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1. Opposition

1.1. The Church

1.1.1. von Galen

1.1.2. The Pope 1937 "With Burning Concern"

1.1.3. Protestant Pastors Martin Niemöller Concentration Camp: 1937-1945 Formed the Coffesional Church Dietrich Bonhöffer July Bomb Plot 1944

1.2. Political Oppostion

1.2.1. Communists

1.2.2. Social Democratic Party Reichsbanner Acted as spies Sabotaged railways

1.3. Youth

1.3.1. White Rose Group Formed by students at Munich University Published anti-nazi leaflets Found and execued in 1943

1.3.2. Edelweiss Pirates "Swing movement" Aged between 14-17 1944 Cologne Pirates killed Gestapo Chief 12 publicly hanged

1.4. Mentally Disabled and Ill

1.5. Kreisau Circle

1.5.1. Army officers

1.5.2. Intellectuals

1.5.3. Tried to bomb Hitler planted by Colonel Stauffenberg In retaliation, 5,000 people were executed

2. Consilation of Power

2.1. Reichstag Fire

2.1.1. 27th February 1933

2.1.2. Reichstag buidling set on fire

2.1.3. Dutch Communist caught red-handed van der Lubbe

2.1.4. Gave them the opportunity to arrest Communist leaders Stopped campaiging during election

2.1.5. Allowed them to csay the country was in danger from communists

2.1.6. Helped Nazis win seats

2.1.7. Courts convicted van der Lubbe Didn't convict the other communists arrested Hitler furious

2.2. General Election

2.2.1. 5th March 1933

2.2.2. 44% pop. vote Nazi Won 288 seats Not the amount of seats Hitler wanted

2.2.3. New node

2.3. Enabling Act

2.3.1. 23rd March 1933

2.3.2. SA intimidates all the remaining non-Nazi deputies

2.3.3. Reichstag votes to give Hitler right to make his own laws Critical event?

2.4. Local Government

2.4.1. Reorganised 42 Gaus Seperated into areas, localities and block of flats Run by a Gauleiter Allowed Nazi control of local government

2.4.2. Gestapo set up Rule by terror

2.5. New node

3. Women

3.1. The 3 K's

3.1.1. Church

3.1.2. Children

3.1.3. Cooking

3.2. Expected to stay at home

3.3. Women doctors, teachers and civil servants were forced to give up their careers

3.4. Goebbels

3.4.1. "The mission of women is to be beautiful and to bring children into the world."

3.5. Hitler wanted a high birth rate

3.5.1. Considered changing the law so women had to have 4 children

3.5.2. BDM Keep girls fit for childbirth Discouraged from being thin

3.5.3. Birth rate had fallen From 2 million to 1 million in 1900

3.5.4. Tried to increase the number of pure german births

3.5.5. Birth rate steadily increase in the 1930's Nazi policies? Probably eoonomic reasons. Germany was richer

3.6. Law for the Encouragement of Marriage

3.6.1. 1933

3.6.2. Loan of 1000 marks to newly wed couples

3.6.3. One Child: Keep 1/4 of the money

3.6.4. 2 Children: Keep 1/2 of the money

3.6.5. 3 Children: 3/4 of the money

3.6.6. 4 Children: nothing to pay back

3.6.7. Jewish or non-ayran couples refused loans 1945 over 30,000 men and women denied the right to have children

3.7. Honour Cross

3.7.1. Bronze - 4 to 5 children

3.7.2. Silver - 6 to 7 children

3.7.3. Gold - 8 or more

3.8. 1939

3.8.1. U-turn in policies Encouraged women to work Employment Needed women to work in munition factories

3.8.2. No longer millions of unemployed men

4. Steps to WWII

4.1. 1933

4.1.1. Took Ger. out of LoN

4.1.2. Secret Rearmament Solved unemployment

4.2. 1934

4.2.1. Tried to take over Austria Prevented by Mussolini

4.3. 1935

4.3.1. Rearmament Rally No longer a secret

4.3.2. The Saar Plebiscite 90% voted to join Germany Hitler's 1st sucess in expaning Ger. Boost Morale Perfectly legal

4.4. 1936

4.4.1. Reintroduced conscription

4.4.2. Sent Ger. army into Rhineland League too busy with Abysinnia B anf F didn't do anything Encouraged Hitler

4.4.3. Made Anti-communist alliance with Japan Created tension with USSr

4.5. 1937

4.5.1. Tried out Ger.'s new weapons in Spanish Civil War Helped fascists Made other wary of Hitler's new army

4.5.2. Created Anti-communist alliance with Italy

4.6. 1938

4.6.1. Took over Austria Anchluss Bullied them into a vote Ger. army sent in to keep order 99.75% voted in favour to join Ger. Broke Tov Hitler realised they wouldn't defend it

4.6.2. Took over Sudetenland

4.7. 1939

4.7.1. Invade the rest of Czech.

4.7.2. Invaded Poland

4.7.3. WAR

5. Persecution

5.1. Jews

5.1.1. 1933 Boycott of Jewish businesses Jewish civil servants, lawyers and teachers sacked Race Science lessons to teach that Jews are untermensch

5.1.2. 1935 Nuremberg laws (15 September) Jews could not be citizens Jews could not marry a German 'Jews not wanted here' signs Put up at swimming pools etc.

