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What is a Stakeholder? by Mind Map: What is a Stakeholder?
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What is a Stakeholder?

Nutt, P. and Backoff, R.

All parties who will be affected by or will affect [the organization's] strategy

Nutt, P. and Backoff, R. (1992) Strategic Management of Public and Third Sector Organization: A Handbook for Leaders, p.439, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Freeman, R. E.

any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives

Freeman, R. E. (1984) Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, p46, Boston, MA: Pitman.

Bryson, J.

Any person group or organization that can place a claim on the organization's attention, resources, or output, or is affected by that output

Bryson, J. (1995) Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organization (rev. edn), p27, San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Johnson, G and Scholes, K.

Those individuals or groups who depend on the organization to fulfill their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organization depends

Johnson, G and Scholes, K. (2002) Exploring Corporate Strategy (6th edn), p206, Harlow, England: Pearson Education.

Business Dictionary

A person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies.


Parties with an interest in the execution and outcome of a project. They would include business streams affected by or dependent on the outcome.

Prince 2 Glossary


Stakeholders are persons or organisations (e.g., customers, sponsors, the performing organization, or the public), who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project.

Project Management Institute, Inc. 2008. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK Guide)-Fourth Edition, Pennsylvania, PMI, p.23.


a person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business.

Oxford Dictionaries


1: a person entrusted with the stakes of bettors 2: one that has a stake in an enterprise 3: one who is involved in or affected by a course of action



A person or group of people who have a vested interest in the success of an organization and the environment in which the organization operates.

Abstracted from Association of Project Management (UK) APMP Syllabus 2nd Edition, January 2000, Abridged Glossary of Project Management Terms (Rev.4)

Lewis, J.P.

Anyone who has a vested interest in the project.

Lewis, J. P. (1995) Project Planning, Scheduling & Control, p.39, Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing.

Rational Unified Process

An individual who is materially affected by the outcome of the system.

Rational Unified Process 2000

A stakeholder is anybody who can affect or is affected by an organisation, strategy or project. They can be internal or external and they can be at senior or junior levels.

Get Stakeholder Management Templates


Any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceives itself to be affected by, a programme

Managing Successful Programmes 2011: Glossary of Terms of Definitions, Version 2, November 2011.

Wideman, R.M.

One who has a stake or interest in the outcome of the project.

Wideman, R. M. (1991)Framework Handbook, Newtown Square, PA, Project Management Institute.


A person who has an interest in an organization, project, IT service etc. Stakeholders may be interested in the activities, targets, resources or deliverables. Stakeholders may include customers, partners, employees, shareholders, owners etc.

ITIL glossary and abbreviations


a person such as an employee, customer or citizen who is involved with an organization, society, etc. and therefore has responsibilities towards it and an interest in its success

Cambridge Dictionaries Online

Carroll, A & Buchholtz, A.

A stakeholder is an individual or a group that claims to have one or more stakes in an organization. Stakeholders may affect the organization and, in turn be affected by the organization's actions, policies, practices and decisions.

Eden, C and Ackermann, F.

People or small groups with the power to respond to, negotiate with, and change the strategic future of the organization

Eden, C. and Ackermann, F. (1998) Making Strategy: The Journey of Strategic Management, p117, London: Sage Publications.


Book (Academic)

Method or Best Practice


a person external to the Scrum Team with a specific interest in and knowledge of a product that is required for incremental discovery. Represented by the Product Owner and actively engaged with the Scrum Team at Sprint Review.