(Sermon 14) mark 7:1-23//

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(Sermon 14) mark 7:1-23// by Mind Map: (Sermon 14) mark 7:1-23//

1. Jesus Explains (v14-23)

1.1. (14-16) Jesus explains to the crowd

1.1.1. 14

1.1.1.1. Hear me all of you and understand

1.1.1.1.1. This is a huge appeal. Listen up

1.1.2. 15

1.1.2.1. Ther eis nothing outside a person that by going into him can defile him

1.1.2.1.1. Pause there

1.1.2.1.2. Note how far Jesus takes this - they didn't ask about unclean food, but unclean hands. But jesus wasn tthem to know not only is it not about touchign unclean things and then eating, but its' about touchign and even ingesting unclean thigns!

1.1.2.1.3. ** This will be key in pauls discussio nof eating meat offered to idols. 1 Cor 8 and Romans 14-15

1.1.2.1.4. Let me go one step further so you don’t think I’m beating up on everybody. Christians don’t understand defilement does not come from the outside in. There are a lot of Christians who hate cities. When they meet somebody from Redeemer, they say, “What are you doing living in New York City? That’s a terrible place for a Christian to live. What are you doing, raising your children in New York City?” They don’t believe verse 15. They don’t believe verse 18. They don’t believe verse 23. They believe the city defiles you, but see, Jesus’ radical principle is you are defiled. It comes from the inside. The radical principle is no matter how fast you run you can never get away from your shadow. No matter how fast you run, you can’t make one millimeter of progress to make distance between you and your shadow. It comes from within you. Again, let me give you one more with qualifications. Very often, when a person becomes a Christian in New York City, here at Redeemer, it’s not long before they start to say things like, “I can’t be a Christian where I work. There’s so much sleaze. There’s so much dog-eat-dog. Maybe I’ll go into full-time Christian ministry.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

1.1.2.2. Again in verse 18 - "whatever goes into a person from outside CANNOT DEFILE HIM"

1.1.3. 16 - note it's not there!!!

1.2. (17-23) Jesus explains to his disciples

1.2.1. 17

1.2.1.1. House

1.2.1.1.1. Mark commonly places moments of divine revelation in a house, Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Location 4053). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.2.2. 19

1.2.2.1. heart

1.2.2.1.1. The heart is the center of human personality, the will, whose separation from God was bemoaned in the Isaiah quotation of v. 6: "their heart is far from me." Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4062-4063). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.2.3. 20-23

1.2.3.1. The list

1.2.3.1.1. first 6 are in the plural and denoes evil acts (outward acts)

1.2.3.1.2. last 6 terms are singular, denotes evil attitudes

1.2.3.2. All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person

1.2.3.2.1. It is precisely the heart that the tradition of the elders fails to address, and because of this it fails to represent either the commandment or the will of God. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4084-4085). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

2. Shift in Mark

2.1. At this point, Jesus leaves Jewish Galilee (except fro 8:11 and 9:33) and focuses on Gentile teritotry and Jerusalem and Judea

3. Cleansing background

3.1. In the OT

3.2. Cultural shift and Jewish and gentile issues

3.2.1. As Judaism's encounter with Gentile culture increased in the postexilic period, however, the question of ritual cleanliness took on new significance as a way of maintaining Jewish purity over against Gentile culture.

3.2.2. This reached its extreme extent at the Qumran community described in the DSS. The physical separation and daily washings of the Qumran community cleansed its members not only from the defilements of Gentiles, Samaritans, and common folk (am-ha'aretz), but also from other Jewish sects that for various reasons and in varying degrees were regarded as unclean, including Sadducees and even Pharisees and the Jerusalem temple. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3932-3937). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3.3. in short, washing was a means to remain distinvely Jewish. Keep pure.

3.4. *** ILLUSTRATIONS: One way to understand jewish aversion to gentile and belief they would be defiled would be to

4. The complaint

4.1. 1

4.1.1. "Now when"

4.1.1.1. *** This is following 56, which they were in the marketplace, perhpas with gentiles, but for sure those that were sick - meant they were unclean.

