Epistemology from Greek ἐπιστήμη, meaning "knowledge" and λόγος meaning "study of"

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Epistemology from Greek ἐπιστήμη, meaning "knowledge" and λόγος meaning "study of" by Mind Map: Epistemology from Greek ἐπιστήμη, meaning "knowledge" and λόγος meaning "study of"

1. Rationalism

1.1. Plato (427–347 BCE)

1.1.1. Difference between knowledge (certain) and opinion (not certain)

1.1.1.1. Knowledge derives from timeless forms, or essences

1.1.1.2. Opinions derive from shifting sensations

1.1.2. Platonic doctrine of recollection

1.1.2.1. We are born with all knowledge and our realization of that knowledge is contingent on us discovering of it

1.1.3. Metaphor of the sun

1.1.3.1. The Form of the Good (perhaps Plato's "God") is to the intelligible realm, he claims, as the sun is the visible realm

1.1.3.1.1. The sun provides light as The Form of the Good provides intelligibility

1.1.3.1.2. The sun allows for life and the seasons and things of that sort while The Form of the Good allows for the existence of Forms

1.1.4. Allegory of Cave

1.1.4.1. An analogy between human perception and shadows on a wall

1.1.5. The divided line

1.1.5.1. The line has two parts that represent the intelligible world and the smaller visible world

1.1.5.1.1. Segments within the intelligible world represent higher and lower forms

1.1.5.1.2. Segments within the visible world represent ordinary visible objects and their shadows, reflections, and other representations

1.2. Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD)

1.2.1. "Restrict your assent to the mere fact of your being convinced that it appears thus to you"

1.2.2. Doctrine of Illumination

1.2.2.1. Claims that God plays a part in human perception and understanding

1.2.2.1.1. God illuminates the mind so that human beings can recognize intelligible realities that God presents

1.2.2.2. Believes that illumination is possible for all rational minds

1.2.2.3. Believes it is different than other forms of sense perception

1.2.3. Problem of other minds

1.2.3.1. Given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds?

1.3. René Descartes (1596–1650 AD)

1.3.1. Dualism

1.3.1.1. The separation between the body and the mind

1.3.1.2. Descartes suggested that the pineal gland in the brain is the "home of the soul" for two reasons:

1.3.1.2.1. The pineal gland, like our souls, is unitary

1.3.1.2.2. He believed the cerebrospinal fluid of the ventricles next to the pineal gland acted through the nerves to vibrate in certain patterns control the body which gave rise to emotions and caused the body to act

1.3.1.3. Two realms

1.3.1.3.1. Material Realm

1.3.1.3.2. Immaterial Realm

1.3.2. Meditations on First Philosophy

1.3.2.1. Cogito Ergo Sum

1.3.2.1.1. Commonly known as the phrase "I think, therefore I am"

1.3.2.1.2. More accurately, his first certainty is "I am, I exist"

1.3.2.1.3. Cogito means consciousness

1.3.2.2. Methodological Doubt

1.3.2.2.1. Descatres uses doubt to rid himself of his senses and be totally objective

1.3.2.3. The existence of God

1.3.2.3.1. Descartes concludes in his meditation that God must be real because some force more powerful than our own must have made us. We are too elaborate to have come into existence without assistance

1.3.2.4. Formal Reality

1.3.2.4.1. Degrees of reality (An example might be that all thoughts have the same reality according to the chart no matter what the thought is about)

1.3.2.5. Objective Reality

1.3.2.5.1. The degree of reality of the object that is represented in the thought (idea)

1.3.2.6. Causal Adequacy Principle

1.3.2.6.1. The cause of an object must contain at least as much reality as the object itself

1.4. Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677 AD)

1.4.1. "So there can be no substance external to God"

1.4.2. Spinoza's monism

1.4.2.1. This means that Spinoza thinks there is only substance in the world

1.4.2.1.1. This is his first innate idea

1.4.2.2. Monism: A theory or doctrine that denies the existence of a distinction or duality in some sphere, such as that between matter and mind, or God and the world

