My Foundations in Education

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My Foundations in Education by Mind Map: My Foundations in Education

1. History of U.S. Education (CH. 3)

1.1. Public High School

1.1.1. Commitment of Ten It was formed by the National Education Association to help clarify what the purpose of a High School Education should be. In 1893, it released a report which stated the purpose of a high school education was to help prepare students for "duties of life". It recommended that all student study the same curriculum which included, classic and modern languages, English, mathematics and science. All high school studnts were required to study a core curriculum which would prepare them for college entrance requiremnts.

1.1.2. After the WWII, Posser advocated for curriculum that helped all student learn not only the core curriculu but also help prepare students for

1.2. Social engineering reform

1.2.1. Edward L. Thorndike thought schools should change students life in a positive way and the methods used to do this should be scientifically determined.

1.2.2. Schools should provide students with meaningful experiences as well as help them prepare for their future.

1.3. Cycles of Reform

1.3.1. From 1945 to 1955, the effect of progressivism was hotly debated. It was thought that the Progressive Era's focus on the child had destroyed the intellectual goal of teaching children who could think. This debate raged on until the Soviets launched Sputnik. The US. then took measures to improve the educational standards. Shift in curriculum put more focus on math and science. This continued until the mid 1960's.

1.3.2. In response to the Civil Rights movement and antiwar movement, education sifted towards a "new progressivism". New progressivism sought to rectify what was believed to be failing in the traditional education standards. Education during this time marked by two underlining purposes to challenge the traditional schooling and to provide all students equal access to education.

1.3.3. Standards Era. 1983, The National Commission of Excellence issued A Nation At Risk, report. This report stated that the U.S. had a high number of adults who could not read, SAT score were falling and we had low scores on an international level, leaving the U.S. to fall behind other countries in advances. The report offered 5 recommendations: such as set guidelines for graduation, high school curriculum should prepare students for college. 1980 and 1990's improving the curriculum and standards of education became a main focus of many. Many reform were including No Child Left Behind and President Obama's Race to the Top. Reforms are the Voucher System. Where parents can get a voucher from local social system to send their child to school. Another is charter school which receive public funding but operate separate from the school system.

1.4. GI Bill

1.4.1. After WWII, the GI Bill was given to veterans. This was done both as a reward for the soldier as well as an attempt to avoid a rising number in unemployment rates. The GI Bill allowed veterans the opportunity to obtain a college education, something that may not have been possible otherwise.

1.5. Access and Equality of Education

1.5.1. Women Through the first half of the 19th century education of women was limited. Up until the middle of the 19th century few girls attended schools. Education for girls was becoming more acceptable after the Civil War. In the 1820 and 1830 schools were being opened that allowed girls to study math and science as well as presume secondary education.

1.5.2. Rich and Poor in the early colonies education was thought to be strictly for boys. The rich were typically the ones that received an education. As time passed, a push for free public education. Horace Mann was a big supporter of free public education. He viewed school as a way to help bring stabilization and order to society that had an influx of immigrants that needed the opportunity to become educated.

1.5.3. Minorities African American had an uphill battle for equality despite the 14th Amendment and Freedman Bureau. Black and Whites attended different schools and the majority of the Black schools were inferior in a number of ways. Big changes were coming. During the 1930's -1950's focus was on the inequality and segregated schools. In 1954, a big win happened with the verdict of Brown v. Topeka board of education. The verdict stated that state-imposed segregation was unconstitutional. Another another victory in, 1955 Brown II, which ordered the desegregation of schools. Desegregation did not happen immediately but took years for most schools to follow through.

1.5.4. The 1960-1970 was a time that focused on eliminated inequalities in race and class.

1.6. Colleges

1.6.1. During the 1960's colleges employed open enrollment. Financial Aide was were distributed to students who needed assistance in paying for college. Which led to an increase of students attending college.

1.6.2. Because of the inequality of education across, college had to find a way to bridge the gap. To do this they provided remedial classes. Allowing students to build the knowledge necessary for regular college classes. In the 1990's, CUNY stopped open enrollment and offering remedial classes. They stated that remedial courses should be offered at the two year colleges.

