Solar system

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Solar system by Mind Map: Solar system

1. Sun

1.1. The sun is the center of our solar system

1.2. 865,000 miles; that’s 109 times the diameter of the Earth

1.3. You could fit 1.3 million planets the size of the Earth into the Sun.

1.4. The Sun formed 4.6 billion years ago

1.5. and it has an average temperature of about 9980 F

1.6. it has 333,000 times the mass of Earth.

1.7. 99.8 percent of the solar system's mass

1.8. One would need to explode 100 billion tons of dynamite every second to match the energy produced by the sun, according to NASA.

1.9. The sun is one of more than 100 billion stars in the Milky Way.

1.10. It orbits some 25,000 light-years from the galactic core, completing a revolution once every 250 million years or so.

1.11. The sun is nearly a perfect sphere.

2. Mercury

2.1. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun.

2.2. Mercury was known since at least Sumerian times roughly 5,000 years ago

2.3. Mercury's surface temperature can reach a scorching 840 degrees Fahrenheit

2.4. since this world doesn't have a real atmosphere to entrap any heat, at night temperatures can plummet to minus 275 F

2.5. Mercury is the smallest planet — it is only slightly larger than Earth's moon

2.6. About 4 billion years ago, an asteroid roughly 60 miles wide struck Mercury with an impact equal to 1 trillion 1-megaton bombs, creating a vast impact crater roughly 960 miles wide. Known as the Caloris Basin, this crater could hold the entire state of Texas.

2.7. Mercury's magnetic field is just 1 percent the strength of Earth's

2.8. Average distance from the sun: 35,983,095 miles

2.9. Length of Day: 58.646 Earth-days

2.10. its orbit of the Sun lasts for only 88 days.

2.11. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 41 years to reach the sun

3. Venus

3.1. temperatures on Venus reach 870 degrees Fahrenheit

3.2. Venus has a hellish atmosphere as well, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide with clouds of sulfuric acid, and scientists have only detected trace amounts of water in the atmosphere.

3.3. a surface pressure 90 times that of Earth.

3.4. Venus takes 243 Earth days to rotate on its axis

3.5. the time it takes to orbit the sun — is about 225 Earth days long.

3.6. the time from one sunrise to the next is only about 117 Earth days long.

3.7. Average distance from the sun: 67,237,910 miles

3.8. Venus is the brightest planet in the Solar System and can be seen even in daylight

3.9. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 77 yrs to reach the sun

4. Earth

4.1. It is the only planet that has an atmosphere containing 21 percent oxygen.

4.2. It is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface.

4.3. The Earth takes 365¼ days to complete its orbit round the Sun. The Earth’s year is therefore 365 days long but the ¼ days are added up and every fourth year has one extra day, on the 29th of February.

4.4. As the Earth orbits round the Sun it tilts very slightly and so gives us the seasons.

4.5. The Earth is 93 million miles, from the Sun.

4.6. The Earth differs from all the other planets because it has such a wide diversity of life and intelligent beings. This has only been possible because of the Earth’s atmosphere which has protected the Earth and allowed life to flourish.

4.7. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 106 years to reach the sun.

5. Mars

5.1. The bright rust color Mars is known for is due to iron-rich minerals

5.2. According to NASA, the iron minerals oxidize, or rust, causing the soil to look red.

5.3. cold, thin atmosphere

5.4. Mars has the largest volcanoes in the solar system, including Olympus Mons, which is about 370 miles (600 km) in diameter, wide enough to cover the entire state of New Mexico.

5.5. The average temperature is about minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit

5.6. The dust storms of the Mars are the largest in the solar system, capable of blanketing the entire red planet and lasting for months.

5.7. Average distance from the sun: 141,633,260 miles

5.8. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 162 yrs to reach the sun

6. Jupiter

6.1. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system

6.2. more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined,

6.3. had it been about 80 times more massive, it would have actually become a star instead of a planet.

6.4. the immense volume of Jupiter could hold more than 1,300 Earths.

6.5. The white clouds in the zones are made of crystals of frozen ammonia,

6.6. The white clouds in the zones are made of crystals of frozen ammonia,

6.7. Jupiter's gargantuan magnetic field is the strongest of all the planets in the solar system at nearly 20,000 times the strength of Earth's

6.8. Jupiter spins faster than any other planet, taking a little under 10 hours to complete a turn on its axis,

6.9. Average distance from the sun: 483,682,810 miles

6.10. Jupiter has at least 63 moons

6.11. Jupiter's 4 main moons are the Galileain moons

6.11.1. Ganymede:

6.11.1.1. Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system, larger even than Mercury and Pluto

6.11.1.2. The moon has at least one thick ocean between layers of ice

6.11.1.3. It is also the only moon known to have its own magnetic field.

6.11.2. Io:

6.11.2.1. the most volcanically active body in our solar system.

6.11.2.2. volcanoes spew out gives Io a blotted yellow-orange appearance that is often compared to a pepperoni pizza.

6.11.2.3. As Io orbits Jupiter, the planet's immense gravity causes 'tides' in Io's solid surface that rise 300 feet

6.11.3. Europa:

6.11.3.1. made up mostly of water ice

6.11.3.2. may hide a liquid ocean holding twice as much water as Earth does.

6.11.4. Callisto:

6.11.4.1. has the lowest reflectivity, or albedo, of the four Galilean moons.

6.11.4.2. may be composed of dark, colorless rock.

6.12. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 552 yrs to reach the sun

7. Saturn

7.1. big enough to hold more than 760 Earths,

7.2. However, Saturn has the lowest density of all the planets, and is the only one less dense than water — if there were a bathtub big enough to hold it, Saturn would float.

7.3. completing a rotation roughly every 10-and-a-half hours

7.4. Saturn has a magnetic field about 578 times more powerful than Earth's.

7.5. Average distance from the sun: 885,904,700 miles

7.6. Saturn has at least 62 moons.

7.7. discovered that Saturn actually has many rings made of billions of particles of ice and rock, ranging in size from a grain of sugar to the size of a house.

7.8. the main rings are typically only about 30 feet thick

7.9. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 1012 yrs to reach the sun

8. Uranus

8.1. 80 percent or more of its mass is made up of a fluid mix of water, methane, and ammonia ices.

8.2. This unusual tilt gives rise to extreme seasons roughly 20 years long,

8.3. Uranian year, equal to 84 Earth-years,

8.4. Average distance from the sun: 1,783,939,400 miles

8.5. Uranus has 27 known moons

9. Neptune

9.1. often dubbed an ice giant, since it possesses a thick, slushy fluid mix of water, ammonia and methane ices

9.2. roughly 17 times Earth's mas

9.3. nearly 58 times its volume,

9.4. Neptune's winds can reach up to 1,500 mph

9.5. the planet's magnetic field, which is about 27 times more powerful than Earth's,

9.6. an average distance from the sun of almost 2.8 billion miles

9.7. Neptune goes around the sun once roughly every 165 Earth years, and completed its first orbit, since being discovered, in 2011.

9.8. Neptune goes around the sun once roughly every 165 Earth years, and completed its first orbit, since being discovered, in 2011.

9.9. Neptune has 14 known moons

9.10. Traveling at 100mph 24 hrs per day it would take you 3190 yrs to reach the sun