it depends in large part on how and where it is produced." Meaning the type of crop doesn't show wealth, it is how and where you grow.

2.3. Developing: in terms of a country, implies progress is being made in technology, production and socioeconomic welfare

2.3.1. The Industrial Revolution and the idea that technology can improve the lot of humans is our modern notion of development

2.4. Gross National Income

2.4.1. Major areas on concern regarding the measurement of development: development in economic welfare (Happiness) development in technology and production development in social welfare

2.4.2. Gross National Product (GNP): a statistic that measures the total value of all goods and services produced BY a country in a given year (at home or abroad) Most common index beginning in the 1960s broader than GDP

2.4.3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): a statistic that measures the total value of all goods and services produced WITHIN a country in a given year

2.4.4. Gross National Income (GNI): a statistic that measures the total value of all goods and services produced WITHIN a country, PLUS income from foreign investments MINUS payments to other countries more accurate way of measuring a country's wealth in the context of a global economy per capita GNI: The Gross National Income of a given country divided by its population The enormous range across the globe reflects the often-searing contrasts between rich and poor The GNI's limitations alternative measures of development

2.5. Development Models

2.5.1. problems associated with using development models: suggests a single trajectory through which countries move. the conceptualization of development has a Western bias. does not consider the ability of some countries to influence what happens in other countries the different positions countries occupy in the world economy

2.5.2. Modernization model: (another name is the Ladder of Development) U.S. economist Walt Rostow's economic development model consisting of 5 stages: traditional dominant activity is subsistence farming social structure is rigid, and technology is slow to change preconditions of takeoff new leadership moves the country toward greater flexibility, openness, and diversification take-off experiences something akin to an industrial revolution sustained growth takes hold industrialization proceeds technological and mass-production breakthroughs occur drive to maturity technologies diffuse industrial specialization occurs international trade expands modernization is evident in key parts of the country population growth slows high mass consumption high incomes wide-spread production of many goods and services majority of workers enter the service sector of the economy

2.5.3. Major problems with Rowstow's model: provides no larger context to development misses the forces that can influence development decisions within and individual country leaving us to wonder where cultural and political differences fit into the picture.

2.5.4. "Industrial" countries of today are really "postindustrial" in that industrial production has now shifted away from some of the wealthiest parts of the planet.

3. How Does Geographical Situation Affect Development?

3.1. Context: the combination of what is happening at a variety of geographic scales at the same time

3.1.1. Global: European culture diffused through colonialism The Industrial Revolution and colonialism made colonies dependent on the colonizers and brought wealth to there colonizers. Even after colonization, the economic, political, and social interlinkages of the world economy persist.

3.2. "To understand why some countries are poor and others wealthy, we need to consider the context not only at the state, scale, but also at the local, regional, and global scales." because they all play an important role in figuring out why some countries are more developed than others.

3.3. Neo-colonialism" the idea that the wealthier countries still control the economies of the poorer countries even though the poorer countries are politically independent

3.3.1. Structuralist theory: the idea that people have structured the global economy in ways that are difficult to change Structuralists argue that these countries face a very different set of development circumstances than those faced by the countries of western Europe that Rostrow looked at in constructing his modernization model.

3.4. Dependency Theory

3.4.1. Dependency theory: the idea that political and economic relationships (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created situations that both control and limit the extent to which countries and regions can develop i.e. that colonialism created political and economic structures that caused the colonies to become dependent to the colonial powers.

3.4.2. Dollarization: when a poorer country abandons its own currency to adopt the U.S. dollar, such as El Salvador in El Salvador, the economies of the 2 countries were tied long before dollarization occurred. Over 2 mil Salvadorians live in the U.S., and in 2010, they send $3.5 billion in remittances to El Salvador. Sense so many of these transactions took place they made the currency the same. Plus, 2/3 of El Salvador's exports go to the U.S.

3.4.3. Like modernization theory dependency theory is based on generalizations about economic change that pay relatively little attention to geographical differences in culture, politics, and society. Both models provide some insights into the development process neither is greatly concerned with the spatial and cultural situation of particular places central elements of geographical analysis

3.5. Geography and Context

3.5.1. World Systems Theory: Wallerstein's model: 1. There is one world market and a global division of labor 2. Although there are multiple states in the world almost everything takes place within the world economy 3. The world economy has a three-tier structure (core, periphery, semi-periphery

3.5.2. 3 Tier Structure: the core, periphery, and semi-periphery, helps explain the interconnections between places in the global economy When core processes are embedded in a place, wealth is generated for the people in that place. the Telecom corridor in Richardson-Plano, Texas When peripheral processes are embedded in a place, the processes often generate little wealth for the people in that place. banana growers in Ecuador Periphery regions are poor regions that are dependent in significant ways on the core and do not have much control over their own affairs, economically or politically Countries of the semiperiphery exert more power that peripheral regions but remain heavily influenced by core regions.