1.6.3. Some of the more presitgous Ivy-leacgue stchols started topen the doors to wome in gth elate 1960's and 1970's. Women only colleges, such as Vassar, started allowing men to attend.

2. Philosophy of Education (CH. 5)

2.1. Why?

2.1.1. It is important to have knowledge of Philophy of Education so that we as teachers can have an understanding of not just what we do as teachers but why we do it as well.

2.2. Three areas into which Philosophy areas to look at are:

2.2.1. metaphysics(nature of realtiy)

2.2.2. epistemology(nature of knowlege

2.2.3. axiology(nature of values)

2.3. Idealism

2.3.1. General Notions Idealism uses dialectic questioning. This I discussion between two or more individuals. Questions are posed during this discussion that allow for examine of examine multiple points of views. Discussion continues until both parties come to a acceptable conclusion. This is used to help people move from just thinking of the world around them as just a physical world to a world of ideas. Education should be state funded and gender free. I do not agree with the fact that it education should only focus on the individuals that are smarter but believe that all individuals be allowed to grow and reach their full potential.

2.3.2. Key Researcher Idealism is referred to the Plantonic philosophy. It is believed that this ideas are believed to be derived from Socrates beliefs but delievered to the public through his student Plato.

2.3.3. Goal of Education The goal of education should be to help students to achieve a greater understanding of the world around them.

2.3.4. Role of the Teacher The role of the teacher should help students discuss ideas and move towards a higher understanding of the world around them. This is done through a process of examining the world through questioning it. Teachers are to use reminiscent to bring ideas the students already have to the forefront of their minds.

2.3.5. Methods of Instruction Learning is an active process through which we discussions to help analyze the world around us.

2.3.6. Curriculum Curriculum should be centered around studying the classics. Having a strong understanding of great literature and history, will allows for us to examine how to resolve and solve the problems and issues of today

2.4. Realism

2.4.1. General Notions Matter is real and exists outside of ideas Aristotle's Systematic Theory of Logic

2.4.2. Key Researchers This theory is based on Plato and Aristotle.

2.4.3. Goal of Education The goal of education is to help students realize that it means to live a good and prosperous life.

2.4.4. Role of the Teacher The role of the teacher is to be the pitcher that fills their students with the knowledge of the world around them. Teachers need to stress the science math and humanities. In addition, teachers need to give students the opportunity to learn and develop ideas about the arts.

2.4.5. Methods of Instruction Insturction should be based on lecture question and answers. Assessments should be given in order to see if students have grasped the matieral being taught.

2.4.6. Curriculum Curriculum should be based on math, science and humanites and this will essential lead students understanding their purpose in the world.

2.5. What I think?

2.5.1. I believe that having a set curriculum is important to students in order to have a better understanding of the world around them. I believe that the classroom should have some sense of order but still allow for students the ability to move to collaborate with one another on projects. I also believe that it is important to know and understand my students, allow for them to interact with one another. I want my classroom to be an inviting place where student feel free to express themselves while learning

2.6. My Goal as a Teacher

2.6.1. I want to be able to help educate children. I want them to be able to know that some of what we know today is because of where we came from. Students need to know that not everything we teach them will have concrete meaning but will change as we live our lives. My duty will be to teach them how to questions things they don't understand so that they are able to improve their lives as well as the others around them.

3. Schools as Organizations (CH. 6)

3.1. knowing more about schools' organization characteristics is the first step in understanding how it affects our society

3.2. The Structure of U.S. Education

3.2.1. Each state is responsible for their own school system and developing a plan for education. Taxes are collected from citizens within their school districts. To influence education, one must vote and attend school district board meetings.

3.2.2. Over the years schools systems have been consolidated, creating larger school districts. With this teachers have had fewer opportunities to voice their opinion on curriculum, conditions of employment and school policy.

3.2.3. It is estimated that 55 million children attend schools in the U.S. and that to educate these children $650 billion dollars is spent yearly.

