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The Church

von Galen

The Pope, 1937 "With Burning Concern"

Protestant Pastors, Martin Niemöller, Concentration Camp: 1937-1945, Formed the Coffesional Church, Opposed Hitler's Reich Church, Dietrich Bonhöffer, July Bomb Plot 1944

Political Oppostion


Social Democratic Party, Reichsbanner, Acted as spies, Sabotaged railways


White Rose Group, Formed by students at Munich University, Published anti-nazi leaflets, Found and execued in 1943

Edelweiss Pirates, "Swing movement", Aged between 14-17, 1944 Cologne Pirates killed Gestapo Chief, 12 publicly hanged

Mentally Disabled and Ill

Kreisau Circle

Army officers


Tried to bomb Hitler, planted by Colonel Stauffenberg, In retaliation, 5,000 people were executed

Consilation of Power

Reichstag Fire

27th February 1933

Reichstag buidling set on fire

Dutch Communist caught red-handed, van der Lubbe

Gave them the opportunity to arrest Communist leaders, Stopped campaiging during election

Allowed them to csay the country was in danger from communists

Helped Nazis win seats

Courts convicted van der Lubbe, Didn't convict the other communists arrested, Hitler furious

General Election

5th March 1933

44% pop. vote Nazi, Won 288 seats, Not the amount of seats Hitler wanted, Arrested all communist deputies, Other parties intimidated, To get Enabling Act passed

New node

Enabling Act

23rd March 1933

SA intimidates all the remaining non-Nazi deputies

Reichstag votes to give Hitler right to make his own laws, Critical event?

Local Government

Reorganised, 42 Gaus, Seperated into areas, localities and block of flats, Run by Blockleiter, Run by a Gauleiter, Allowed Nazi control of local government

Gestapo set up, Rule by terror

New node



1933, Boycott of Jewish businesses, Jewish civil servants, lawyers and teachers sacked, Race Science lessons to teach that Jews are untermensch

1935, Nuremberg laws (15 September), Jews could not be citizens, Jews could not marry a German, 'Jews not wanted here' signs, Put up at swimming pools etc.

1938, Jews could not be doctors, Jews had to add names to their names, Israel (men), Sarah (women), Jewish children forbidden to go to school, Kristallnacht (9 November), attacks on..., Jewish homes, Businesses, Synagogues

1939, Jews forbidden to own..., Businesses, Radios

1941, Army Einsatzgruppen squads in Russia started mass-shootings of Jews, All Jews were forced to wear a yellow star of David

1942, Final Solution, Wansee Conference, 20th January, gas all Europe's Jews, Main camps, Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sobibor


85% killed

Black people



Physically, Sterelised, Hereditary diseases, Deaf people

Mentally, Disabled and ill, Killed, Patients, Babies

"Anti-social groups"



Jehovah's Witnesses






All put into Concentration camps


The 3 K's




Expected to stay at home

Women doctors, teachers and civil servants were forced to give up their careers


"The mission of women is to be beautiful and to bring children into the world."

Hitler wanted a high birth rate

Considered changing the law so women had to have 4 children

BDM, Keep girls fit for childbirth, Discouraged from being thin

Birth rate had fallen, From 2 million to 1 million in 1900

Tried to increase the number of pure german births

Birth rate steadily increase in the 1930's, Nazi policies?, Probably eoonomic reasons. Germany was richer

Law for the Encouragement of Marriage


Loan of 1000 marks to newly wed couples

One Child: Keep 1/4 of the money

2 Children: Keep 1/2 of the money

3 Children: 3/4 of the money

4 Children: nothing to pay back

Jewish or non-ayran couples refused loans, 1945 over 30,000 men and women denied the right to have children

Honour Cross

Bronze - 4 to 5 children

Silver - 6 to 7 children

Gold - 8 or more


U-turn in policies, Encouraged women to work, Employment, ...of women went up in 1925 and 1928, decreased heavily in 1933 due to the depression (men also decreased too) increased in 1939 due to change in Nazi policies, Needed women to work in munition factories

No longer millions of unemployed men



Government, Enabling Act, 23rd March 1933, Local government re-organised, 26th April 1933, Political Parties banned, 14th July 1933, Hitler becomes Fuhrer, 19th August 1934

Religion, Protestant Pastors sent to concentrarion camps, Reich Church, State Church, Banned Bible and Cross, Jews and Jehovah's witnesses persecuted.

Culture, Artists had produce paintings that reflected Nazi ideals, Jazz Music banned, Homosexuals persecuted, Didn't fit in the Nazi image of the ideal family, Olympic Games 1936

Work, RAD (National Labour Service) sent young men in public works, Conscription introduced, 1936, Most went into army after the RAD, DAF (German Labour Front), Controlled worker's working conditions, KdF (Strength through Joy) movement regulated leisure time

Terror, SS and Gestapo investigations, Blockleiters in each block of flats and street, Informed on 'grumblers', Arrests on thousands of people terrified opponents, Set up Nazi people's courts, 24th April 1934, Concentration camps

Education and Youth, Non-Nazi teachers and university professors sacked, Teachers had to join National Socialist Teacher's League, Textbooks re-written, Included Nazi's political and racial ideas, History was taught to glorify Germany, Concentration of physical fitness, Different education for boys and girls, Girls, Cookery, Boys, Science and Maths, Hitler Youth, Compulsory, Indoctrinated boys, Prepared them for war, The Nazi Girls Youth Organisation, BDM, Compulsory, Indoctrinated girls, Prepared them for church, children and cooking

Propaganda, Mass rallies at Nuremburg, Newspapers were censored, Radios were sold cheap, Broadcasts controlled, Films controlled, Glorified war, Pilloried Jews, Loudspeakers in public places blared out Nazi propaganda, Cult of personality, Hitler's picture everywhere

Steps to WWII


Took Ger. out of LoN

Secret Rearmament, Solved unemployment


Tried to take over Austria, Prevented by Mussolini


Rearmament Rally, No longer a secret

The Saar, Plebiscite, 90% voted to join Germany, Hitler's 1st sucess in expaning Ger., Boost Morale, Perfectly legal


Reintroduced conscription

Sent Ger. army into Rhineland, League too busy with Abysinnia, B anf F didn't do anything, Encouraged Hitler

Made Anti-communist alliance with Japan, Created tension with USSr


Tried out Ger.'s new weapons in Spanish Civil War, Helped fascists, Made other wary of Hitler's new army

Created Anti-communist alliance with Italy


Took over Austria, Anchluss, Bullied them into a vote, Ger. army sent in to keep order, 99.75% voted in favour to join Ger., Broke Tov, Hitler realised they wouldn't defend it

Took over Sudetenland


Invade the rest of Czech.

Invaded Poland


Did the German people benefit from the Nazi rule?


Beauty of Labour Organisation improved working conditions

Strength through Joy: gave workers cheap entertainment/tickets

Bosses were not allowed to sack workers on the spot


Workers banned from leaving a job without the government's permission

Only a few government run labour exchanges (job centres) could arrange new jobs

Right to bargain for higher wages abolished, Dr Ley, Striking made illegal

Work hour restrictions removed

1932 - Many ger. were working 60-72 hours per week

Reasons Hitler came to power

Hitler was a great speaker

Moderate political parties would not work together

Although they had more support than the Nazis

The great depression 1929 created poverty and unemployment

Made people lose faith in the Weimar Republic and the democracy system, Therefore made people turn to extremist parties

Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Hitlers opponents

Goebbels Propaganda campaign

Very effective

Targeted specific groups of society

Hitler given power by Hidenburg and von Papen

They thought they could control him