14 IDEA Disabilities

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14 IDEA Disabilities by Mind Map: 14 IDEA Disabilities

1. Autism

1.1. (1) (i) Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. (ii) Autism does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. (iii) A child who manifests the characteristics of autism after age three could be identified as having autism if the criteria in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section are satisfied.

1.1.1. Examples of Accommodations and Modifications for Children with Autism If your child has either an IEP or a Section 504, you probably attend at least one meeting during the school year to determine what services, accommodations and modifications your child needs. Parents, however, may not know what to ask for, what is considered reasonable and what types of accommodations and modifications are possible. The following are examples that have been found helpful for some students with autism. Remember, each child with autism is different, may have mild, moderate or severe autism and his or her own unique set of symptoms. The accommodations and modifications you request should be specific to your child's needs. Visual or written daily schedules, laminated so students can check off items completed, with mini-schedules for activities within classes or other activities Classroom aides to help support desired behaviors, with organization and to assist in developing communication, for example, an aide can translate for a non-verbal child Provide instructions orally as well as written. Have teacher give instructions or directions orally as well as write on the board. For instructions used many times, a file box with written instructions can be kept in a place the student can readily access it. Allow extra time for a student to respond to directions, instructions or questions. Students with autism sometimes need extra time to process information. Providing pictures the student can point to when communication is difficult. Although used more often with younger children, some older children may still need help during times of high stress or excitement. Repeat or rephrase instruction or questions, allowing several seconds in between to allow student to process information Model tasks, have teacher or another student complete a task first to allow student to visually see how it should be done. Posting rules of classroom in a place that is easy to see adding pictures to visually depict rules for younger children Provide social skills support and instruction, role-playing situations to help increase social skills. Have the teacher incorporate visual components to lessons to help facilitate learning. The teacher can break assignments into smaller parts, giving a due date for each section. Allow student to move around when needed. Provide visual or verbal cues when transitioning from one activity or class to another. Give student time to recognize and adapt to the transition Minimize distractions by having student sit close to the teacher. Give students extended time for taking tests or completing assignments. Allow student to pair up with another student to help when interacting with others Offer alternative activities when participating in high-sensory activities Let student use a stress-ball or piece of fabric to rub to help improve focus and reduce anxiety

1.1.1.1. Case Study for Autism, I chose this disability because my two niece have autism. I don't really know the specifics concerning their diagnosis and due to time limitations I will submit the Anderson case study: Anderson: Excitement and Joy Through Pictures and Speech by Sylvia Diehl Anderson is a 3-year-old boy with ASD who was referred to a university speech and hearing center by a local school district. He attended a morning preschool at the university center for one year in addition to his school placement. History Birth and Development Anderson was a full-term baby delivered with no complications. Anderson's mother reported that as a baby and toddler, he was healthy and his motor development was within normal limits for the major milestones of sitting, standing, and walking. At age 3 he was described as low tone with awkward motor skills and inconsistent imitation skills. His communication development was delayed; he began using vocalizations at 3 months of age but had developed no words by 3 years. Communication Profile at Baseline Anderson communicated through nonverbal means and used communication solely for behavioral regulation. He communicated requests primarily by reaching for the communication partner's hand and placing it on the desired object. When cued, he used an approximation of the "more" sign when grabbing the hand along with a verbal production of /m/. He knew about 10 approximate signs when asked to label, but these were not used in a communicative fashion. Protests were demonstrated most often through pushing hands. Anderson played functionally with toys when seated and used eye gaze appropriately during cause-and-effect play, but otherwise eye gaze was absent. He often appeared to be non-engaged and responded inconsistently to his name. Assessment The Communication Symbolic and Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS DP; Wetherby & Prizant, 1993) was used to determine communicative competence. This norm-referenced instrument for children 6–24 months old is characterized by outstanding psychometric data (i.e., sensitivity=89.4%–94.4%; specificity=89.4%). Although Anderson was 36 months old, this tool was chosen because it provides salient information about social communication development for children from 6 months to 6 years old. Intervention Anderson's team and family members developed communication goals that included spontaneously using a consistent communication system for a variety of communicative functions and initiating and responding to bids for joint attention. Research suggests that joint attention is essential to the development of social, cognitive, and verbal abilities (Mundy & Neal, 2001). Because Anderson could not meet his needs through verbal communication, AAC was considered. He had been taught some signs but did not use them communicatively. More importantly, his motor imitation skills were so poor that it was difficult to differentiate his signs. His communication partners would need to learn not only standard signs, but Anderson's idiosyncratic signs. Therefore, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Bondy & Frost, 1994) was chosen to provide him with a consistent communication system. Additionally, a visual schedule was used at home and school to aid in transitions and to increase his symbolization. Incidental teaching methods including choices and incomplete activities were embedded in home and preschool routines. In addition, a variety of joint activity routines (e.g., singing and moving to "Ring Around the Rosie" or "Row Your Boat" while holding hands) that were socially pleasing to Anderson were identified. These were infused throughout his day in various settings and with various people. Picture representations of these play routines also were represented in his PECS book. Research Several evidence-based strategies were chosen to support intervention, including PECS (Carr & Felce, 2007; Ganz & Simpson, 2004; Temple, 2007), visual supports (Bryan & Gast 2000; Krantz, MacDuff, & McClannahan, 1993), and incidental teaching (Cowan & Allen, 2007; Miranda-Linne & Melin, 1992). Outcomes By the end of the year, a video taken at preschool showed that Anderson was spontaneously using PECS for requests and protests. He was using speech along with his PECS requests in the "I want" format. He also used speech alone for one-word requests and for automatic routines such as counting or "ready, set, go." He shared excitement and joy in several joint activity routines with various people and referred to their facial expressions for approval and reassurance. Sylvia Diehl, PhD, CCC-SLP, is an assistant professor in the Communication Sciences and Disorders Department of the University of South Florida, where she teaches courses in augmentative and alternative communication, language disorders, autism, and developmental disabilities. Contact her at [email protected]