3.2.4. Private Schools Private schools student body is tremendously more diverse then the public sector. States put little regulation on private schools. Private schools have more lead way in what they can teach than do public schools. Research from the 80's and 90's have shown that private schools have a more effective learning environment for student than those provided by the public schools.

3.3. Teachers

3.3.1. Teachers preform a thankless job where they are paid very little and expected to do a lot with the little they are given to help students succeed.

3.3.2. Teachers must be skilled in many areas as well as in human relations.

3.3.3. Good teachers are Live Long Learners.

3.4. Nature of Teaching

3.4.1. Teaching is a demanding profession. Where teachers have many roles and wear many hats. Heck and William in their book The Complex Roles of Teachers: An Ecological Perspective states teachers role include colleague, friend, nurture of the learner, facilitator of learning, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader and community activist. Teachers must be well-rounded. They must be caring and nurturing. Students must believe that teachers care about them.

3.4.2. Teachers must be set good examples for their students because their students often look up to them.

3.4.3. Teaching is a "craft" that for most teachers must be learned on the job. While in the classroom and dealing with their classroom they will develop their own individual teaching style.

3.4.4. Teaching is most often a thankless job. It often goes on unrecognized the hard work and dedication it takes to become a good teacher.

3.4.5. Good teachers are able to develop and maintain a good balance between order and an environment that encourages learning. To do this one must have an understanding of individual student needs as well as the group dynamics. Good teachers can take and turn everyday into a unique and learning event.

3.5. Professionalism

3.5.1. The teaching profession is unlike another. Teachers have little opportunities to teach independently from the schools that they teach at.

3.5.2. Many teachers find it difficult to meet both the professional and bureaucrat roles, they become bitter.

3.5.3. John Goodlad suggest that teacher education programs should be revamped with input coming from parents, teachers and communities. Universities need to develop teacher programs that provide teacher candidate with the resources that help them become first rate teachers. These new teacher programs need to define relationships between education and the arts and sciences. This will help create teacher leaders

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy CH 7

4.1. Pedagogy

4.1.1. Most teachers combine both methods and some refer to this invisible pedagogy.

4.1.2. Transformative teaching model Students are actively participants in what they are learning. I like a blend of traditional and mimetic teaching methods. Transformative model of teaching is to change students in some way. Whetere it is intellectually, creatively, spiritually and emotionally.

4.1.3. Mimetic traditional teaching methods Mimetic is based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific education knowledge to students. This knows is usually taught using the dialectic method. This model stress the importance of rational sequencing in the teaching process and assessment of knowledge the learner has gained. Lessons are teacher directed. Teaching is thought of as a scientific method. Where teaching is looked as a set of goals and objectives that teachers must meet.

4.2. Stakeholder of Madison Countys Schools

4.2.1. State Senators are Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions. House of Representative for the 5th District is Mo Brooks

4.2.2. State Superintendent is Thomas R. Bice, Ed.D.

4.2.3. Representative on State School Board is Mary Scott Hunter.

4.2.4. Madison County's local Superintendent is Matt Massey.

4.2.5. The members on Madison County's School Board are: Mr. Dan Nash, Mrs. Angie Bates, Mrs. Mary Louise Stowe, Dr. David Vess and Mr. Jeff Anderson.

4.3. Curriculum Theory

4.3.1. I view my curriculum theory as a blend of the humanist curriculum and the social efficiency curriculum theories. Humanist Curriculum The humanist curriculum focus ones studying the classic of English, mathematics, history, science and foreign languages. These subject are important. This gives our students the basic knowledge necessary to understand how society has come to be. Humanist view the need for a common curriculum for all students to follow. Authur Bestor called for a return to humanist curriculum with an emphasis on intellectual functions of the schools. This was due the believe that progressivism was damanging curriculum and causes for a break down of our educational system. Pg 288 of Textbook Social Efficiency Curriculum Some of the ideas I concur with and others I find myself question, Students should be placed on tracks due to abilities and interest level in the subject. However, a core curriculum requirement must be in place so the underlying curriculum is the same. When I speak about tracking I am referring to skill set and difficulty. We don't want someone who struggles with math to be required to take AP Calculus. They would not do well, we still need them to meet a minimum of math requirements set. Some goes for some who excels in math, we would not want them to be in a class that only covers the basics principles, they would become bored. "The development of social efficty curriculum was related to the scientific management of the schools." Text book pg 283