4.1.1.1.1. prescriptions. According to the OT, only priests were required to wash before entering the tabernacle (Exod 30: 19; 40: 13; Lev 22: 1-6); otherwise the washing of hands — the point of contention in v. 2 — was prescribed only if one had touched a bodily discharge (Lev 15: 11). Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3930-3932). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4.1.1.1.2. Unclean for Pharisaic rabbis were any form of human excretion (spittle, semen, menstruation, etc.), women after childbirth, corpses, carrion, creeping things, idols, and certain classes of people, such as lepers, Samaritans, and Gentiles. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3937-3939). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4.1.1.1.3. *** How crazy it was!---- ex. The Mishnah, for instance, declared that the Aramaic sections of Daniel and Ezra rendered the hands of anyone who touched them unclean, as did the Holy Scriptures themselves if they were translated into Assyrian. On the other hand, translating the Aramaic sections of Scripture into Hebrew made them clean (m. Yad. 4: 5). Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3944-3946). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4.1.1.1.4. The washing of hands before eating was expected of Jews, and during lengthy meals several hand washings might be required. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3953-3954). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4.1.2. jerusalem

4.1.2.1. second time they come and fight about disciples (3:22)

4.1.2.1.1. Foreshadow of jesus conflict in jerusalem

4.2. 3

4.2.1. Holding to the traditions of the elders

4.2.1.1. Clearly the pharisees saw the practice of the disciples different tan their practice

4.3. 4

4.3.1. "they wash"

4.3.1.1. Literally - "baptismos" - they baptize

4.3.1.2. here’s hardly a culture in the world that doesn’t say, “If you want to meet people, if you want to get close to people, wash. Clean up, because dirt defiles you.” Of course, infection defiles you. You can’t touch something that’s infectious. See? It defiles you, and God is saying sin does the very same thing to relationships. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.3.2. "cups and pots and copper"

4.3.2.1. **** again the idea here is that uncleaness can be transfered and internalized

4.3.3. Tradition

4.3.3.1. wash hands afte rmarketplace .. and many other tradtiions

4.3.3.2. ******** BUT WHY? --- cause of ethnic views, kingdom views, cleanliness views! Gods people!

4.3.3.3. what disasterous belief to say that because I'm Jewish I'm holy.

4.4. 5

4.4.1. "not walk"

4.4.1.1. The issue is not the Torah, but the oral traditions of the elders

4.4.1.1.1. By Jesus' day, adherence to the unwritten oral tradition was as important for the Pharisees as was adherence to the Torah itself. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3983-3984). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4.4.1.1.2. Tradition of the elders

4.4.1.1.3. what is the oral tradition and how did that shape their understanding of God's kingdom?

4.4.1.1.4. 3 reasons (and we see it now)

4.4.1.1.5. **** KEY - This tradition gives everyday acts of life holy significance and reminds one of God and how one can concretely show one’s devotion to God. The Pharisees affirmed that God created order and that human affairs prosper only when things are ordered. Consequently, they preferred strict rules, orderly programs, and careful debates about the application of texts, lest they lose control. From their perspective Jesus was completely out of control because he disregarded their rules and crossed their boundaries. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 280). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.4.1.2. These Pharisees obviously expected Jesus and his followers to conform to their standards of piety. They tried to promote obedience among the people and must have been galled when a popular prophetic figure like Jesus appeared to subvert it. To them, Jesus was religiously incorrect, and his cavalier attitude toward such things threatened their vision of a smoothly running, holy community. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 272). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.4.2. They ask Jesus cause they expect

4.4.2.1. **** The situation would be similar to guests from denominational headquarters interrupting a worship service and asking the pastor, “Why does your congregation not close their eyes and bow their heads and refrain from talking during the prayers? Is it because you are so poorly trained and have not taught them?” Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 273). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

