Is cloning for the human race ever justifiable?

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Is cloning for the human race ever justifiable? by Mind Map: Is cloning for the human race ever justifiable?

1. SV2: Technical and economic barriers need a consideration in cloning human organs for transplant. Cloned organs may not be cost-effective for a good part of human society.

1.1. Cloning anything, be it organs or human embryos are extremely expensive. for example, In vitro fertilization clinics will generally pay an egg donor $3,000 to $5,000, and a cloning company, Advanced Cell Technology took 71 eggs from seven women. Scientists will almost certainly use fewer eggs if therapeutic cloning is used on people. But even if it required a mere 100 eggs, taken from ten donors, the cost of simply paying the donors could easily reach $50,000. On top of that, there would be medical costs involved in procuring the egg.

1.2. With such a high cost pegged to cloning, the benefits of cloning will certainly not be able to impact the human race. It will just exemplify the income inequality between the rich and the poor. The exorbitant price tag of cloning will become a barrier for the low income group in the human race. Cloned organs will be out of their reach as they cannot afford it.

1.3. This will drive a wedge in the rich-poor divide in the human race. The poor will be unable to access the positive benefits that cloning has to offer. When there is this divide between people in different income levels, the tension may begin to fragment society.

2. SV 1: Cloning leads to a homogeneous human race, thus violating the basic principle of humanity because it leads to a reduction in biological diversity of human population.

2.1. . Cloning leads to the reproduction of a being having exactly the same characteristics as another. If everyone desires to clone the identical perfect human with the much coveted after characteristics, everyone would be a replica of another. The celebrated differences between humans which contribute to our vibrancy will then be eliminated. These differences are deeply ingrained in us and is an essential part of our culture. Therefore, each loses their sense of individuality, which without these unique personalities, life would be much less dynamic and the world would be dominated by only one facet of human personality. In addition, human biological diversity is considered a fundamental part of human natural heritage, and diversity is recognised as part of the concept of human dignity in the Universal Declaration on Human Genome and Human Rights. Thus, since the basis of procreation is to ensure diversity in human population and this very technology goes against the grains of humanity and the dignity each human is entitled to. Cloning cannot be justifiable if it does not fulfill the basic definition of humanity.

2.1.1. New node

2.2. For example, scientists estimate that if humans were to continue with reproductive cloning, mankind would eventually be dominated by the same superior species of the same personality by 2070.

3. OV 1: Cloning brings hope to infertile couples

3.1. While many have claimed that cloning human beings would violate human dignity, i feel that many of these fears that people have are misplaced. It is, indeed another method of creating human life with the involvement of scientic intervention, rather than life resulting from natural means.

3.2. Through artificial insemination, and in vitro fertilisation techniques, infertile couples can have children with the use of cloned embryos. This is thought to be an ideal way to create children which would not have existed, as opposed to couples going through the mental and physical effort biologically. Hence, even as many oppose to cloning as an affront to human dignity or objecting it on a basis of it being unnatural, one should also consider that cloning is just as "unnatural" and "unethical" as abortion whereby women destroy embryos or even the use of antibiotics which is argued to be an artificial way of prolonging life.

3.3. Furthermore, even as potential embryos are sacrificed in the process itself, cloning should be justified because the IVF technology is used to create many human embryos which are then implanted in human bodies which lead to lifes being formed. This is also amplified by the fact that the Eastern culture emphazises that life is constantly recycled and reincarnated.

3.4. No doubt cloning practices is playing God, it is certainly justified under circumstances.

4. SV 3: Cloning has blurred our moral values and our sense of morality.

4.1. -Designer babes could be created through cloning -These babies are able to possess certain desired characteristics that parents may request for through the use of high technology -They are defined as:a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics -For example, you might pursue physical attractiveness on your child’s behalf by using a somatic cell from Angelina Jolie or Brad Pitt.

4.2. - We need to pause and think through the moral and ethical limits that apply to the selection of our children’s genes or characteristics. - Those who hope to clone designer babies should look at genetic determinist misrepresentations of the technology. - Genetic determinism is the view that an organism’s significant characteristics result mainly from the action of its genes, with environmental influences playing a negligible role. - One has failed to recognise the ethical implications of cloning. - Going against nature and altering part of human cycle. - The child is not produced naturally

4.3. - There are major concerns about the health of clones. Animal clones suffer from a variety of problems that some scientists link to incomplete and improper cloning. Hence there is a likelihood that human clones could suffer from these problems as well.

4.4. As a result of all these negative implications of cloning, it suggests to us that cloning for the human race is not justifiable. Not only it is going against nature, it does not make sense to take the risk of a problematic case after cloning. Most importantly, the creation of 'fake' babies causes us to lose humanity because it involves the modification of human genes. This genetic enhancement may even lead to a discriminatory society.

5. OV 2: Cloning improves humanity's standard of living, increasing the state of technology in our daily lives.

5.1. Proponents of stem-cell cloning argue that it could do wonders for the pharmeceutical industry.

5.2. Through therapeutic cloning, scientists can harvest stem cells which can in turn be used to produce organs which can be inserted into the human body without fear of tissue rejection, as cells could differentiate the unique cells of the human body. This could allow and exponential increase in the success of organ transplant surgeries, bringing hope to the organ transplant industry.

5.2.1. This tremendous form of benefit that cloning could give should not be neglected while arguing against it. As while potential lives are sacrificed, we must not forget that it saves existing human life, hence its ability to prolong life is undisputed.

5.3. Temporarily putting aside the controversies of cloning, we consider the enomormous potential benefits of it. Hence coming to a moral judgement, we must not fail to consider this. Cloning being a double edged sword has indeed its controversies, however proponents have felt that the cost of a total ban is indeed too great. The denying of dying and hopeless patients and helpless hospitals with neverending lists of patients waiting for organ transplants from this, one can conclude that denying the domination of science over ethics because of moral concerns is therefore considered even more unethical than this practice of cloning itself.

6. conclusion

6.1. Yet, in certain circumstances, people are caught in a dilemma and tug of war situation as cloning of designer babies could be used to save lifes through possessing desired characteristics of body parts that a dying person may require. Nevertheless, in such circumstances, it is grossly unfair to the designer baby and once again, ethical issues involved are highly debatable. Cloning has led to an increase in grey areas of moral issues. Hence, we believe that cloning for the human race is desirable to a certain extent, but the costs of cloning definitely outweights the benefits as we have to take moral issues like reduction of biodiversity and possible discrimination into consideration.