US Civil War

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US Civil War by Mind Map: US Civil War

1. HOW JEWS BECAME WHITE

1.1. Their racial identity has been shaped by the experience of being not white in relation to the dominant culture and white with regard to blackness. Jews’ movement from racial other, to not-quite-white, to white reveals how race in America is constructed in the discursive space opened by a binary between whiteness and blackness. Jews did not become white because they succeeded in spite of racism, rather they succeeded because of white racism.

2. THE SPANISH WAR

2.1. The Spanish-American War of 1898 ended Spain’s colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere and secured the position of the United States as a Pacific power. U.S. victory in the war produced a peace treaty that compelled the Spanish to relinquish claims on Cuba, and to cede sovereignty over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States.

3. JIM CROW

3.1. JC, LAWS WERE RACIAL SEGREGATION STATE AND LOCAL LAWS ENACTED AFTER THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN SOUTHERN UNITED STATES. JIM CROW, WAS A DERISIVE SLANG TERM FOR A BLACK MAN.

4. US CIVIL WAR

4.1. AFRICAN AMERICAN CITIZENS LIVING IN THE SOUTH FOLLOWING CIVIL WAR RECONSTRUCTION- DESPITE THE 14TH AND 15TH AMENDMENTS GUARANTEEING THE CIVIL RIGHTS OF BLACK AMERICANS, THEIR RIGHT TO VOTE.

5. THE IRISH AND WHITE NEGROS

5.1. Ironically, Irish Catholics came to this country as an oppressed race yet quickly learned that to succeed they had to in turn oppress their closest social class competitors, free Northern blacks. Back home these "native Irish or papists" suffered something very similar to American slavery under English Penal Laws.

6. THE 15TH AMENDMENT

6.1. In 1867, the Radical Republican in congress imposed federal military rule over most of the south. This Reconstruction amendment prohibited states from denying “the equal protection of the laws” to U.S. citizens, which included the former slaves.

6.1.1. The purpose of the 14th Amendment, the Court said, was “to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law…. Laws … requiring their separation … do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race.” The argument against segregation laws was false because of the “assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority.

6.1.1.1. Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car, breaking a Louisiana law. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Court ruled that a state law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between whites and blacks did not conflict with the 13th and14th Amendments

7. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”