5. THoughts

5.1. Go to church to cleanse ourselves from this world - is that hte fundamental idea of church - a soul cleansing?

5.1.1. NO> Jesus is the temple! We go to him not a temple. Sacrifice made

5.1.2. We go to him any time.

6. What does it mean to be clean?

6.1. Jacob Neusner notes that the dominant trait of Pharisaism before A.D. 70, as depicted in both rabbinic traditions and the Gospels, concerns conditions regarding ritual purity. 69 It is worth remembering that fully twenty-five percent of the Mishnah is devoted to questions of purity. 70 Archaeological excavations continue to discover Jewish mikwa'ot or cleansing pools that were a standard feature of Jewish homes and settlements in the first century (see Mishnah, tractate Mikwa'ot). Mikwa'ot have even been uncovered on the summit of Masada, one of the most arid places on earth. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 3973-3977). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

7. Themes

7.1. hey weren’t villains, but what was Marx’s mistake? He thought defilement came from outside. He said, you know, the means of production were in the hands of the capitalists. “If we put it in the hands of the workers, things will be different.” You know what? They did, and what happened? Did greed, deceit, arrogance, murder, and theft go away? No. “My goodness! Why didn’t they go away?” Because they don’t come from the outside! The world’s philosophies don’t get it. The world’s religions don’t get it. Again, I’ll try to be sensitive here. When you see people going down to the River Ganges to wash, when you see people following the Fivefold or the Eightfold Path to enlightenment through Buddhism, when you see the people trying to use the five pillars of Islam to honor God, if you believe defilement comes from the outside, then self-effort will be enough. Really work. Really work hard. Rules and regulations. The Bible (and only the Bible) says your problems are too radical for that. Let me go one step further so you don’t think I’m beating up on everybody. Christians don’t understand defilement does not come from the outside in. There are a lot of Christians who hate cities. When they meet somebody from Redeemer, they say, “What are you doing living in New York City? That’s a terrible place for a Christian to live. What are you doing, raising your children in New York City?” They don’t believe verse 15. They don’t believe verse 18. They don’t believe verse 23. They believe the city defiles you, but see, Jesus’ radical principle is you are defiled. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

8. So this morning, I need to be a bit of a teacher and then, when the teaching makes sense, I'm gonna preach.

8.1. All that to say, stick with me and then I'm gonna punch you in the gut a few times and if I do it right, you'll look to Jesus and love him all the more!!! Oh the joy of standing in the pulpit!!! :)

9. Teach from the floor!

9.1. Ending question - what are some things that we traditionally take to make us unholy whie we hold things in our hearts that is truly unholy/

10. Jesus rebukes their hypocrisy

10.1. 6 - the acusation of hypocrisy

10.1.1. What does it mean to be a hypocrite?

10.1.1.1. In this case (verse 6) You pretend to care about the commands of God (oral traditions) but in reality you don't treat it with care at all.

10.1.1.2. hypocrite - Greek theatrical playing the part

10.1.2. The most infamous hypocrites are those who try to cloak the evil within them with a show of external piety. Judas best fits that category of hypocrite in the Gospel. He comes to Gethsemane with a show of affection and honor, but it is all a sordid ploy to capture his Master. Other hypocrites deceive themselves as much as others. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 285). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.2. 6b-7 the prophesy of hypocsy

10.2.1. Isa

10.2.2. NOTE: Lips honor me, hearts far from me

10.2.2.1. Pharisees cared about lips, eating, Jesus cared about heart, faith

10.2.3. NOTE: They are not hypocrite in the typical sense - uncommitted. They seem to be commited

10.3. 7

10.3.1. In vain - emptiness

10.3.1.1. Why vain? Cause they teach as doctrine teh commandments of men

10.3.1.1.1. Think of what they are saying. Jesus is saying their worship, adoration, their acknowledgement of GOd is FAKE and FONEY because as they are doing it "God you are God' - they are passing on their own ideas as GOD's. And when you do that, when you make God into your own image, than who really is God?

10.3.1.1.2. Arent you then doing Romans 1? In that case, aren't you just a fake, a foney, a hypocrite!

10.3.1.1.3. The issue of owrship to God is not, post Christ and his ransom, the issue of worthiness? That's been settled. The issue is sincerity

10.3.1.2. ** WHEN THE CHURCH makes up rules, either strict rules or loose rules, and say "Thus says the Lord" and the Lord never said it, it the church nkows it .. then it's hypocrisy!