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Deaf-blindness means concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

2.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations Principal communication systems for persons who are Deaf-blind are these: touch cues gestures object symbols picture symbols sign language finger spelling Signed English Pidgin Signed English Braille writing and reading Tadoma method of speech reading American Sign Language large print writing and reading lip-reading speech There are many accommodations and adaptations that Teachers can make in their classroom and in their teaching and these are detailed two sections below titled “Strategies for Teachers”. Assistive Technology Hearing aids / FM Systems (Auditory Trainers) Glasses / Low vision devices (magnifiers, monoculars, CCTV, etc.) Alerting devices (vibrating alarms, watches, etc.) Captioning (TV and Video) TDD, telebraille or relay services for making phone calls Calendar system (boxes, boards and posters - using objects, pictures or symbols) Easel, book stands Calculators Light box Augmentative Communication devices Computer aided real time (CART) Lamps or spotlights on interpreter or materials Intervener, interpreter or interpreter-tutor Strategies for Teachers Educational/Environmental: Modifications to Accommodate for Deaf-blindness Updated by TREDS (October 2001). The information included on this handout was adapted from Instructional Modifications/Supports for Deaf-Blindness developed by the Texas Education Agency. Instruction and Assignments: Decrease length, reduce amount, or complete a task analysis of assignments. Use alternative format for assignments (tape recorder, typewriter, computer, etc.). Emphasize major points and provide frequent comprehension checks. Allow for oral response. Present new information in a consistent fashion. Provide experience-based instruction. Provide hands-on experiences and use manipulatives. Provide extra time for completing activities and assignments. Provide additional time to locate and attend to referent. Provide one-on-one instructional support when needed. Provide intervener, interpreter, and interpreter-tutor if necessary. Develop a communication foundation and adapt communication form (finger spelling, alternative signs, tactual signs, reduced sign area, coactive signing). Present communication form in appropriate field of vision & at appropriate distance. Provide specific visual adaptations to instructional environment. Provide specific auditory adaptations to instructional environment.. Follow the child’s lead. Establish balanced interactions (turn taking). Use age appropriate materials and activities. Materials and Environment: Print and material size (large for poor acuity/ normal for field loss) Braille High contrast between object and it's background Use concrete objects Appropriate lighting Keep hallways and travel routes clear of obstacles Clearly define expectations and limitations Provide frequent breaks Seat student near teacher and/or activity Environment needs to be motivating as well as safe Manage Behavior: Provide supervision regarding use/maintenance of assistive listening devices and optical aids Prepare child prior to transition to new activity (give clear ending to the current activity, giving a symbol/cue representing the upcoming event). Reduce the effects of anxiety related to Deaf-blindness by: limiting the number of people, providing a predictable environment, reducing performance demands, developing instruction around preferred activities, and providing choices in activities. The following components refer to the practices that have been shown by recent research to improve an individual’s ability to become an active and accepted member of society: · Functional, Age-Appropriate Curricula. The curriculum for students with Deaf-blindness should stress skills that are chronologically age-appropriate, functional for the learner, and taught in a natural context. · Integration with Nondisabled Peers. Learners with significant support needs benefit from daily social interactions with their nondisabled peers to develop positive social skills necessary for acceptance into the community. The benefits of social integration, both for learners with severe disabilities and for nondisabled students, are well documented. · Community-Based Instruction. It has become increasingly apparent that learners with significant support needs best acquire and maintain skills in the natural community environments where the skills are needed to avoid the difficulty of generalizing from an artificial setting to a more natural one. · Non-aversive Behavior Management. Best instructional practices for students with severe disabilities emphasize a non-aversive educational approach to help individuals reduce their socially unacceptable behaviors, while they acquire more appropriate and functional behaviors. This type of positive instruction complements a functional, age-appropriate curriculum and community-based instruction, while it respects the rights of the learner to a humane and positive education. · Transition Planning. Learners with severe and Multiple Disabilities (like nondisabled students) need to receive training that will enhance their opportunities to successfully make the transition from an elementary school program to a secondary program, and from school to working and living in their community. Since these students may have difficulty acquiring new skills quickly and adjusting to new environments, consideration must be given to developing comprehensive, longitudinal educational plans for each individual student. Transition planning should begin as early as in the elementary grades. · Parent Involvement. Parents are critical to the educational process. Parents have valuable information and expertise to share with professionals. Increasing emphasis on parent and family involvement in educational planning creates a need to train educational staff to recognize factors affecting the family structure, needs of the family, and methods for working effectively with each unique family system. · Integrative Service Delivery Approach. When support staff and educators combine forces to provide an integrative approach to service delivery, the learner benefits from a holistic type of intervention that does not segment him or her into isolated strengths and weaknesses. It is recommended that all staff responsible for a learner’s education to work cooperatively to achieve common goals and use of support staff primarily as consultants to the primary teachers, but also incorporates the expertise of these individuals into the functional and daily scheduled activities for the learners.

