Irish Civilization

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Irish Civilization by Mind Map: Irish Civilization

1. Political Parties

1.1. Ireland

1.1.1. Fianna Fail (FF) Founded in 1926 Ideology : Conservatism and populism Eamon is the main figure of the Party Michael Martin is the actual leader of Fiana Fail Lose for the first time since 1932 the Irish General Election since 1932.

1.1.2. Fine Gael (FG) Founded in Dublin in 1923 Idelology : Liberalism, Pluralism and Pro Europeanism. First party of Ireland for the first time in 2011 Enda Kenny is the actual leader of the Party.

1.1.3. Irish Labour Party Oldest Party of Ireland, founded in 1912 Ideology : Social Democracy The actual leader of the Party is Joan Burton First entry in Parlement in 1922

1.1.4. Democratic Left Made up of the official IRA Ideology : Socialism-Revolutionnary 1970 : Emergence of Sinn Fein

1.1.5. Irish Green Founded in 1981 Ideology : Green politics Actual leader : Eamon Ryan Highest score of 3.7% in 1989

1.2. Northern Ireland

1.2.1. Democratic Unionist Founded in 1971 Ideology : National conservatism, Social conservatism, British unionism, Euroscepticism The actual leader of the party is Peter Robinson It's the actual big party of Northern Ireland

1.2.2. Sinn Féin Founded in 1970 Ideology : Irish republicanism, Democratic socialism Actual Leader : Dawn Doyle

1.2.3. Social Democratic & Labour Founded in 1970 Ideology : Social democracy, Irish nationalism Actual Leader : Alasdair McDonnell

1.2.4. Alliance Party of Northern Ireland Founded in 1970 Ideology : Liberalism and Nonsectarianism The actual leader is David Ford

2. History

2.1. 432 : Saint Patrick introduced Christianity to Ireland and the country developed into a centre of Gaelic and Latin learning. Irish monasteries acted as universities attracting intellectuals from all over Europe.

2.2. 1171 : Henry II became Lord of Ireland but local rule endured for centuries.

2.3. 1690 : King James II and his french supporters were defeated by the Protestant King William III at the battle of Boyne

2.4. 1801 : Act of Union between England and Ireland which became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

2.5. 1846 : The Great Potato Famine was the peak of the steady decline of the Irish economy. Roughly a million people died of "starvation" and fever", even more left for North America.

2.6. 1869 : Disestablishment of the Church of Ireland

2.7. 1905 : Foundation of Sinn Féin

2.8. 1916 : Easter Uprising

2.9. 1922 : Establishment of the Irish Free State

2.10. 1937 : The Constitution changes the name of the nation to Eire

2.11. 1949 : Ireland Act (cession of the six counties with the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

2.12. 1955 : The Republic of Ireland was admitted to the United Nations

2.13. 1973 : Like Britain, Ireland joined the EEC

2.14. 1990 : Mary Robinson was elected the republic's first woman president in the presidential election

2.15. 1992 : Irish voters approved the Maastricht treaty by a large majority in a referendum

2.16. 1993 : The Irish and British governments signed a joint peace initiative.

2.17. 1997 : Mary McAleese became President

2.18. 2001 : Treaty of Nice rejected

2.19. 2005 : The IRA promised complete decomissionning of all its weapons

2.20. 2007 : The Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Féin formed a government

2.21. 2011 : Elections led to a coalition government, headed by the centre-right. Fine Gael emerged from opposition after fourteen years as voters forsook Fianna Fail, which had dominated the Irish political scene since 1926.

2.22. Glogster



3. Culture & Society

3.1. John Lenon

3.1.1. Born of parents of Irish origins at Montreal, it is a singer and compositer. During the incident with Catholics and the Army in Ireland, he composed "Sunday Bloody Sunday" for share his outrage.

3.2. Symbol

3.2.1. The harp is a symbol of the Irish State. It is used by Government Departments and Offices. It also appears on all Irish coins. The harp is engraved on the seal of office of the President and it is also on the flag of the President of Ireland.

3.3. St Patrick's Day

3.3.1. March 17th is St. Patrick’s Day and it is the National Holiday in Ireland. St. Patrick is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland and March 17th is the date that St. Patrick is said to have died. St. Patrick’s Day parades are held in most towns in Ireland and in a number of countries throughout the world to celebrate the national holiday. Many people wear a plant called ‘shamrock’ on St. Patrick’s Day. It is an unofficial but perhaps more recognised symbol of Ireland. It is said that St. Patrick used the three leaves of the shamrock to explain the Christian concept of the Trinity.