10.3.1.2.1. RACISM IS THIS WAY -

10.4. 8-13 An example of Jesus accusation

10.4.1. the Pharisees substitute interpretations of the law for the law itself, indeed interpretations at VARUABCE with the intent of the law. THIS IS THE REAL ISSUE!!! Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Location 4002). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.4.2. Examples of this in the church

10.4.3. 9

10.4.3.1. Reject

10.4.3.1.1. this is active. This is not forget, this is a willful choice. You know but you say NO!

10.4.4. 10

10.4.4.1. For moses

10.4.4.1.1. The fifth commandment in the Decalogue is "Honor your father and mother" (v. 10; Exod 20: 12; 21: 17; Lev 20: 9; Deut 5: 16). But you, says Jesus, sidestep it by the contrivance of Corban. Jesus appeals to the original ruling of Moses in order to correct the oral tradition gone awry, that is, he is making the Decalogue a "fence against the rabbinic tradition," as it were. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4018-4020). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.4.5. 11

10.4.5.1. CORBAN

10.4.5.1.1. T. W. Manson's description of the practice is particularly trenchant: "A man goes through the formality of vowing something to God, not that he may give it to God, but in order to prevent some other person from having it." Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Location 4030). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.4.5.1.2. Corban was similar to the concept of deferred giving. Today a person may will property to a charity or institution at his or her death, though retaining possession over the property and the proceeds or interest accruing from it until then. In the case of Corban, a person could dedicate goods to God and withdraw them from ordinary use, although retaining control over them himself. In the example of v. 11, a son declares his property Corban, which at his death would pass into the possession of the temple. In the meantime, however, the son retains control over the property — and his control deprives his parents of the support that otherwise would have been derived from the property in their old age. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4024-4029). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.4.5.1.3. Once property had been offered to God, priests discouraged anyone from withdrawing it from Corban in order to return it to human use. According to Josephus, priests required fifty shekels from a man, and thirty from a woman, to cancel Corban (Ant. 4.73). The practice of Corban resulted in egregious casuistry by annulling a moral commandment of the Torah (honor of parents) by a ritual practice of the oral tradition (Corban). A concrete and unambiguous moral good, "' Honor your father and mother," is not simply thereby nullified but actually reversed by forbidding a child to do "' anything for his father or mother.'" Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4031-4035). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.4.5.1.4. “Corban” was a dedicatory formula used in setting aside property for God and barred one from gaining profit from it. It only expressed an intention to give property and not its actual disposal. From Jesus’ point of view, the command from the Decalogue to honor parents soars above the command to honor vows. The Pharisees’ tradition turned the law on its head by insisting that the sanctity of the vow superseded the parents’ right to support. 11 The son can say to his parents that he cannot offer them any help because he has dedicated to God everything that could help them. He could claim that doing so would be a sin against God. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 274). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.4.5.2. One cannot elude God’s commands by resorting to shrewd legal loopholes. Jesus exposes these sticklers for the law as more interested in legal niceties than the requirement of love, more devoted to unwritten traditions than the written law, and more concerned with property than care of one’s parents. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 274). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.5. CONTRAST HERE - it's not their lack of commitment, but their over commitment to the ORAL TRADITION

10.5.1. On the contrary, it was their commitment to the oral tradition — and Jesus' equal commitment to recovering the intent of the written law — that made their differences so earnest. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 4005-4006). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.5.2. Thus you see the theme of the kingdom, ethnic jew coming!