3. Deafness

3.1. Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

3.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations These days, there is no reason for any deaf student to miss out on what happens in the hearing classroom. Both older and newer techniques and technological solutions are abundant. · Interpreting o The most common method of classroom accessibility is an interpreter. Interpreters can provide a means of accessibility for signing, oral, and cueing deaf and hard of hearing people. There are also interpreters who specialize in deaf interpreting. Finding a qualified interpreter for the classroom may not be easy, but it can be done. Demand for educational interpreters is high, yet pay and other issues persist: o Plus, more interpreting agencies are offering on-demand video remote interpreting. This method requires the use of videoconferencing equipment. It apparently works best for small groups. · Notetaking o This can be made available in many forms such as peers, professional notetakers and computer software. · Tutoring o It may be necessary to have a tutor for a student who is deaf. There are tutors who specialize in this area. Appropriate supplementary aids, services, and modifications listed on the IEP for a Hearing Impaired student might include: · Assistive devices, such as listening and alerting systems · Abbreviated assignments · Alternative materials · Assignment sheets · Behaviour contracts · Captioned video tapes/films · Graphic organizers/guided outline · Sign Language Interpreter/Cued Speech Transliterator/Language Facilitator · Modified test format · Note-taker · Peer tutoring · Preferential seating · Scribe for notes · Specific test environment (extended time, interpreter signs multiple choice questions, etc.) · TTY's for telephone use Assistive Technology · Assistive Listening Systems o For students with enough hearing via hearing aids or cochlear implants, assistive listening systems may help, such as audio loops and FM systems. · Voice to Print technology o For those who do not do well with interpreters, a viable alternative exists: voice to print technologies (or speech to text), or as some prefer, real time captioning. The options available include: CART C-Print at NTID - This technology involves using a C-Print captionist who generates text based on what is spoken. The difference between C-Print and real time captioning is that C-Print is not verbatim. Typewell - This is a system that operates on the same principles as C-Print. Viable Technologies - Viable Technologies offers a remote Viable Real time Transcription, a service whereas transcribers listen to the classroom speech and produce text that can be read by the deaf student. · Captioned Educational Media o At one time, the Captioned Media Program was the only reliable source of captioned educational materials. Now, with the legal requirements to caption on television and DVDs, much more captioned material is available to classroom instructors: § Captioned Media Program - for selected captioned educational material § Captioned and subtitled DVDs - widely available § Captioned television and web programming § Captioned educational software

4. Developmental delay

4.1. Developmental Delay is when your child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times. It is an ongoing major or minor delay in the process of development. If your child is temporarily lagging behind, that is not called developmental delay. Delay can occur in one or many areas—for example, gross or fine motor, language, social, or thinking skills. Developmental Delay is most often a diagnosis made by a doctor based on strict guidelines. Usually, though, the parent is the first to notice that their child is not progressing at the same rate as other children the same age. If you think your child may be “slow,” or “seems behind,” talk with your child's doctor about it. In some cases, your pediatrician might pick up a delay during an office visit. It will probably take several visits and possibly a referral to a developmental specialist to be sure that the delay is not just a temporary lag. Your child's doctor may use a set of screening tools during regular well-child visits.

4.1.1. Accommodations which may support the developmentally delayed learner may include: additional time on exams, taking additional time during long lectures, proceeding slowly through intense amounts of information, use of tape recorders, help with finding a note-taker, and making arrangements with the student regarding in-class discussions.

5. Emotional disturbance

5.1. (i) Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section.