4.4. Politics of Curriculum

4.4.1. With so many diverse cultures blending in our society it difficult to all members of society agree with what and how things are being taught in our schools. When it comes to our curriculum in the United States I believe we have both a pluralist and political elite models at work in shaping the curriculum. One model may be more dominate than the other at times but this is due to the constant change and sift of socity beliefs and values at the time.

4.5. Socilogy of Curriculum

4.5.1. Sociologist believe that it is impossible for curriculum to be devoid of any values or belief systems of society.

4.5.2. Even when attempts are made to make curriculum value and belief neutral, these attempts are made in vain. What is chosen to be taught are chosen by humans. Humans are not perfect. What one person views as imporatatn another may not or vice versa. Thus, creating the great debate of what should or should not be taught.

4.5.3. Functionalist argue that schools curriculum represent the knowledge students need to become competent a member of society. Schools should prepare students for their future.

4.5.4. Schools should provide students the necessary knowledge required to successfully become part of the soicieyt.

4.5.5. Modern functionalist want schools to preapare students for the complexities of the roles in society . Talcott Parson and Robert Dreeber

4.5.6. Our country is one of many blended cultures and beliefs. We should teach students to respect one another's values, beliefs and opinions. We must teach our students to respect and tolerance for others, because we are all unique.

5. Equality of Opportunity (Ch. 8)

5.1. Americans have always held a great belief in equality of opportunities. This belief of equality of opportunity is seen through out our history. As far as the educational system goes the U.S has only been somewhat successful in truly developing a systems that is 100% meritocratic and just. No matter how we look at it there is still much improvement that is need in respect to stratification of the classes, races, gender and special educational needs.

5.2. Special Education

5.2.1. During the 1960's parents started to emphasis a desire for more appropriate and effective education to be provided to students with special needs. Up until that time children with special needs were treated as if they were invisible, not provided the appropriate services and even excluded from attending schools.

5.2.2. Education of All Children Law was passed by Congress in 1975. It include six basic principles(see below). The purpose of this law was to help appropriated place students in classrooms that were right from them. 1. The right to have access to education 2. for individualization of services 3. the principle of "least restrictive environment" 4. the scope of the services provided by schools should and a proceduce to help determine what those services should be. 5. general guidelines for identifying children with disabilities. 6. the principle responsibilities of the state and local government.

5.2.3. Mid 1980's many children were being over identified with disabilities and then not being put back into mainstream classrooms. A large number of the students being over identified were minorities. This could be due to the background the were coming from into he schools.

5.2.4. During the last 1980's there was as big push for REI, which would allow students to remain in mainstream classrooms. This issue was hotly debated. Some thought it would distract and interfere with mainstream children learning. While those in favor or REI, argued that self-contained classrooms did not adequately meet the needs of all students.

5.2.5. Today arguments still rage on as to what is the best educational outcome for children with disabilities. Many argue that no matter the cognitive difference the child should remain in a mainstream classroom, While other who are in the study cognitive science believe that those who are cognitive different whould benefit more from be placed in a separate special education classroom.

5.2.6. To many children have been mislabeled with having a disabilities. Most of these children are minorities. We must start looking at how to make better informed decisions on how and when to place a child in special needs.

5.3. The Coleman Study-The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that African American and white students had different schooling experiences.

5.3.1. What was discovered was that organizational differences of schools were not important when it came to detereming student outcome but that student outcome was dependent on so much more such as class background or peer grouping.

5.3.2. Round 3 Borman and Dowling research support both of Coleman's 1966 and 1982 studies. Where a child attends school is related to their race and socioeconomic background. What has a greater effect on a child's academic achievement is the demographics of the school. Borman and Dowling argue that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic statues and within school interaction dominated by middle-class values are responsible for the achievement gaps of students. They believe education reform should focus on eliminate segregation of the school and tracking systems that are in favor of white and middle class students .

