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Lights and Optical Systems by Mind Map: Lights and Optical Systems
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Lights and Optical Systems

Our knowledge about light and vision comes from explanations, inventions, and investigations.

1.1 The Challenges of Light

1.2 Optical Devices

Optical Device:any device that uses light.

Telescope:optical device for veiwing distant objects.

Refractig Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses.

Reflecting Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses and mirrors.

Light behaves in predictable ways.

2.1 Light Travels in Rays and Interacts with Materials

Ray Diagrams: diagram that shows how light travels.

Intensity:brightness of light.

Transparent:materials that let light pass through without reflection.

Translucent:materials that let some light through.

Opaque:materials that let no light through.

Non-Luminous:objects that don't produce light.

Luminous:materials that produce light.

Regular Recflection: reflection when light hits a smooth surface.

Diffuse Reflection:reflection when light hits a rough surface.

2.2 The Law of Reflection:

Plane Mirrors:flat mirror.

Incident Rays:ray of light that arrives at a mirror.

Normal:line perpindicular to surface.

Angle of Incidence: angle between incident ray and normal.

Angle of Reflection:angle between reflected ray and normal.

Law of Reflection: angle of incidence=angle of reflection.

2.3 Reflecting Lighit with Curved Mirrors

Focal Point:point where light rays meet.

Concave Mirror:reflecting surface curved inward.

Convex Mirror:reflecting surface that bulges out.

2.4 Transparent Substances Refract Light

Refraction:bending of light.

2.5 Lenses Refract and Focus Light

Lens:curved peice of glass.

Convex Lens:transparent material that bulges outwards.

Real Image:image formed when rays meet.

Concave Lens:peice of trnsparent material curved inwards.

Light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

3.1 The Wave Model of Light

Wave Model of Light: model used to describe the characteristics of light.

3.2 The Elactromagnetic Spectrum

Radio Waves:electromagnetic radiation used for communication.

Microwaves:electromagnetic radiation used to cook food.

Infared Waves: electromagnetic waves that are invisible but can be felt as heat.

UV Light: electromagnetic radiation that can cuse skin cancer.

X Rays:electromagnetic radiation used to see inside a human body.

Gamma Rays: electroagnetic radiation used to cure cancer.

Electromagnetic Radiation:all forms of radiant energy.

Electromagnetic Spectrum: refers to whole range of wavelengths.

Radar: radio detecion and ranging.

Invisible Spectrum: parts of the spectrum humans can't see.

3.3 Producing Visible Light

Incadescent: form of artificial light that uses electricity.

Flourescent:form of artificial that uses UV light.

Phosphor: substance that emits light.

Phosphorescence: process where a substance emits light.

Bioluminescence:the ability of organisms to create light.

Photophore:light producing organ.

3.4 The Colours of Light

Primary Colours:red, green, and blue light.

Secondary Colour:yellow, cyan, and magenta.

Theory of Colour Addition: theory of what happens when colored lights are mixed together.

Eyes and cameras capture images using the properties of light.

4.1 Image Formation in Eyes and Cameras

Pupil:opening in eye that lets in light.

Apeture:hole in camera that lets in light.

Iris:band of muscle that lets in light.

Diaphragm: part of camera that changes apeture size.

Shutter:part that acts as a door on a camera.

Retina:special lining at the back of the eye.

Photoreceptors: light sensitive cells in the eyes.

Rods:parts in nthe eye that are sensitive to light.

Cones:cells in the eye that detect colour.

Optic Nerve:nerve that leads from the retina to the brain.

Film: material sensitive to light.

4.2 Other Eyes in the Animal Kingdom

Nocturnal:animals active at night.

Ommatidium: unit of a compound eye.

Compound Eye: eyes made up of smaller units.

4.3 Image Storage and Transmission

Digital Imaging: process of creating an image with a computer.

Pixels:picture element

Charge Coupled Device:device that converts light into electricity.