5.1.1. Examples of Accommodations and Modifications for emotional disturbances. Well Known People with Emotional Disturbance Anxiety Disorder · Sigmund Freud, psychologist · Alfred Lord Tennyson, author · Charlotte Bronte, author · Robert Burns, author · Sir Isaac Newton, physicist, mathematician and genius Mood Disorders · Richard Dreyfuss, actor · Harrison Ford, actor · Abraham Lincoln, past president of the United States · Boris Yeltsin, past president of Russia · Mike Wallace, journalist · Buzz Aldrin, astronaut · Brooke Shields, actress · Drew Carey, actor · Ludwig Von Beethoven, musical composer Bi-Polar Disorder · Sting, musician · Jean Claude VanDamme, actor · Ben Stiller, actor · Margot Kidder, actress Accommodations & Adaptations General adaptations can facilitate the inclusion of students with emotional and behavioural disorders into general education classes. Some specific adaptations to promote successful inclusion are presented next. Preparing the Class Prepare your class for students with emotional disabilities. Set up models for tolerance and acceptance. Provide opportunities for students with emotional disabilities to assume class responsibilities, such as distributing papers. Give examples of ways general education peers can help students with emotional disabilities, such as how to ignore inappropriate behaviours. Some students may be able to serve as peer tutors or assistants to help support and reinforce appropriate behaviours from students with emotional disabilities. However, select peers carefully; not all peers would be good choices. Remember that sometimes emotionally disturbed students will do better working alone even when the rest of the class is working in small groups. Consider additional classroom adaptations, including the following: Adapt the physical environment by considering seating arrangements and by keeping potentially harmful objects or substances away from easy access. Consider the degree of proximity to teachers, aides, and students with whom the target student interacts negatively. Adapt materials, when needed, using the suggestions listed for students with learning disabilities and mental retardation. Devise self-monitoring checklists that students can use to check off activities as they complete them. Break assignments into short segments to avoid overwhelming students. Adapt instruction; using the teacher effectiveness variables and teacher presentation variables to ensure that content is covered adequately. Teach the classroom social skills necessary for success. Help students focus by teaching clearly and enthusiastically, providing additional review, and teaching self-monitoring for attention. Adapt evaluation by providing distraction-free environments for exams, providing extended time allocations during testing periods, and ensuring that students have the skills to take tests efficiently Establish open, accepting environment. Clearly state class rules and consequences. Emphasize positive behaviours and program for success. Supply extra opportunities for success. Be tolerant. Use good judgment. Teach social skills. Teach self-control, self-monitoring, and conflict resolution. Teach academic survival skills. Teach positive attributions. Carefully select partners. Have alternative activities available. Design activity checklists. Use carefully selected peers as assistants. Have groups of “one.” Use behavioural contracts. Assistive Technology · Low Tech o The following resources provide low tech ideas for managing students with an emotional disturbance. These are great ideas for the teacher or parent who is beginning a behaviour plan. Examples of low tech support tools for behaviour plans include multipurpose point sheets, behaviour contracts and behaviour charts or graphs. Having a student's goals and expectations written down on an organized chart or point sheet can help lower the student's anxiety about what is expected. Pairing specific goals with positive reinforcement can help teach the student a routine as well as motivate a student to monitor his/her own behaviour. o //Point Sheets and Behaviour Charts// § These charts help students track their progress toward specific goals and encourage students to monitor their own behaviour. There are a variety of formats for everyone from young children to young adults. A point sheet can be used in the classroom to keep track of general behaviours such as transition between subjects and participation. It can also include specific goals for each student such as finishing assigned work or having positive interactions with others. Teachers can issue points at the end of each subject based on the students' performance. Point sheets are a great way for students to keep track of their own daily goals as well as for teachers to collect data on each student's behaviour for each subject or class period. o //Teaching Self Discipline// § Incorporate self discipline into your general curriculum. Lack of discipline is a common cause of ineffective instruction. Present discipline to students by cueing them to performances by socially competent same age peers and incorporates discipline training into the general curriculum. Help students set goals for their own behaviour, make decisions about their own actions and moderate their actions in accord with their peers. · Mid Tech o The following resources will provide information about mid tech solutions to problems associated with students with and emotional disturbance. These sites provide lower cost technology to assist with the challenges faced by students with emotional or behavioural needs. o //The Motivaider// § This little device is similar to a pager and can be set to buzz or beep at certain intervals reminding students to stay on whatever task they are trying to accomplish. This can be really helpful for students who have difficulty paying attention or are easily distracted. The idea is to pair one specific goal the student is working on with the buzzing of the Motivaider. When used effectively, it can promote independence because the student would not need continuous prompts from a teacher. o //The Talklight// § The Talklight is a noise management tool. The light looks like a stoplight and changes from green to yellow to red depending on the noise level of the class. The sound level is adjustable so it can be used in different social situations. A red light can serve as a visual clue that the noise level in the room is too loud. The yellow light can be used as a warning and a green light, of course, means go for it! This tool can increase the student's self discipline and create a quieter classroom by encouraging students to monitor their own noise level. o //iPod// § Using an iPod in the classroom may seem strange to some but it can serve several very practical purposes if you set limits with the students. Students can listen to books on tape or you can record a reading on the IPod for the students to listen to. This can lower the frustration level of students resulting in fewer discipline problems. You can also use an IPod to provide the students with calm and relaxing music. Music can lower the stress level of a student who is having a rough day and it is an easy way to be proactive about discipline problems. · High Tech o The following resources will provide information about high tech solutions to issues encountered when dealing with students with emotional disturbance. These resources provide information on higher end technology that will assist students with emotional or behavioural issues both in and out of the classroom. These items can be used as classroom resources as well as part of incentive plans. o //Brainpop.com// § Brainpop is a site that contains simple videos and activities that you can use to supplement your curriculum. The videos can make difficult ideas easier to understand. This website is designed to capture student interest by making the lessons fun and interactive. A variety of subjects are available and many of the lessons are free. o //Funmaths.com// § These math games feature arcade style play and increase high school math skills. These games can be a good way for your students to practice their skills or provide a constructive activity when they need to be away from the group because of stress or frustration. o //Inspiration// § Inspiration is a great program for organizing thoughts, making visual aids and outlining essays. This program can take lots of the stress out of essays and larger projects. Stress reduction will lead to reducing the behaviour problems that arise from work frustration. o //Wii// § One of the best ways to promote positive behaviour with students is to provide tangible rewards. Although video games do not seem to provide educational value at first they can be a great tool for students with behaviour issues. The use of a Nintendo Wii as a reward for earning the week's points can be a great motivator. The System also improves the students’ social skills because it requires the ability to take turns and the use of good sportsmanship. The best part of this system is that it is wireless and requires the user to move to control the games. Students with lots of energy will enjoy this aspect of game play.

5.1.1.1. Case Study: I have been diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term "depression" is used in a number of different ways. It is often used to mean this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or simply to a low mood. Major depressive disorder is a disabling condition that adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had depression or another mood disorder. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives or friends, and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians generally request tests for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms. The most common time of onset is between the ages of 20 and 30 years, with a later peak between 30 and 40 years. My treatment is basically maintaining meaningful employment and continuing on a positive career path. Because of this diagnosis I received an accommodation on this February's Maryland Bar examination, possible re-admission back into a economics PhD program , and payment of this Teach NOW program. Also it should be noted that my law school tuition, books and supplies was also paid for because of these laws, and that I have 6 college degrees and and soon to have a 7th (PhD.in economics.)

6. Hearing impairment

6.1. Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section.