6. Educational Inequality (CH 9)

6.1. Social class, race and gender all have a role in defining and contiblbuiting to educational inequality.

6.2. Interactionist Theory

6.2.1. This theory suggest that we must gain an understanding on the daily interactions of people within families, communities, and schools and how this relates to academic success or failures of students.

6.3. Cultural Deprivation Theory

6.3.1. This theory asserts that poor have a deprived culture. It lacks the values that the middle-class hold as important. Such values are hard work, will put off instant gratification for later rewoards, as well as belief that schools are essential for future successfulness.

6.3.2. Cultural deprivation theory was attached by social scientist who thought this theory to be raciest. This theory removes responsibility from the school and places on the families and communities of the children of proverty.

6.3.3. Another, argurment against cultural deprivation theory is the educational programs, like Project Head Start don't show great improvement in academic success in students from poverty stricken homes.

6.4. Cultural Difference Theories

6.4.1. This theories agree that there are cultural and families differences between the classes.

6.4.2. Ogbu states these differences can be seen in how different classes use language. His question is that African-American students may seem to sense a lost of culture or self when the must use the middle-class English. Teachers also preserve students differently based on their English skills.

6.4.3. Ogbu conducted a study in Ohio about educational achievement. What he found was an underrepresentation of African-Americans in advance classes but the main reason for the academic outcomes had to do with student, parental, and community cultures. African-American students seemed to watch more tv., had lower asperactions, and were affected more by the anti-school culture.

6.4.4. The 2nd type in cultural difference theory is working class and non-white reject the culture of the schools. This rejection lead to students dropping out and entering the work force.

6.5. School-centered Explanations

6.5.1. With-in School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping Different students in different groups preform differently while in the same school suggest school characteristics affecting educational outcomes. Fundamentalist believe that tracking allows all students to be reached on their level. While Conflict theorist believe that tracking just reproduces the inequality already established. The question is tracking placement associated with prior preformanance or is it related to gender, race, and social and ecominice backgrounds of students.

6.5.2. School Financing The majority of school funding comes from state and local taxes(mostly property taxes). So the communities that have higher property taxes have more funds that filtered to their schools than the schools where the property taxes are lower. So schools with more money generally have more spent on students and more resources for their students. Abbot v. New Jersey ruled funding differenced between rich and poor districts was unconstitutional. This lead to New Jersey's urban school district receiving more money.

7. Politics of Education (CH 2)

7.1. What is the purpose of Schooling?

7.1.1. There are 4 purposes for schooling and each of these purposing have their own reasoning for they find schooling important. These purposes are intellectual, political, social, and economic.

7.1.2. I believe these 4 purposes should work together. Only then can we as individuals and as a society advance. If I was asked to choose one as the most important, I would have to say intellectual purpose is the most important. Only when we begin to have an understanding of math, science, reading and writing can we start to understand the world around us in more complex terms.

7.2. The Conservative Perspective

7.2.1. The conservation perspective loos at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals to servive and loods at human an d social evolution as adaptions to changes in the environment. (Textbook pg. 23)

7.2.2. Conservatives also believe that a free market is the best economic system for society to persevere. They also believe that only the strongest will survive.

7.2.3. Conservatives believe that in order to be successful in life one must work hard at being the best.

7.2.4. The role of the school

7.3. Liberal Perspetive

7.3.1. As the conservative perspective believes the liberal perspective also believe that a free market is best for society to persevere. Although they agree with a free market being the best economic system for society, they believe that it creates an unequal balance. This unequality is created because educational values are based on the value system of the higher class. The liberal perspective is concerned with the balancing of the economic productively of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the majority.

7.3.2. Liberal want fair treatment of all of the citizens in society.

7.3.3. The role of the school Liberals believe that school should give ALL students the opportunity to succeed.

7.4. Vision of Education Traditional or Progressive

7.4.1. There are two visions of Education. These two visions are Traditional and Progressive. Schools are needed to help pass on the values of society on to future generation, while education them to help improve the society we live in.

