Lights and Optical Systems

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Lights and Optical Systems by Mind Map: Lights and Optical Systems

1. Our knowledge about light and vision comes from explanations, inventions, and investigations.

1.1. 1.1 The Challenges of Light

1.2. 1.2 Optical Devices

1.2.1. Optical Device:any device that uses light.

1.2.2. Telescope:optical device for veiwing distant objects.

1.2.3. Refractig Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses.

1.2.4. Reflecting Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses and mirrors.

2. Light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

2.1. 3.1 The Wave Model of Light

2.1.1. Wave Model of Light: model used to describe the characteristics of light.

2.2. 3.2 The Elactromagnetic Spectrum

2.2.1. Radio Waves:electromagnetic radiation used for communication.

2.2.2. Microwaves:electromagnetic radiation used to cook food.

2.2.3. Infared Waves: electromagnetic waves that are invisible but can be felt as heat.

2.2.4. UV Light: electromagnetic radiation that can cuse skin cancer.

2.2.5. X Rays:electromagnetic radiation used to see inside a human body.

2.2.6. Gamma Rays: electroagnetic radiation used to cure cancer.

2.2.7. Electromagnetic Radiation:all forms of radiant energy.

2.2.8. Electromagnetic Spectrum: refers to whole range of wavelengths.

2.2.9. Radar: radio detecion and ranging.

2.2.10. Invisible Spectrum: parts of the spectrum humans can't see.

2.3. 3.3 Producing Visible Light

2.3.1. Incadescent: form of artificial light that uses electricity.

2.3.2. Flourescent:form of artificial that uses UV light.

2.3.3. Phosphor: substance that emits light.

2.3.4. Phosphorescence: process where a substance emits light.

2.3.5. Bioluminescence:the ability of organisms to create light.

2.3.6. Photophore:light producing organ.

2.4. 3.4 The Colours of Light

2.4.1. Primary Colours:red, green, and blue light.

2.4.2. Secondary Colour:yellow, cyan, and magenta.

2.4.3. Theory of Colour Addition: theory of what happens when colored lights are mixed together.

3. Light behaves in predictable ways.

3.1. 2.1 Light Travels in Rays and Interacts with Materials

3.1.1. Ray Diagrams: diagram that shows how light travels.

3.1.2. Intensity:brightness of light.

3.1.3. Transparent:materials that let light pass through without reflection.

3.1.4. Translucent:materials that let some light through.

3.1.5. Opaque:materials that let no light through.

3.1.6. Non-Luminous:objects that don't produce light.

3.1.7. Luminous:materials that produce light.

3.1.8. Regular Recflection: reflection when light hits a smooth surface.

3.1.9. Diffuse Reflection:reflection when light hits a rough surface.

3.2. 2.2 The Law of Reflection:

3.2.1. Plane Mirrors:flat mirror.

3.2.2. Incident Rays:ray of light that arrives at a mirror.

3.2.3. Normal:line perpindicular to surface.

3.2.4. Angle of Incidence: angle between incident ray and normal.

3.2.5. Angle of Reflection:angle between reflected ray and normal.

3.2.6. Law of Reflection: angle of incidence=angle of reflection.

3.3. 2.3 Reflecting Lighit with Curved Mirrors

3.3.1. Focal Point:point where light rays meet.

3.3.2. Concave Mirror:reflecting surface curved inward.

3.3.3. Convex Mirror:reflecting surface that bulges out.

3.4. 2.4 Transparent Substances Refract Light

3.4.1. Refraction:bending of light.

3.5. 2.5 Lenses Refract and Focus Light

3.5.1. Lens:curved peice of glass.

3.5.2. Convex Lens:transparent material that bulges outwards.

3.5.3. Real Image:image formed when rays meet.

3.5.4. Concave Lens:peice of trnsparent material curved inwards.

4. Eyes and cameras capture images using the properties of light.

4.1. 4.1 Image Formation in Eyes and Cameras

4.1.1. Pupil:opening in eye that lets in light.

4.1.2. Apeture:hole in camera that lets in light.

4.1.3. Iris:band of muscle that lets in light.

4.1.4. Diaphragm: part of camera that changes apeture size.

4.1.5. Shutter:part that acts as a door on a camera.

4.1.6. Retina:special lining at the back of the eye.

4.1.7. Photoreceptors: light sensitive cells in the eyes.

4.1.8. Rods:parts in nthe eye that are sensitive to light.

4.1.9. Cones:cells in the eye that detect colour.

4.1.10. Optic Nerve:nerve that leads from the retina to the brain.

4.1.11. Film: material sensitive to light.

4.2. 4.2 Other Eyes in the Animal Kingdom

4.2.1. Nocturnal:animals active at night.

4.2.2. Ommatidium: unit of a compound eye.

4.2.3. Compound Eye: eyes made up of smaller units.

4.3. 4.3 Image Storage and Transmission

4.3.1. Digital Imaging: process of creating an image with a computer.

4.3.2. Pixels:picture element

4.3.3. Charge Coupled Device:device that converts light into electricity.