6.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations Smile and maintain eye contact during the time you are talking to a person who is hearing impaired. The person always needs to be able to see your lips if he has learned to read lips. If a sign language interpreter is present, talk directly to the person who is deaf, not the interpreter. If at all feasible, use complete sentences, especially when communicating with children. Good language development is dependent upon correct use of verbs, adjectives, adverbs, nouns, etc. Restricting communication to a single word or short phrase deprives this population of opportunities to master the English language, thus limiting their academic development. Speak slowly and clearly, but do not exaggerate. Be expressive, but not overly. If a word is not understood, try another word. Demonstrate if possible. Use sign language only if you're qualified. Otherwise, incorrect information may be conveyed. Do not shout. Hearing aids make sounds louder, but they do not clarify the person's reception or understanding of the sound. The presence of a hearing aid does not mean that the person can hear normally. If all else fails, use a pad and pencil to communicate. Since this often isolates the person with a hearing impairment from the group, try to use writing only if oral speech, lip reading, sign language, gestures, and finger spelling have failed. During group gatherings, seat the person with a hearing impairment so s/he can see others in the group. Try a semi-circle arrangement. If possible, arrange to have an interpreter or note-taker. Use visual aids whenever possible. Watch the person who is deaf or hearing impaired carefully for facial expressions and body language that will help you determine the success of your communication. If you have trouble understanding the speech of a person who is deaf, don't hesitate to ask him to repeat what he said. Your willingness and desire to communicate is what is most important, not the ease with which you understand. Assistive Technology Hearing Aids / FM System / Auditory Trainers Captioning (TV & Video) Alerting Devices TDD, Relay Services

7. Intellectual disability

7.1. Intellectual disability (ID), once called mental retardation, is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. People with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. There are varying degrees of intellectual disability, from mild to profound. Mental retardation means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

7.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations For Mild to Moderate Mental Retardation: Do not use complex sentences with a person who is mentally slow. Concentrate on concrete ideas and skills. An individual with mental retardation often has trouble with abstract concepts. Make instructions clear and concise. Break directions down into small steps or tasks. Demonstrate whenever possible. Showing is often more effective than telling. Be patient, persistent, and consistent. Provide warmth and acceptance. Promote a sense of security through a smile, words of praise, or physical expressions of affection. Show respect. Do not be condescending. Talk to the individual as a person; talk to an adult as an adult, not as a child. Don't have low expectations for a person with mental retardation. Given training and support, a person with retardation can be gainfully employed and totally integrated into society as a valuable, contributing member. For Severe to Profound Mental Retardation: Use the accommodations listed above. Do not react with pity, anxiety, or a variety of other negative emotions when first meeting a person with a severe handicap. Use age-appropriate conversation. Use age-appropriate activities. Include these individuals in community and family activities. Even an individual with profound retardation profits from events that provide integration/interaction with persons who are not handicapped. In fact, this is the way he/she learns best. Being exposed to every phase of community life allows him/her to learn the behaviours necessary for achieving maximum participation in society. Assistive Technology Communication: Technology can substitute as a voice for a person who cannot communicate with his or her voice, due to physical and/or cognitive reasons. Environmental Controls: Devices to control the environment are important to people with severe or multiple physical disabilities and/or cognitive disabilities, who have limited ability to move about in their environment or control electrical appliances. Technology allows a person to control electrical appliances, audio/video equipment such as home entertainment systems or to do something as basic as lock and unlock doors. Mobility: Simple manual to sophisticated computer-controlled wheelchairs and mobility aids are available for a person who cannot walk. Education: The computer can be a tool for improved literacy, language development, mathematical, organizational, and social skill development. Alternative ways to access computers are available for people who cannot operate a keyboard. Software can be regulated so it runs at a slower pace if a person needs this type of modification. Activities of Daily Living: · Examples are: o Devices to assist a person with memory difficulties to complete a task or to follow a certain sequence of steps from start to finish, such as making a bed or taking medication o Directional guidance systems with auditory cues to help a person travel from one place to another o Devices to help a person shop, write a check, pay the bills, or use the ATM machine Employment: In response to the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers are making the workplace more cognitively accessible. This may require worksite modifications by the employer, to permit the employee to perform a job. For example, an audiotape might be used to prompt a worker to complete each task in a job. Sports and Recreation: Adaptations can be made to computer games which allow the game activity to be slowed down for a user who cannot react as quickly to game moves and decision-making. Specially adapted sports equipment is available to compensate for functional limitations, such as specially designed ball ramps that are used in bowling.

8. Multiple disabilities

8.1. Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness or mental retardation-orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Multiple disabilities does not include deaf-blindness.