7.4.2. Conservatives tend to view schools to help nurture the best and the brightest so that they can succeed.

7.5. Explanation of Unequal eduation

7.5.1. Inequality of students is created because individuals are given different circumstances or life challenges that they must overcome. To improve the education system the schools must reduce inequality.

7.5.2. Schools need to create a curriculum and a place where all students are given a chance to succeed and the opportunity to shine and advance in society.

7.6. Definition of Educational Problems.

7.6.1. Conservatives View of Education Problems As the conservative perspective believes the liberal perspective also believe that a free market is best for society to persevere. Although they agree with a free market being the best economic system for society, they believe that it creates an unequal balance.

7.6.2. Liberal Views of Educational Problems Schools often give some groups more advangates than others. This creates an achievement gap. Schools need to work at providing more opportunites so that all students from all backgrounds are given the opporturnity to learn and overcome their challenges. Cultural differences are not addressed in tradtioanl curriculum. Today's schools need to blend our traditional values with other cultures so that the curriculum is balanced. This will also help students understand some of the cultural differences of some of their classmates. Schools must be diversified.

7.7. Education and the American Dream

7.7.1. Conservatives believe that the schools have provided quality education so that the best and brightest are able to be successful. They also believe that the reforms in the 1970's has created a decline in education system causing America to fall behind other nations in education and advancement

7.7.2. Liberals believe that schools have been provided to all children; however, the way in which schools function limit opportunities and advancement for those of different background and economic circumstances.

7.8. My view

7.8.1. I lean more toward the liberal perspective, than the conservative. I see view point of both. I believe schools should help students grow as individuals for their advancement in society. I also believe that schools must be diversified to help all student achieve greatness and advance in society for the betterment of themselves, families and community.

8. Sociological Perspective (CH4)

8.1. The relationship between School and Society

8.1.1. Children's perspective is shaped through socialization. Example from the book is the pledge of allegiance is a ritual most school children are asked to participate in. This little ritual is teaching these young children about patriotism and citizenship.

8.1.2. Sociology reviews the characteristics of school and enable them to become effective learning enviroments. Examples are vigorous instructional leadership; a principle that makes clear, consistant and fair disciosns, a safe and orderly environment; instructional practices that focus on basic skills and academic achievement; collegiately amount teacher who believe students can and will learn; and frequently review of students progress.. Text book page 116

8.2. Persell Model for analyzing the realationship between school and society

8.2.1. Level 1. Societal Level-most general of the political and economic system. Structure of dominance in society and societal ideologies.

8.2.2. Level 2. Institutional level- society's major institutions such as family, school churches, business and government all play a role in socialization

8.2.3. Level 3. Interpersonal Level- includes the procees of symbols and interactions that occur within schools. Teacher expectations and educational interactions.

8.2.4. Level 4. Intrapsychic Level-include individual thought and beliefs, values and feelings. Educational outcome, cognitive and noncognitive.

8.3. Theoretical Perspectives

8.3.1. Functional Theories begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependent of the social system. Pg 117 Textbook

8.3.2. Education is important to society. It help transfer the knowledge and values system of society to help uphold the morals of society. So functionalist point of view is that society should create programs and curricula that encourage social unity. Pg. 117 Textbook

8.4. Effects of Schooling

8.4.1. When schools focus on the academic achievement, the success of the stduents will go up. Studies have shown that the more education and indivicual receives, the more likelty that individual will become a active member of society, also they will have a high sense of worth as an individual and a s member of society.

8.4.2. The higher the Educaiton you have the better job you will be able to obrain; however, as far as how well you preform the job is another matter. Most individals learn how to do their jobs by doing them. So Education has little do with them.

8.4.3. Tracking is the process known as placement of students based on the students abilities and inclinations.(pg. 127 of Textbook). This basically places students in classes that are deemed suitable for that student. Typically students placed in the higher more difficult classes will gerneally attend college. The students that attend college and receive a college degree are the indivudical that will get the better paying jobs as adults.