5.1.3. 1938 Jews could not be doctors Jews had to add names to their names Israel (men) Sarah (women) Jewish children forbidden to go to school Kristallnacht (9 November) attacks on...

5.1.4. 1939 Jews forbidden to own... Businesses Radios

5.1.5. 1941 Army Einsatzgruppen squads in Russia started mass-shootings of Jews All Jews were forced to wear a yellow star of David

5.1.6. 1942 Final Solution Wansee Conference gas all Europe's Jews

5.2. Gypsies

5.2.1. 85% killed

5.3. Black people

5.3.1. Sterelised

5.4. Disabled

5.4.1. Physically Sterelised Hereditary diseases Deaf people

5.4.2. Mentally Disabled and ill Killed

5.5. "Anti-social groups"

5.5.1. Homosexuals

5.5.2. Prostitutes

5.5.3. Jehovah's Witnesses

5.5.4. Alcoholics

5.5.5. Pacifists

5.5.6. Beggars

5.5.7. Hooligans

5.5.8. Criminals

5.5.9. All put into Concentration camps

6. Control


6.1.1. Government Enabling Act 23rd March 1933 Local government re-organised 26th April 1933 Political Parties banned 14th July 1933 Hitler becomes Fuhrer 19th August 1934

6.1.2. Religion Protestant Pastors sent to concentrarion camps Reich Church State Church Banned Bible and Cross Jews and Jehovah's witnesses persecuted.

6.1.3. Culture Artists had produce paintings that reflected Nazi ideals Jazz Music banned Homosexuals persecuted Didn't fit in the Nazi image of the ideal family Olympic Games 1936

6.1.4. Work RAD (National Labour Service) sent young men in public works Conscription introduced 1936 Most went into army after the RAD DAF (German Labour Front) Controlled worker's working conditions KdF (Strength through Joy) movement regulated leisure time

6.1.5. Terror SS and Gestapo investigations Blockleiters in each block of flats and street Informed on 'grumblers' Arrests on thousands of people terrified opponents Set up Nazi people's courts 24th April 1934 Concentration camps

6.1.6. Education and Youth Non-Nazi teachers and university professors sacked Teachers had to join National Socialist Teacher's League Textbooks re-written Included Nazi's political and racial ideas History was taught to glorify Germany Concentration of physical fitness Different education for boys and girls Girls Boys Hitler Youth Compulsory Indoctrinated boys Prepared them for war The Nazi Girls Youth Organisation BDM

6.1.7. Propaganda Mass rallies at Nuremburg Newspapers were censored Radios were sold cheap Broadcasts controlled Films controlled Glorified war Pilloried Jews Loudspeakers in public places blared out Nazi propaganda Cult of personality Hitler's picture everywhere

7. Did the German people benefit from the Nazi rule?

7.1. Benefits

7.1.1. Beauty of Labour Organisation improved working conditions

7.1.2. Strength through Joy: gave workers cheap entertainment/tickets

7.1.3. Bosses were not allowed to sack workers on the spot

7.2. Drawbacks

7.2.1. Workers banned from leaving a job without the government's permission

7.2.2. Only a few government run labour exchanges (job centres) could arrange new jobs

7.2.3. Right to bargain for higher wages abolished Dr Ley Striking made illegal

7.2.4. Work hour restrictions removed

7.2.5. 1932 - Many ger. were working 60-72 hours per week

8. Reasons Hitler came to power

8.1. Hitler was a great speaker

8.2. Moderate political parties would not work together

8.2.1. Although they had more support than the Nazis

8.3. The great depression 1929 created poverty and unemployment

8.3.1. Made people lose faith in the Weimar Republic and the democracy system Therefore made people turn to extremist parties

8.4. Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Hitlers opponents

8.5. Goebbels Propaganda campaign

8.5.1. Very effective

8.5.2. Targeted specific groups of society

8.6. Hitler given power by Hidenburg and von Papen

8.6.1. They thought they could control him