8.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations At the present time, students with severe and multiple disabilities are taught in a variety of settings, from totally segregated to fully inclusive. The doctrine of the least restrictive environment (LRE), as applied to students with severe and multiple disabilities has usually resulted in placement in a special education classroom within a regular school. Now an increasing number of leaders in the field of severe and multiple disabilities are advocating for full inclusion for these students. Successful collaboration is essential if students are to be fully included in schools and community settings. Because the students' needs can be extensive, families, educators, physical and occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists and medical personnel need to work closely with each other to ensure that students receive an appropriate and inclusive education. In addition, students without disabilities and community members need to understand their roles in the collaborative planning process. (From Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools, 2nd Edition. Turnbull, Turnbull and others. Merrill Publishing, Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458) Assistive Technology Educational programming for a student with multiple disabilities will be determined by a transdisciplinary team, and should focus on developing means to allow and encourage the individual to become as active and vital a participant in daily life as possible. It is critical that all team members, professionals, family and peers are cognizant of the unique educational and psychosocial needs of the student, to avoid planning and interactions based only on the complex physical and medical difficulties that present. The rights and dignity of each individual must be paramount in all programming decisions. Technology can be incorporated as a tool in programming in the following areas: · Learning: o Programs for students with multiple disabilities often focus on early concept development, such as object permanence and cause and effect. These concepts are integral to the later development of language functions and higher cognitive skills. Switch operated technology allows the student with significant physical limitations to become an active participant in learning activities and thus enhances learning opportunities. o A wide array of switch operated toys, as well an ever expanding range of computer software is available. Some companies offer software that will foster development of basic concepts (eg. cause and effect, responding to simple commands), using activities at interest levels appropriate for older students. One example is Teenage Switch Progressions (R.J. Cooper, Inc.) The activities on the computer screen, activated by a press of a switch, range from popping popcorn to applying makeup. These programs also offer a valuable medium for interaction with non-disabled peers. o Most programs designed for this level of learning incorporate opportunities for development of more advanced skills as well. Many of them begin with simple cause and effect (a switch press causes activity for a pre-set time period), advance to a sustained press being required for the activity to continue, and then incorporate simple commands (eg "press the switch now"), to develop deliberate response to oral commands. The range of switch options is extensive and the particular switch chosen must suit the individual's particular physical abilities. See Section III for a further discussion of switch selection. · Positioning/ Mobility o Good positioning/ handling of students with multiple disabilities is critical, both to reduce pain and prevent further physical complications, as well as to allow the individual to see, hear, reach and become engaged in persons and materials for optimal participation and learning. o Many students will also require aids for mobility both in general as well as during Physical Education classes. Assistive devices are instrumental in meeting these needs. · Communication o Most students with multiple disabilities have limited verbal communication skills. Adults or peers often make choices for students with multiple disabilities because they cannot speak. There should always be direct instruction to encourage even very physically involved students to make choices independently. Various low and high-technology Alternative and Augmentative Communication systems can be used to supplement or replace verbal communication. The range of options can be from non-tech (eg. eye-pointing to the actual object) to high- tech (eg. switch selection of choices displayed on a computer screen as they are scanned by a screen pointer). Speech Language Pathology as well as Occupational Therapy consultation is advised when decision-making is this area. · Environmental Control o Students with multiple disabilities can use Environmental Control Units to exercise control over the environment. ECU's allow the individual to turn on/off lights, electrical appliances (radio, TV, etc) and battery operated devices (tape recorders, games, and so on). Another similar piece of technology is an Automated Learning Device (ALD) (Ablenet, Inc). · Play/Leisure/Socialization o Technological tools for these areas may include adapted puzzles/games, toys adapted for switch use, computer assisted drawing programs, as well as computer games with specialized input and/or output devices. A Switch-Adapted Mouse (R.J. Cooper, Inc.) offers wonderful opportunities for co-operative play. A non-disabled peer moves the mouse, while the student with a disability "clicks" through a switch. · Sports/Recreation o There is a range of adapted sports equipment that can assist in involving students with multiple disabilities in physical education and outdoor programming. Adapted bowling equipment, balls with sound, various supportive swings, hammocks, adapted tricycles, scooter boards and powered vehicles offer the student the opportunity to experience different positions, orientation and movement experiences that otherwise would not be available. · Daily Living/Personal Care o Technology to assist the individual with multiple disabilities complete daily living tasks may include adapted eating utensils, bathroom aids, adapted clothing and dressing aids and so on. o Many times, an individual with a Multiple Disability will always remain dependant , to some degree for personal care and daily living functions.

9. Orthopedic impairment

9.1. Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

9.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations Due to the various levels of severity of orthopedic impairment, multiple types of assistive technology may be used. As with any student with a disability, the assistive technology would need to address a need of the student to be able to access the educational curriculum. For students with orthopedic impairments, these fall into three categories: · Devices to Access Information: These assistive technology devices focus on aiding the student to access the educational material. These devices include: speech recognition software screen reading software augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards) academic software packages for students with disabilities · Devices for Positioning and Mobility: These assistive technology devices focus on helping the student participate in educational activities. These devices include: canes crutches wheelchairs specialized exercise equipment specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development Assistive Technology Educational Needs: Specialized Materials and Equipment · Low Tech Dycem Slant Boards Book stands Page fluffers Pencil grips Specialized writing paper (e.g. larger lines, raised lines) Audiotapes of printed materials · High Tech o Computer o Specialized keyboards (e.g IntelliKeys) o Software programs (e.g. word predict, print to voice, math applications) o Digital Notebook o Ballpoint Mouse o Calc-talking o Dreamwriter 400 o Reading Edge Educational Needs: Augmentative/Alternative Communication · Low Tech o Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) o Single switch voice output device o Picture schedules o Conversation Books o Spinner o Magnifying Glasses o Pocket Talker o Switches · High Tech o Multi-level voice output communication device o Computers o Print to voice computer software o 4 Talk o E Talk Animation o Go Talk1

10. Other health impairment

10.1. Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that-- (i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (ii) Adversely affects a child's educational performance.