1.4.3. Believed that we need a modern view of God and the human mind

1.4.3.1. God: as imminent and deterministic principle of nature

1.4.3.2. Human mind: As imminent and deterministic principle of embodied human beings

2. Empiricism

2.1. David Hume (1711-1776 AD)

2.1.1. Principle of induction

2.1.1.1. Claim one: Arguments concerning existence are founded on the relationship of cause and effect

2.1.1.2. Claim two: Knowledge from that relationship is from experience

2.1.1.3. Claim three: Our experimental conclusions proceed on the idea that the future will be like the past

2.1.1.4. Therefore, all inferences from experience... are effects of custom, not reasoning

2.1.2. Copy principle

2.1.2.1. All our ideas or perceptions are copies or our impressions

2.1.2.1.1. From causes which appear similar, we expect similar effects

2.1.3. Custom doesn't equal reason

2.1.4. Perceptions

2.1.4.1. Impressions

2.1.4.1.1. More lively

2.1.4.2. Ideas

2.1.4.2.1. Less lively

2.1.5. Relations of ideas

2.1.5.1. A priori

2.1.5.1.1. Ex. 3+5=8

2.1.6. Matters of fact

2.1.6.1. A posterori

2.1.6.1.1. Ex. That it is sunny outside

2.1.6.2. All reasoning based on matters of fact seem to be founded on relations of cause and effect

2.1.6.2.1. This knowledge is from experience

2.2. John Locke (1632-1704 AD)

2.2.1. Objections to rationalism

2.2.1.1. It is obviously false that everyone with a mind (including infants and idiots) actually assent to these ideas

2.2.1.1.1. This means not everyone has innate ideas

2.2.1.2. Locke claims that rationalism serves the interests of tyranny

2.2.1.2.1. Under the mind set of rationalism things are not to be questioned because the ideas are simply innate

2.2.2. Believed in the tabula rasa (empty slate)

2.2.3. Experience

2.2.3.1. The so-called "innate" ideas come from these two sources

2.2.3.1.1. Some of our ideas like "sweet" and "green" come from sensation

2.2.3.1.2. Some of our ideas like "thinking" and "imagining" come from reflection

2.2.3.2. We come to know these truths by understanding the relations our ideas have with one another

2.2.3.2.1. Simple sensation

2.2.3.2.2. Complex idea

2.2.3.2.3. Primary qualities

2.2.3.2.4. Secondary qualities

2.2.4. Just because an idea is universal, it doesn't mean it is innate

3. Pragmatism

3.1. William James (1842-1910 AD)

3.1.1. "The most ancient parts of truth . . . also once were plastic. They also were called true for human reasons. They also mediated between still earlier truths and what in those days were novel observations. Purely objective truth, truth in whose establishment the function of giving human satisfaction in marrying previous parts of experience with newer parts played no role whatsoever, is nowhere to be found. The reasons why we call things true is the reason why they are true, for 'to be true' means only to perform this marriage-function,"

3.1.2. "Anything short of God is not rational, anything more than God is not possible"

3.1.3. Declared that the value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person who held it

3.1.4. Believed that the world is a mosaic of diverse experiences that can only be properly interpreted and understood through an application of "radical empiricism.

3.1.4.1. Radical empiricism: the belief experience includes both particulars and relations between those particulars, and that therefore both deserve a place in our explanations.

3.1.5. Believed that diversity was the default human condition as opposed to duality

3.1.5.1. This theory heavily influenced many other "modern" philosophers

3.1.6. "Truths emerge from facts, but they dip forward into facts again and add to them; which facts again create or reveal new truth (the word is indifferent) and so on indefinitely. The 'facts' themselves meanwhile are not true. They simply are. Truth is the function of the beliefs that start and terminate among them."

3.2. Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 AD)

3.2.1. Consider the following theory, a diamond is actually soft, and only becomes hard when it is touched

3.2.1.1. We have no way of saying that this is a false statement because there is no way to disprove it.

3.2.1.1.1. Whether we think of a diamond as "soft until touched" or "always hard" before our experience is irrelevant

3.2.2. Coined the name "pragmatism in 1905"

3.2.3. Grades of clearness of perception

3.2.3.1. 1) Clearness of a conception familiar and readily used, even if unanalyzed and undeveloped.

3.2.3.2. 2) Clearness of a conception in virtue of clearness of its parts, in virtue of which logicians called an idea "distinct", that is, clarified by analysis of just what makes it applicable. Elsewhere, echoing Kant, Peirce called a likewise distinct definition "nominal"

3.2.3.3. 3) Clearness in virtue of clearness of conceivable practical implications of the object's conceived effects, such as fosters fruitful reasoning, especially on difficult problems. Here he introduced that which he later called the pragmatic maxim.

3.3. Pragmatism: an approach that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application