11. Illustrations

11.1. As Pelikan astutely puts it: “Tradition is the living faith of the dead, traditionalism is the dead faith of the living.” Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 277). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.2. There’s a Graham Greene novel about war in Indochina. Two men, Fowler and Pyle, are working in the underground. At one point, Fowler has to kill Pyle, even though he’s his best friend, and he does, and he’s racked up with guilt. He says, “If there was just somebody to whom I could go and say, ‘I’m sorry …’ ” There is. Don’t be squeamish. Be careful you don’t feel defiled when you’re just going against the ruling of the elders, but if you have been, there is a sweet, oblivious antidote, the blood of Jesus. Let’s pray. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

12. Conclusion

12.1. Article --- how we see things and overlook things!

12.1.1. http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/07/30/my-father-apartheid-trailblazer-and-domestic-abuser/?_r=0

12.2. The Pharisees believed that others would know they were God’s people by their purity: washing hands, cups, pots, eating kosher, keeping the Sabbath. Paul understood the tenor of Jesus’ teaching when he asserted: “For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking, but of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit” (Rom. 14: 17). Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 285). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

12.3. NOTE: Jesus does not abandone the lines of clean and unclean. He does not say - it does not matter. We're all sinners so it doesn't matter.

12.3.1. His point is to truly pinpoint uncleanness. He cleary condemns these sins.

12.4. Hypocrites may fool themselves that they have done all that God requires by doing this or that with the greatest of care. They play by the rules but allow them to run roughshod over others. How many times do Christians ignore the vices in the list and concentrate on minor pieties? Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 285-286). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

12.5. *** How often do we carve out a religion that only affects the hands and not the heart?

12.5.1. *** We love vice lists and minor pieties becuse thos e things are safe to confront., because in confronting them we are not confronted ... :)

12.6. Christians today sing, “They will know we are Christians by our love.” Christians do not always live that way, but the inner purity of heart that radiates love and morality should make them stand out amid a wicked and perverse generation. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 285). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

12.7. Jesus continues to cross boundaries in the very next episode in Mark, where he extends grace to a pagan, Syrophoenician woman. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 285). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

12.8. degrading sins in 1 Corinthians 6, where Paul says, “You did this, and you did this, and you did this,” and then he says, “But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ …” First John 1:7–9, “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness, for the blood of Jesus cleanses us from all sin.” Don’t try to cleanse yourself, but anything will come out! Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

12.9. zecharaiah - sees joshua

12.9.1. hat was the moment Zechariah sees Joshua, the high priest, and to his absolute astonishment, it says he is clothed in filthy garments. But that’s just what the NIV translation says. Do you know what the Hebrew says? He was clothed in garments covered with excrement, with urine, with feces, with all of this stuff. You can imagine the emotional impact on Zechariah when he saw that, but what God was doing was opening his eyes to show him what we look like before God. All the purification, all the washing didn’t matter because it’s the heart, the heart, the heart! Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

13. Intro

13.1. Of course, you know the most famous one is that place where Lady Macbeth takes part in murder, and afterward, her guilt, the sense of defilement, is so strong her mind cracks under it. She’s one of the most pathetic figures in all of theater. She walks around and she says, “Out.” See, she’s pushing. She’s washing her hands. She looks at her hands and she’s stained, and she sees the blood on her hands, and she walks around and she can’t get rid of it. She says, “Out, damned spot! Out, I say!” Then she says, “Hell is murky!” Hell is muddy. “All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand.” You know, Macbeth, her husband, watches her going crazy under this sense of defilement, and he turns to a doctor and he says, “Canst thou not … with some sweet oblivious antidote, cleanse the stuff’d bosom of that perilous stuff which weighs upon the heart?” She’s not clean. She needs some sweet, oblivious antidote. She realizes hell is murky. What does that mean? Hell is muddy. “I did something wrong. I did something wrong, and I’m stained. I’m disfigured. I’m alienated.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

13.2. “I can’t be a Christian where I work. There’s so much sleaze. There’s so much dog-eat-dog. Maybe I’ll go into full-time Christian ministry.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

13.3. What really becomes a problem is when you forget and you think, “There’s something defiling about the finance industry. There’s something defiling about the fashion industry. There’s something defiling about the media industry. I can’t be a Christian …” The sin is in you. This is a radical principle. You will never get rid of it. You will never wash it. You will never, by running from things … See, it’s so radical. Christians should be the least squeamish people in the world. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.