10.1.1. Accommodations, Adaptations & Assistive Technology The following are appropriate accommodations for many students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): · If a student fails to bring necessary materials home, an appropriate accommodation might be to: o Provide a second set of books at home. o Post a list of what to take home on the inside of the student's locker. o Color code book covers, workbooks, and notebooks. o Use pocket folder to carry worksheets and other assignment information. · If a student acts out or disrupts the class, an appropriate accommodation might be to: o Post and teach clear classroom expectations and consequences. o Consistently enforce rules. o Establish a private cue or signal to make the student aware of his/her behavior. o Avoid confrontational techniques. o Provide alternatives. o Analyze behavior to determine triggers and results. o Develop positive behavior support plan that includes prevention, teaching, and consequences. o Utilize conflict management techniques. o Designate a "cooling off" location in the classroom. · If the student is easily distracted or fails to sustain attention long enough for task completion, appropriate accommodations may be to: o Break assignments into shorter segments. o Give preferential seating away from distractions. o Provide opportunities for movement. o Plan highly structured routines and teaching methods. o Walk or stand near the student frequently. o Frequently check on student work and redirect if necessary. · If the student displays organizational challenges, appropriate accommodations might be to: o Provide an established daily routine. o Contract with student and use rewards for completion of contract. o Frequently check student's notebooks for organization. o Provide due dates on written assignments. o Break large projects into smaller parts with due dates for each part. o Provide sticky notes for reminders. o Provide Post-it tape flags to draw attention to certain pages. o Provide colored paper clips to section materials. o Provide a highlighter to mark important information and provide motor activity during reading. o Provide a storage cubicle to keep classroom materials readily available. · If the student fails to get started quickly when assignments are given, appropriate accommodations might me to: o Introduce the assignment in sequential steps. o Check for understanding of instructions. o Check on progress often in the first few minutes of work. o Provide time suggestions for each task. o Provide a checklist for long, detailed tasks.

11. Specific learning disability

11.1. Specific learning disability. (i) General. Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. (ii) Disorders not included. Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

11.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations While the majority of a student’s program should be as closely aligned with the general education curriculum as possible, some accommodations and modifications may be necessary. Listed below are some suggested ways to aid students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) learn more effectively at home or at school. Selection from these and other possibilities must be based on the individual needs of each child. Information and ideas from a multidisciplinary team, including the parents and student, are important for developing an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that meets the unique needs of each student with learning disabilities. A carefully developed multidisciplinary approach will make classroom instruction meaningful for the student. · For some students who read slowly or with difficulty, a “read-along” technique in which taped texts and materials allow learning of printed materials. · For students with memory problems or difficulty taking notes, a fellow student might share notes; the student might tape the lesson; or the teacher might provide a copy of the lesson outline. · For students who read below expected levels, educational videos and films or talking books can provide the general information that cannot be acquired from the printed page. · For students with short term memory problems (e.g., understand math processes, but have short term memory problems that interfere with remembering math facts), a table of facts or a calculator could be provided. · For the student whose handwriting is slow, illegible or includes many reversed letters, a cassette recorder or a computer with word processing software could be used for written work or tests. · For the student who has difficulty with spelling, a “misspeller’s dictionary” or computerized spell checker can help make written materials readable. · For students who have difficulty reading cursive, small, or crowded print, typed handouts, large print, or double spaced materials can help. · To develop memory and listening skills, poetry, rhymes, songs, audio-taped materials and mnemonics may improve performance. · To teach spelling, use a multi-sensory approach which combines saying, spelling aloud, and writing words. · Ways to improve vocabulary and comprehension can include a student-developed file of vocabulary words and the use of word webs and visual organizers to relate words and ideas heard or read on paper. A dictionary or thesaurus, suited to the child’s learning level, is also an excellent tool for building vocabulary, spelling and reading comprehension. · For students who have difficulty organizing time, materials and information, a variety of approaches can be used, including: a quiet, uncluttered homework space; alarm watch; purchased texts that can be marked with a highlighter; a homework assignment diary coordinated between home and school; study skills instruction; and a personally-developed date-book or scheduler. · For students who copy inaccurately, but need written practice to solidify learning, changes that may help include: leaving a space directly under each word, phrase or sentence, or having handouts on the desk for those who can’t copy from the blackboard or take dictation accurately. For left-handed students, place the list of words at the right margin. For students whose writing is large, provide enlarged spaces for “fill in the blank” activities. · For students who seem to process auditory information slowly (e.g., not fully understanding questions asked, recalling needed information, or forming an appropriate answer), be patient. Allow sufficient “wait-time for the answer or provide the questions in written form. · Oral and written language should be taught together as much as possible. Illustrations in a book being read should be used to generate conversation, vocabulary and concepts that will relate to what is to be read. Material that is read can be translated into a verbal summary, a word web, a visual organizer, or a computer presentation. · For students who find reading slow and difficult, supplement the subject matter being read with video tapes., DVDs, captioned TV programs, or computer software. Assistive Technology Assistive Technology tools that support kids with Learning Disabilities include: Abbreviation expanders Alternative keyboards Audio books and publications Electronic math work sheets Freeform database software Graphic organizers and outlining Information/data managers Optical character recognition Personal FM listening systems Portable word processors Proofreading programs Speech-recognition programs Speech synthesizers/screen readers Talking calculators Talking spell checkers and electronic dictionaries Variable-speed tape recorders Word-prediction programs