3.5.3. the World's System Theory model is different from the modernization model because it holds that not all places can be equally healthy in the capitalist world-economy.

3.5.4. Geographer Peter J. Taylor uses the analogy of a school of tadpoles to demonstrate these ideas. envisions different places in the world as tadpoles and explains that not all tadpoles can survive to develop into toads. Those who dominate survive and others perish

3.5.5. World-stems theory is applicable at scales beyond state. A core-periphery relationship can exist within a region, a state (country), or a local area. i.e. L.A. is the core of the southern California region The Johannesburg area is the core of the S African state; The Central Business District can be described as the core of São Paulo, Brazil

4. What Are The Barriers To and Cost of Development?

4.1. By measuring human development, organizations and governments hope to discern how to break down barriers to development and improve the human condition globally.

4.2. Measurements:

4.2.1. United Nations Human Development Index (U.N. HDI) (Fig. 10.7) (1 of the most widely referenced measurements of development today) goes beyond economics incorporates the "3 basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life knowledge decent standard of living Factors that go into the U.N. HDI: per capita GDP literacy rate school enrollment rates life expectancy at birth

4.3. In 2000, the UN held a high-profit summit, during which 189 world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration

4.3.1. the goal of improving the condition of the people in the countries with the lowest standards of human development

4.3.2. 8 key development goals to be achieved by the year 2015 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability develop a global partnership for development

4.3.3. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): eight international development goals that 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. (See p. 344.)

4.4. Barriers to Economic Development

4.4.1. Numerous factors serve as barriers to the economic development of the periphery causes of malnutrition (Ch1) how AIDS has ravages Sub-saharan Africa (Ch2) the vulnerability to natural hazards that exist in many periphery (Ch13) lack of infrastructure to cope with those hazards high population growth rates lack of education foreign debt autocratic (and often corrupt) leadership political instability widespread disease hamper development

4.4.2. numerous people throughout the periphery are burdened with familial, economic, cultural, and political hardships.

4.4.3. Social Conditions Countries in the periphery face numerous demographic, economic, and social problems The countries often lack many things (Chapter 2) In most families, they are able to send one child to school but rarely large families can send all their children, making the illiteracy rates high. "Access to education in the periphery is often gendered" meaning boys often attend school longer than girls and instead work to pay for their brothers' enrollment fees. Girls leave school for many reasons: Trafficking: being manipulated into doing a job in conditions that you would not normally agree to In 2003, schools started getting revenues based on the mount of students that were being educated.

4.4.4. Foreign Debt After the second wave of decolonization of the 1960s, banks and other international financial institutions began lending large sums of money to the newly independent states By the 80s and 90s, the World Bank and The International Monetary Fund (IMF) were lending large sums of money to (semi-)peripheral countries. but there were also strings attached to the deals Economic and political crisis in Argentina (2001): the privatized exports were weakened by changes in the global economy Government became corrupt

4.4.5. Diseases Diseases in the periphery directly affect economic development, making survival difficult for many weakening the labor force Vectored diseases: diseases spread by one host to another by an intermediate host or vector, malaria is an example Much more dangerous in warm, humid parts of the (semi-) periphery Development experts call malaria a "silent tsunami" Malaria: an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the parasite in their saliva nearly 1 million people die from this disease every year most victims are 5 and under Many of the people infected are weak and can't fight the disease Occurs throughout the world except at high latitudes and altitudes Prevalent in Affected Sometimes drives people out of their communities and sometimes regions How the disease can be prevented, treated, and how Antimalarial drugs exist Inorder to defeat malaria afflicted regions must eliminate the vector: the mosquito Today, genetic interference w/ the mosquito so that is capacity to transmit the malaria, 'Plasmodium', is destroyed. Mosquito nets in sleeping areas

4.4.6. Political Corruption and instability

5. How Do Political and Economic Institutions Influence Uneven Development Within States?