14 Disabilities

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14 Disabilities by Mind Map: 14 Disabilities

1. Autism

1.1. Some interventions and modifications include: (a) making sure that directions are given step-by-step, verbally, visually, and by providing physical supports or prompts, as needed by the student. (b) Have consistent routines and schedules. When you know a change in routine will occur (e.g., a field trip or assembly) prepare the student by telling him or her what is going to be different and what to expect or do. (c) Build opportunities for the student to have social and collaborative interactions throughout the regular school day. Provide support, structure, and lots of feedback.

1.1.1. Assistive technology can be as simple a picture communication board to help the student express needs and desires, or may be as sophisticated as an augmentative communication device. Case Study: http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2010/100119/AutismCaseStudies.htm#Tait

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. A physical modification in the classroom is making sure that the lighting is acceptable for the student and not too bright. Students can be given tests orally, teachers can make copies of handouts and lectures in Braille for the student to follow along easily, and instead of moving around while talking the teacher should stay in the same place so the student doesn't lose track of them if they go too far or move around too much.

2.1.1. Circuit Televisions (CCTV) and other reading machines can enlarge the text size and change the polarity to make it easier for students to see without too much strain. Case Study: http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/resources/deaf-blind-model-classroom-resources/db-case-studies/jakes-story-1/jakes-story

3. Deafness

3.1. Students that are deaf need visual materials for learning. Teachers can provide students with written or typed lectures instead of spoken.

3.1.1. Deaf students can use electronic notepads or computers to see lectures on powerpoint or text.

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Students with developmental delays need constant evaluation to see how their development is progressing. There are different types of developmental delays and modifications depend on which type the student has. For example, if a student has a communication development delay the teacher can work with that student to make them comfortable working with other students and communicating/contributing during class discussions. If the student has a physical developmental delay the student may need to move around more/less during class. For a cognitive delay the teacher can provide extra help and extra time to finish assignments.

4.1.1. Assistive technology for developmental delays includes the use of electronic communication boards for students with speech delays.

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. There are many different emotional disturbances such as anxiety, eating disorders and OCD. For students with anxiety the teacher can provide provide a very open environment for the student and allow them to ask questions on their own when the rest of the class isn't listening. Teachers can also help students with anxiety by giving them immediate feedback so they won't worry about how they are doing in class.

5.1.1. If students are more comfortable/productive when they are working independently or outside of the classroom they can be assigned online videos and tutorials of the material.

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Students with hearing impairment can benefit from printed out copies of the lecture so it's easier for them to follow along.

6.1.1. Amplification systems can help students with hearing impairments.

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. When teaching students with Intellectual Disabilities it is important to communicate with parents and the student to find out their interests and learning style. Teachers should give immediate feedback to these students and teach them life skills in the classroom that can help them with other parts of their lives.

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. In order to help students with multiple disabilities teachers can allow students to only give partial participation in activities when needed.

8.1.1. Assistive technology depends on the disabilities the student has- for example if they are deaf they can use hearing aids and if they have impaired vision they may need reading machines.

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. To help students with orthopedic impairments teachers can provide them with a seating arrangement that helps their posture and movements. Instruction should also be focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

9.1.1. Some options for assisted technology include screen reading software and speech recognition software.

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. This is another broad category and it really depends on the students' specific health impairments, but some examples for modifications are special feedings (if the student has to eat at a certain time or with assistance), if a student needs to be moved throughout class to prevent them from developing sores, or if the student needs to leave often to take medication. This category includes ADD/ADHD- teachers may need to modify their lesson plan to include more movement and activities for these students to keep them focused and engaged. In some cases students with ADD/ADHD also need more time to take tests and finish assignments.

10.1.1. Students with ADD/ADHD may need more time to learn the material and could use online resources such as Khan Academy to practice on their own. http://www.mheducation.co.uk/openup/chapters/9780335242955.pdf

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. There are many different learning disabilities, but all of them can be helped with teachers collaborating with parents and learning about the students specific disability. Teachers should be patient with students with disabilities, but also challenge them so they can keep up with other students. Some students may need more specific instruction on assignments, extra time to ask questions or clarify instructions with the teacher, and some may need extended time to finish tests.

11.1.1. If a student has dyslexia they can use the LiveScribe Smart Pen in class. Recording classroom discussions and taking fewer notes allows the dyslexic student to spend more time listening and learning. Case Study: http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/professionals/students-strengths-and-interests/case-studies

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Speech Language Impairments can differ dramatically from one student to another, so it is important to know the specific issues the student is having in order to make the correct interventions/modifications. In most cases the student does need outside help from a specialist. The teacher has to remain patient with the student and make sure they are mastering the skills as well as the other students. In order to do this, teachers can evaluate the students often to see if they need extra help.

12.1.1. Students can use an electronic communication system.

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Teachers should give students more time to finish assignments and tests. Students with brain injuries also need consistent routines and more detailed explanations of assignments.

14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

14.1. The classroom must be modified so the student can safely move around and feel safe in the environment. Some students may need to read and write in Braille. It is very important to support sensory learning for the students by letting them use their senses of touch, smell, taste, and hearing to learn.

14.1.1. There are many options for assistive technology- computer programs that speak the words on the screen, machines that scan text and read it aloud, machines that convert text into Braille.