Chapter 8: Selecting Strategies

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Chapter 8: Selecting Strategies by Mind Map: Chapter 8: Selecting Strategies

1. I. Instructional Strategies and Terms

1.1. a. The "heart of instructional design"

1.2. b. Should be developed alongside outcomes and assessments

1.3. c. Should foster student learning including

1.3.1. i. Pre-instructional activities

1.3.2. ii. Presentation of content

1.3.3. iii. Learner participation

1.3.4. iv. Assessment

1.3.5. v. Follow-through activities

1.4. d. Consider teaching strategies and learning strategies

1.4.1. i. Teaching strategies: Techniques used by an instructor or the instruction to bring about a specific learning outcome

1.4.2. ii. Learning Strategies are steps taken by the learner to make learning more efficient and effective

1.4.3. iii. Connectivist and Constructivist designs emphasize planning learning activities and building learning environments

2. II. Selecting Strategies

2.1. a. This is a difficult task, because strategies have been recorded all the way back to Ancient Greece, and more are developed all the time

2.2. b. Further confounded by the specific outcomes of instruction: Multiple strategies may be required to effectively achieve goals of instruction

2.3. c. Begin by determining the assumptions about learning contained in your outcomes

2.4. d. Once the assumptions are identified, group outcomes into one or more corresponding pedagogical approaches:

2.4.1. i. Revisit and refine the learning context design

2.4.2. ii. Identify assumptions and pedagogical approaches

2.4.3. iii. Identify appropriate interactions and strategies

2.4.4. iv. Select technologies to support the strategies identified

2.4.5. v. Seek review and/or approval

3. III. Refine Learning Context and Design: Answering What is Possible

3.1. a. Consider all the factors at play in the learning experience, including:

3.1.1. i. Time, place, and dispersion of the instruction

3.1.2. ii. Delivery: Face-to-face, online, blended, etc.

3.1.3. iii. Learner grouping: individual, small or large groups, etc.

3.2. b. Consider what may affect the choice of context:

3.2.1. i. On-demand vs. Specific time period

3.2.2. ii. Synchronicity

3.2.3. iii. Local vs. global

3.2.4. iv. Face-to-face vs. Online vs. Blended

3.2.5. v. Self-paced vs. interaction-based

3.3. c. Other context factors affecting strategy selection:

3.3.1. i. Human and non-human resources and funds

3.3.2. ii. Development time required

3.3.3. iii. Implementation time required

3.3.4. iv. Learner familiarity with/responsiveness to context and technologies

3.3.5. v. Available infrastructure to support the delivery

3.3.6. vi. Stakeholder wishes and project constraints

4. IV. Identify Assumptions and Pedagogical Approaches: Answering What is Appropriate

4.1. a. Select strategies most capable of fostering the type of learning outcomes you and the stakeholders have identified

4.2. b. Determine your own assumptions about learning in addition to the assumptions by your stakeholders

4.3. c. Assumptions should guide you in choosing one or more appropriate pedagogical approaches. If more than one approach is identified, group outcomes under each applicable approach and select interactions and strategies to address all identified approaches

4.4. d. Try to optimize instruction by determining whether multiple outcomes be addressed with a single activity

5. V. Identify Appropriate Interactions and Strategies

5.1. a. All instruction involves one or more types of interaction, which may be between the learner and:

5.1.1. i. Content

5.1.2. ii. Instructor, facilitator, grader, content expert

5.1.3. iii. Other learners

5.1.4. iv. Instructional context

5.1.5. v. Self

5.2. b. Interaction itself may be a goal, or may be utilized to achieve other outcomes

5.3. c. Fostered through strategies, which consist of:

5.3.1. i. Organizational strategies: Define the structure and flow of learning experiences

5.3.2. ii. Engagement strategies: Designed to involve learners in interactive activities

5.3.3. iii. Two other strategies, technology delivery strategies and instructional management strategies, are used to deliver and direct learning experiences

5.4. d. All strategies apply to all delivery modes, but special attention is being given more and more to the interaction design problem to help learners in online and blended learning experiences achieve outcomes

5.5. e. Five types of interaction

5.5.1. i. Learner-Content interaction. 1. Examples include: a. Consume content b. Manipulate and interpret content c. Memorize content d. Recognize content’s patterns and trends e. Apply content f. Analyze and evaluate content g. Create with and solve problems using content h. Reflect on and draw conclusions 2. Organizational strategies guide the selection, sequencing, and presentation of the instruction and learning experiences to facilitate learning. Examples include: a. Lecture and multimedia presentations b. Demonstrations c. Readings 3. Engagement strategies a. Provide learners with opportunities for immersion into the content b. Allows use of LOTS and HOTS with the content c. Examples include:

5.5.2. ii. Learner-Instructor Interaction 1. Occurs in most instructional cases, but takes on different forms based on whether instruction is face-to-face or in a virtual environment 2. Prevent learners’ feeling of isolation by promoting regular communication, activities, online discussion, giving performance feedback, and requesting learner feedback 3. Tells learners how and where to go with content and/or technology questions 4. Organizational strategies describe how these interactions occur and include the above-mentioned support for learner connectedness 5. Engagement strategies provide learners and instructors with a reason to a communicate and interact

5.5.3. iii. Learner-Context Interaction 1. Organizational strategies present the instruction and learning experiences in ways that guide the learner and lessen the load on his or her cognitive processing 2. Engagement strategies Help encourage learners to interact with the learning environment

5.5.4. iv. Learner-Learner Interaction 1. Organizational strategies Guide the structure, sequencing, and presentation of the learning experiences to facilitate cognitive processing, communication, and group processes 2. Engagement strategies Encourage learners to interact, requiring them to collaboratively discuss, learn, and process content

5.5.5. v. Learner-Self Interaction 1. Organizational strategies Structure the learning experience that encourages spontaneous self-reflection 2. Engagement strategies to require learner reflection

5.6. f. Effective Strategies: Marzano’s nine categories organized by effect size

5.6.1. i. Identify similarities and differences

5.6.2. ii. Summarize and take notes

5.6.3. iii. Reinforce effort and provide recognition

5.6.4. iv. Homework and practice

5.6.5. v. Non-linguistic representations

5.6.6. vi. Cooperative learning

5.6.7. vii. Set objectives and provide feedback

5.6.8. viii. Generate and test hypotheses

5.6.9. ix. Cues, questions, and advance organizers

5.7. g. Scaffolding

5.7.1. i. Defined as instructional support that facilitates learning

5.7.2. ii. Scaffolding strategies can be categorized as 1. Supplantive: Strategies that do more of the mental processing for the learner by stating instructional goals and providing information on how to think about about, structure, and retain content 2. Generative: Strategies that encourage or allow learners to define their own learning goals, organize the material in whatever manner suits them best, control the sequencing and pace of the instruction, self-monitor their own understanding, and transfer knowledge to new contexts

6. VI. Strategy Frameworks

6.1. a. Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction

6.1.1. i. For Instructivist approach

6.1.2. ii. Considered a bridge between Behaviorist and Cognitivist theory

6.1.3. iii. Elements: 1. Gain attention 2. Inform Learners of the Outcomes 3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Knowledge 4. Present the Stimulus 5. Provide Guidance to the Learners 6. Elicit Performance from the Learners 7. Provide Feedback to the Learners 8. Assess the Performance of the Learners 9. Enhance Retention and Transfer of KASIs

6.2. b. BSCS Five E’s Instructional Model

6.2.1. i. Constructivist approach

6.2.2. ii. Developed by Robert Bybee at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

6.2.3. iii. A learning cycle designed to facilitate conceptual change by guiding learners as they redefine, reorganize3, elaborate, and change the initial concepts through self-reflection and interaction with their peers and their environment

6.2.4. iv. Elements: 1. Engagement 2. Exploration 3. Explanation 4. Elaboration 5. Evaluation

6.3. c. Connectivist Learning Environments

6.3.1. i. Siemens and Downes: Knowledge and learning are technologically mediated and distributed across networks of connections

6.3.2. ii. To learn, individuals must have or build the skills to connect to personally meaningful resources, recognize patterns in the networks, and locate, filter, select from, and manage that information

6.3.3. iii. The job of the designer is to build learning environments where learners can practice making those connection and to scaffold learners in developing the skills required to be successful

6.3.4. iv. Elements Outlined on Table 8.10

6.4. d. Keller’s ARCS Motivation Model (Any approach)

6.4.1. i. Motivation: The process that energizes our knowledge and skills, and focuses us on our most important goals

6.4.2. ii. This model helps incorporate motivational strategies into instruction and is valuable in fostering attitudinal outcomes

6.4.3. iii. Acronym elements: 1. Gain and maintain Attention 2. Provide Relevance 3. Encourage Confidence 4. Satisfy the learner

6.4.4. iv. Seven Factors affecting intrinsic motivation: 1. Curiosity 2. Challenge 3. Control/Choice 4. Competition 5. Cooperation 6. Recognition 7. Fantasy

6.5. e. Scenario Planning Guidelines (Any approach)

6.5.1. i. Simulate real-world experiences when not logistically possible, too dangerous, or financially impossible

6.5.2. ii. Learner is placed in the middle of a story and becomes invested in working his or her way through it to accomplish the instructional goal

6.5.3. iii. Create a scenario prototype so reviewers can visualize the scenario

6.5.4. iv. Utilize online collaboration tools if necessary