3.4. Pubs

3.4.1. The term ‘pub’ refers to a ‘public house’ or bar. While there is a recognised issue of over-consumption of alcohol in Ireland, pub culture is about more than just drinking. Typically pubs are important meeting places, where people can gather and meet their neighbours and friends in a relaxed atmosphere. The character of pubs varies widely according to the customers they serve, and the area they are in. Since 2004 it is illegal to smoke in an enclosed place of work in Ireland, including pubs.

3.5. Greeting People

3.5.1. Irish people have the reputation of being very friendly. Generally people will shake hands when they meet for the first time. Friends will hug or just say hello. Sometimes people will kiss on the cheek if they know each other well. People generally make eye contact because it is a sign of trust and that you are interested in what they are saying.

3.6. Media

3.6.1. There are four main television channels in Ireland: RTE1, RTE2, TV3 and TG4 (Irish language), number of national radio stations including RTE Radio 1, 2FM, Lyric FM, Newstalk, Today FM, and 3 national broadsheet papers: The Irish Times, the Irish Independent and the Irish Examiner

4. Religious

4.1. 1968 : the Northern Ireland parliament had been dominated by unionists for over fifty years. Its attempts to solve social and political ills, such as institutional discrimination against Catholics, were too slow for nationalists and republicans and too quick for many unionists. This gave rise to growing tension and violence between the two communities.

4.2. 1969 : the situation was so grave that British troops were sent to help restore order.

4.3. 1969 : The 'Provisionals' had split from the 'Official IRA' and are subsequently referred to here as the IRA.

4.4. 1972 : things had deteriorated so badly that the British government suspended the Northern Ireland parliament and imposed direct rule from London.

4.5. 1971 : The 'long war' was the only option and this strategy had been gaining traction since the introduction of internment (imprisonment without trial)

4.6. 1972 : Around ten thousand people gathered in Londonderry for a civil rights march. The British Army had sealed off the original route so the march organisers led most of the demonstrators towards 'Free Derry Corner' in the nationalist Bogside area of the city. Despite this, a number of people continued on towards an army barricade where local youths threw stones at soldiers, who responded with a water cannon, CS gas and rubber bullets. As the riot began to disperse, soldiers of the 1st Parachute Regiment were ordered to move in and arrest as many of the rioters as possible. In the minutes that followed, some of these paratroopers opened fire on the crowd, killing thirteen men and injuring 13 others, one of whom died some months later.

4.7. 1972 : Secret talks with the UK government collapsed, the IRA leadership resolved to erode the British presence in Northern Ireland through a war of attrition.

4.8. 1973 : Sunningdale Agreement, which provided for both a devolved, power-sharing administration and a role for the Irish government in the internal affairs of Northern Ireland - the so-called 'Irish dimension'.

4.9. 1974 : Sunningdale's political institutions collapsed, toppled by the Ulster Workers Council (UWC) strike, a near-insurrection spearheaded by a coalition of unionists and loyalists that effectively brought Northern Ireland to a standstill.

4.10. 1985 : The Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA), an attempt to achieve a political accord that resolved the "Irish question". It gave the Irish government an advisory role in the affairs of Northern Ireland and determined there would be no change in Northern Ireland's constitutional status - no Irish unification in other words - without the consent of its people. Nonetheless, the treaty broadly alienated the unionist community, which opposed Irish involvement and rejected the proposal for a devolved, power-sharing government. Among the major parties in Northern Ireland, only the SDLP and Alliance Party supported the AIA.

4.11. 1994 : Crucially, when the IRA announced a ceasefire, mainstream republican leaders had recognized that the 'long war' was unwinnable. Sinn Féin's commitment to politics and the electoral process enabled it to enter negotiations designed to end the Troubles and restore self-government to Northern Ireland.

4.12. 1996 : Cross-party talks began and in almost all quarters, a combination of political realism and war-weariness cleared the path to negotiation. Importantly, President of the United States Bill Clinton took an active personal role, appointing veteran US senator George Mitchell as chair of the talks process that concluded in the Good Friday Agreement.

5. Tagxedo

6. Humoristic pictures

7. Vocabular Quizz


8. Irish Es are smiling – ecstasy and other drugs temporarily legal in Ireland

8.1. A little mistake which mades laugh a lot of people around the world.

8.2. The legalisation of drugs in Ireland lasted for just one day, the time to repair that fault.

8.3. A fact which proves again the fragility of this young Governement in Ireland.