8.4.4. Teachers have a great affect on students. The expectations teachers put on students can affect the students achievement. Teachers who expect more of their students typically see more growth in their students then other teachers do. Students, especially the younger students want to please their teachers, it is important that teachers know that their expectations play a role in encouraging children to learn and grow as a student.

8.4.5. Peer grouping also can affect students. Humans usually gravitate towards a social group that they feel they fit into. There are 4 different subcultures students fit into. We must look at schools as society within itself. This mini society effects how students view themselves, as to what they believe they can achieve and contribute to society both while at school and long after graduation.

8.5. Inequalities in Schools

8.5.1. Inequalities in schools relates to a number of things such as school conditions, to racial and gender preconceptions, Where a school is located can greatly affect the students that attend that school. Many urban and rural schools are lacking the resources necessary to help provide their students. Thus creating inequality between the private and suburban schools and the urban and rural schools. Students who typically attend private schools get into college, which then allows them to get the better paying jobs. Those who

9. Educational Reform (CH 10)

9.1. 1980's and 1990's much research about education was uncovering that most public schools were failing in terms of student achievement, discipline and morality. Research during this same time period was showing that private schools were providing their students with more of an effective learning environment.

9.2. Intersectional choice plans

9.2.1. This plan includes private and public schools. Allow students to use vouchers to attend private schools. There is debate about the separation of church and state, since many private schools have religious affiliations. Another debate is whether or no these choice plans promote more inequlatiy in education.

9.3. Intrasectional choice plans

9.3.1. This plan allows students to any school in most any of the school district in that state. However, the school must be willing to accept student, have room and it must not disrupt racial balance in the school.

9.4. Charter Schools

9.4.1. Charter school are public schools. Charter school have fewer state regulations applied to them then public schools. However, charter schools are held accountable for student success.

9.4.2. Charter schools are open to all students in all districts. This allows students from low-income families to attend. Many believes that this allows them access to better education at lower costs.

9.5. Teacher Education

9.5.1. If schools were not working properly, then teachers and teaching were not working properly also. If teachers and teaching methods were in fact part of the problem then how we train and educate our teachers needed to be evaluated.

9.5.2. By 1986, five different reports described three major areas of needed to be revised. 1. the lack of rigor and intellectual demands in teacher education programs 2. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates 3. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional competes of teacher education programs.

9.5.3. The Carnegie and Holmes reports gained the most recognition. Both reports agree that the overall problem solved without looking into ways to better education and prepare our teachers. Both agree standards need to be set in teacher education programs so that we get the best teachers possible. Changes must be made in schools and the lives of teachers to help retain the best teachers. Carnegie focused on the necessity of education quality for competitive U.S economy. Better prepared teachers to help meet the challenges of the 21st century. If our teachers are better prepared then our students will be better prepared as well. Carnegie report called for recruitment of minorities as teachers. elimination of underrate education majors, and increasing the standards in teacher education programs. Holmes report listed the following goals as important: raising intellectual soundness of teacher education, creating career ladders for teachers, developing entry-level requirements in to the profession, linking schools of education at the university level to schools, and improving schools for student and teachers.

9.6. Effective School Movement

9.6.1. suggested there was characteristic of good schools that should be adopted by other schools to help their performance and effectiveness.

9.6.2. Effective schools have: high standards and develop curriculum and assessment tools based on those standards; Hold teachers and administers responsible for not obtaining goals.; create an environment that is safe; hire teachers that are experienced and qualified; and encourage both parental and community involvement.

9.6.3. For schools to improve curriculum must be taught with instructional practices that are effective which are then taught be teachers who are knowledge about the curriculum and practices. Effective teachers have strong academic skills, teacher within their field, have at least 3 years of teaching experience, and participate in high-quality professional development programs.

9.7. School Finance Reform

9.7.1. School are normally funded by property taxes. Reforms like those in New Jersey, distribute funds to low-income or urban schools to this helps balance the inequalities of resources.