12. Speech or language impairment

12.1. Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

12.1.1. Examples of Accommodations and Modifications for Speech or language impairment. Accommodations & Adaptations Because all communication disorders carry the potential to isolate individuals from their social and educational surroundings, it is essential to find appropriate timely intervention. While many speech and language patterns can be called "baby talk" and are part of a young child's normal development, they can become problems if they are not outgrown as expected. In this way an initial delay in speech and language or an initial speech pattern can become a disorder which can cause difficulties in learning. Because of the way the brain develops, it is easier to learn language and communication skills before the age of 5. When children have muscular disorders, hearing problems or developmental delays, their acquisition of speech, language and related skills is often affected. Speech-language pathologists assist children who have communication disorders in various ways. They provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child’s teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child’s communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home. The speech-language pathologist may assist vocational teachers and counselors in establishing communication goals related to the work experiences of students and suggest strategies that are effective for the important transition from school to employment and adult life. Technology can help children whose physical conditions make communication difficult. The use of electronic communication systems allow nonspeaking people and people with severe physical disabilities to engage in the give and take of shared thought. Vocabulary and concept growth continues during the years children are in school. Reading and writing are taught and, as students get older, the understanding and use of language becomes more complex. Communication skills are at the heart of the education experience. Speech and/or language therapy may continue throughout a student’s school years either in the form of direct therapy or on a consultant basis. For dysarthria, speaking slowly and using hand gestures are recommended. Family and friends need to provide plenty of time for those with the disorder to express themselves. Stop the use of medications that are causing the problem, if possible. Minimize the use of alcohol. For aphasia, family members may need to provide frequent orientation reminders, such as the day of the week. Disorientation and confusion often occur with aphasia. Often, people assume that patients with aphasia are incompetent. But patients and caregivers can sometimes learn nonverbal ways of communicating. Recognition and treatment of depression is also important for people with severe speech and language disorders. It's important to maintain a relaxed, calm environment and keep external stimuli to a minimum. Speak in a normal tone of voice (this condition is not a hearing or emotional problem). Use simple phrases to avoid misunderstandings. Don't assume that the affected person understands. Provide communication aids, if possible, depending on the person and condition. Frustration, profanity, and depression are typical responses in people with aphasia. Assistive Technology For students with speech and language impairments, the major types of assistive technology can be divided into two areas. First, students with speech and language impairments have an array of computer software packages available to develop their speech and language skills. An example is First Words, a language program that has a number of applications for teaching those who are developing or reacquiring language functions. The program uses graphic presentations combined with synthesized speech to teach high-frequency nouns, and is one of many software packages that can help develop both speech and language. Secondly, students with speech and language impairments may use augmentative or alternative communication (AAC). AAC is the use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the communication process. This includes sign language and various communication boards, both manual and electronic, that are used by individuals with impaired oral motor skills. The most basic AAC devices are non-electronic communication boards. The boards usually are limited to a number of choices (two to four). The choices can be represented by real items, pictures of items, and symbols for items (including print). The objective of the communication board is to have the student make a choice, typically of food or activity. Electronic AAC devices range from very simple devices with few buttons (such as the Cheap Talk) to very elaborate systems that use a keyboard and synthesized speech (such as the Dyna Vox and Liberator).

12.1.1.1. Case Study: I was diagnosed with a speech impediment during my middle school years. All I remember was that I was constantly being picked on by my classmates, and that my bigger cousins protected me. I took special speech classes and was told to slow down when speaking. My teachers told me that I was so excited and my brain was thinking so fast that I was unable to speak correctly. Even to this day I still studder sometimes when I get anxious.

13. Traumatic brain injury

13.1. Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

13.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations The following list of classroom modifications and strategies may assist the student as he/she returns to school following an acquired injury to the brain. Environmental Modifications: minimize extraneous auditory and visual stimulation (use study carrels or room dividers) provide preferential seating arrange seating to allow for more space between students provide small group instruction structure student's activities and schedule to limit number of changes and reduce unstructured time limit number of persons that the student deals with each day provide the student with a written schedule and keep the schedule as consistent as possible provide area to keep supplies, books, etc., away from student's work area select a classroom buddy Learning Strategies: gain the student's attention before speaking break complex tasks down into component parts and complete each part before trying to combine the components provide frequent repetition of important tasks utilize the child's best sensory modality question student to be sure the information was received and interpreted clearly and provide feedback as necessary provide cueing systems in the form of assignment books, placing task cues on student's desk, etc. provide verbal and written instruction shorten assignments and/or divide assignments into parts structure thinking processes graphically through outlines, graphs, flow charts and models develop a system for maintaining organization facilitate note taking by providing outlines with major headings give short frequent quizzes, rather than all inclusive exams accompany homework with written instructions initiate a behavior modification program for academic and/or interpersonal behavior skills encouraging student to chart his or her progress. Assistive Technology · Calendar · Memory Logbooks · Electronic/computer Reminders · Watches · Timers · Job Checklists · Job Schedule · Notepad · Calculator · Day Planner · Telephones with Alarms · Cue Cards · Enlarged Keyboards or Computer Screens · Job Coaches.

14. Visual impairment including blindness

14.1. Visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.1.1. Accommodations & Adaptations Children with visual impairments should be assessed early to benefit from early intervention programs, when applicable. Technology in the form of computers and low-vision optical and video aids enable many partially sighted, low vision and blind children to participate in regular class activities. Large print materials, books on tape, and Braille books are available. Students with visual impairments may need additional help with special equipment and modifications in the regular curriculum to emphasize listening skills, communication, orientation and mobility, vocation/career options, and daily living skills. Students with low vision or those who are legally blind may need help in using their residual vision more efficiently and in working with special aids and materials. Students who have visual impairments combined with other types of disabilities have a greater need for an interdisciplinary approach and may require greater emphasis on self care and daily living skills. Assistive Technology Assistive devices for the visually impaired can be divided into the following five categories: · Educational Devices o Braille Duplicators and Writers o Writing Devices o Braille Paper o Talking Books and Tape Recorders o Reading Machines o Braille Computers o Mathematical Devices o Geography Devices o Science Devices · Mobility Devices o Cane o Mobility Show Card o Mini Beeper o Guide Dogs · Vocational Devices o Many invented devices to assist in the workplace · Daily Living Devices o Clocks and Watches o Games and Puzzles o Sports o Kitchen Equipment o Personal Devices · Low Vision Devices · optical devices which use lenses to magnify objects · non-optical devices and techniques which make objects easier to use