Lights and Optical Systems

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Lights and Optical Systems by Mind Map: Lights and Optical Systems

1. Our knowledge about light and vision comes from explanations, inventions, and investigations.

1.1. 1.1 The Challenges of Light

1.2. 1.2 Optical Devices

1.2.1. Optical Device:any device that uses light.

1.2.2. Telescope:optical device for veiwing distant objects.

1.2.3. Refractig Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses.

1.2.4. Reflecting Telescopes: telescope that uses lenses and mirrors.

2. Light behaves in predictable ways.

2.1. 2.1 Light Travels in Rays and Interacts with Materials

2.1.1. Ray Diagrams: diagram that shows how light travels.

2.1.2. Intensity:brightness of light.

2.1.3. Transparent:materials that let light pass through without reflection.

2.1.4. Translucent:materials that let some light through.

2.1.5. Opaque:materials that let no light through.

2.1.6. Non-Luminous:objects that don't produce light.

2.1.7. Luminous:materials that produce light.

2.1.8. Regular Recflection: reflection when light hits a smooth surface.

2.1.9. Diffuse Reflection:reflection when light hits a rough surface.

2.2. 2.2 The Law of Reflection:

2.2.1. Plane Mirrors:flat mirror.

2.2.2. Incident Rays:ray of light that arrives at a mirror.

2.2.3. Normal:line perpindicular to surface.

2.2.4. Angle of Incidence: angle between incident ray and normal.

2.2.5. Angle of Reflection:angle between reflected ray and normal.

2.2.6. Law of Reflection: angle of incidence=angle of reflection.

2.3. 2.3 Reflecting Lighit with Curved Mirrors

2.3.1. Focal Point:point where light rays meet.

2.3.2. Concave Mirror:reflecting surface curved inward.

2.3.3. Convex Mirror:reflecting surface that bulges out.

2.4. 2.4 Transparent Substances Refract Light

2.4.1. Refraction:bending of light.

2.5. 2.5 Lenses Refract and Focus Light

2.5.1. Lens:curved peice of glass.

2.5.2. Convex Lens:transparent material that bulges outwards.

2.5.3. Real Image:image formed when rays meet.

2.5.4. Concave Lens:peice of trnsparent material curved inwards.

3. Light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

3.1. 3.1 The Wave Model of Light

3.1.1. Wave Model of Light: model used to describe the characteristics of light.

3.2. 3.2 The Elactromagnetic Spectrum

3.2.1. Radio Waves:electromagnetic radiation used for communication.

3.2.2. Microwaves:electromagnetic radiation used to cook food.

3.2.3. Infared Waves: electromagnetic waves that are invisible but can be felt as heat.

3.2.4. UV Light: electromagnetic radiation that can cuse skin cancer.

3.2.5. X Rays:electromagnetic radiation used to see inside a human body.

3.2.6. Gamma Rays: electroagnetic radiation used to cure cancer.

3.2.7. Electromagnetic Radiation:all forms of radiant energy.

3.2.8. Electromagnetic Spectrum: refers to whole range of wavelengths.

3.2.9. Radar: radio detecion and ranging.

3.2.10. Invisible Spectrum: parts of the spectrum humans can't see.

3.3. 3.3 Producing Visible Light

3.3.1. Incadescent: form of artificial light that uses electricity.

3.3.2. Flourescent:form of artificial that uses UV light.

3.3.3. Phosphor: substance that emits light.

3.3.4. Phosphorescence: process where a substance emits light.

3.3.5. Bioluminescence:the ability of organisms to create light.

3.3.6. Photophore:light producing organ.

3.4. 3.4 The Colours of Light

3.4.1. Primary Colours:red, green, and blue light.

3.4.2. Secondary Colour:yellow, cyan, and magenta.

3.4.3. Theory of Colour Addition: theory of what happens when colored lights are mixed together.

4. Eyes and cameras capture images using the properties of light.

4.1. 4.1 Image Formation in Eyes and Cameras

4.1.1. Pupil:opening in eye that lets in light.

4.1.2. Apeture:hole in camera that lets in light.

4.1.3. Iris:band of muscle that lets in light.

4.1.4. Diaphragm: part of camera that changes apeture size.

4.1.5. Shutter:part that acts as a door on a camera.

4.1.6. Retina:special lining at the back of the eye.

4.1.7. Photoreceptors: light sensitive cells in the eyes.

4.1.8. Rods:parts in nthe eye that are sensitive to light.

4.1.9. Cones:cells in the eye that detect colour.

4.1.10. Optic Nerve:nerve that leads from the retina to the brain.

4.1.11. Film: material sensitive to light.

4.2. 4.2 Other Eyes in the Animal Kingdom

4.2.1. Nocturnal:animals active at night.

4.2.2. Ommatidium: unit of a compound eye.

4.2.3. Compound Eye: eyes made up of smaller units.

4.3. 4.3 Image Storage and Transmission

4.3.1. Digital Imaging: process of creating an image with a computer.

4.3.2. Pixels:picture element

4.3.3. Charge Coupled Device:device that converts light into electricity.