My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives

1.1. Functional Theories

1.1.1. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

1.1.2. emphasis on values and cohesion

1.1.3. view society as a kind of machine, where one pat articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

1.1.4. Believe that in a highly integrated , well-functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities.

1.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

1.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

1.2.1.1. Sociologists of education disagree strongly about the relative importance of schooling in terms of what knowledge and attitudes young people acquire in school. Nobody argues that schools have no impact on student development, but there are sharp divisions among researchers about how significant school effects are, when taking into account students social class background.

1.2.2. Employment

1.2.2.1. schools act as gatekeepers in determining who will get employed in high status occupations, but schools do not provide significant job skills for their graduates. People learn how to do their jobs by doing them.

1.2.2.1.1. In general, college graduates earn more than high school graduates

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. Nature of Teaching

2.1.1. Teachers must be skilled in so many areas of technical expertise and human relations.

2.1.2. Key Researchers: Lieberman and Miller

2.1.3. Roles include: colleague friend, nurturer of the learner, leader, and community activist. The teacher must also be caring, empathetic, well-rounded and can act as a role model to students, parents, and other professionals.

2.1.4. They develop all kinds of classroom strategies that become highly personal and that evolve into a teaching style that is more akin to an artistic expression than it is to a technocratic or scientific resolution than it is to a technocratic or scientific resolution.

2.1.5. Most of the craft of teaching is learned on the job.

2.2. Professionalization

2.2.1. Key Researchers: Dan Lortie, Linda M. McNeil, and John Goodlad

2.2.2. Teacher socialization is very limited compared to other professions and there is little evidence that the standards of behavior congruent with other professions.

2.2.3. The general status of teaching, the teachers role and the condition and transmission arrangements of its subculture point to a truncated rather than fully realized professionalization.

2.2.4. If teachers are to be truly professional, they must be able to share in the important decisions within the school.

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

3.1.1. Relates to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

3.1.2. stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught.

3.1.3. Put an emphasis on the development of each students individual capacities.

3.2. Major Stakeholders in My District

3.2.1. State Senators: Jeff Sessions, Richard Shelby

3.2.2. House of Representatives: Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholdt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell.

3.2.3. State Superintendent: Thomas Bice

3.2.4. Representative on the State School Board:

3.2.5. Local Superintendent: Huntsville City Schools: Casey Wardynski

3.2.6. Local School Board Members: Elisa Ferrell, Walker Mcginnis, Mike Culbreath, Laurie Mcaulley, Beth Widler

3.3. Transformative Tradition

3.3.1. believe that the uurpose of educaiton is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

3.3.2. provides a more multidimensional theory of teaching.

3.3.3. argue that teaching and learning are inextricably linked

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Conservative Perspective

4.1.1. developed originally by the sociologist William Graham Sumner.

4.1.2. Looks at social evolution that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive and looks at human and social evolution as adaption to changes in the environment.

4.1.3. Conservatives believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their own goals. Conservative policies generally emphasize empowerment of the individual to solve problems. Which breaks down to you have to work hard to get where you want to get!!

4.1.4. Individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy, and that solutions to problems should also be addressed at the individual level.

4.2. Traditional Vision of Education

4.2.1. Traditional visions tend to view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of US society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, and so on.

4.2.2. Schools should learn from their mistakes of the past, and use those experiences to build better schools for the future.

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Education Achievement and Attainment of Women p. 344

5.1.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17.

5.1.2. Females achieve higher in math at age 9.

5.1.3. They achieve at lower levels in math at ages 13 and 17.

5.1.4. They achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17.

5.2. Response to Coleman: Coleman Round 3

5.2.1. Geoffrey Boreman and Maritza Dowling reevaluated Colemans 1966 and 1982 studies.

5.2.2. They partially confirmed both studies

5.2.3. Going to a high poverty or a highly segregated African American school has a profound effect on a students achievement outcomes, above and beyond the effect of individual poverty or minority status.

5.2.4. Both the racial/ethnic and social class composition of a students school are 1 3/4 times more important than a students individual race/ethnicity or social class for understanding educational outcomes.

5.2.5. They argue that race and class are predictors of academic success.

6. History of US Education

6.1. Reform movement

6.1.1. Progressive

6.1.1.1. Believed in experiential education, a curriculum that responded to both the needs of students and the times, child-centered education, freedom, and individualism, and the relativism of academic standards in the name of equity.

6.1.1.2. Insisted on Government regulation of industry and commerce, as well as government regulation and conservation of the nations national resources.

6.1.1.3. Insisted that government at national, state, and local levels be responsive to the welfare of its citizens rather than the welfare of its corporations.

6.1.1.4. People of influence

6.1.1.4.1. John Dewey, Bob La Follette, Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, Henry Bruere, and John Golden.

6.2. Historical Interpretation of US Education

6.2.1. Democratic-Liberal Perspective

6.2.1.1. Ellwood Cubberly, Lawrence A. Cremin, Merle Curti

6.2.1.2. Believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

6.2.1.3. they suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative views if schools as elite institutions for the meritorious (or privileged).

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

7.1.1. States that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cuturlal resources

7.1.1.1. such as books and other educational stimuli

7.1.1.2. Thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage.

7.1.2. The poor have a deprived culture - one that lacks the value system of middle-class culture.

7.1.3. Middle-class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means to future success.

7.1.4. Critics argue that it removes the responsibility for schools success and failure from schools and teachers and puts it on families.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School-Business Partnerships

8.1.1. allows businesses to "adopt" a school.

8.2. School-to-work Programs

8.2.1. allows students to explore different careers and see what skills are required for that job.

8.2.2. Stressed the importance of work-based learning.

8.3. Teacher Quality

8.3.1. The need to recruit and retain high quality teachers.

8.4. School choice

8.4.1. argued that if families, rather than schools, were funded, it would allow for greater parental choice and participation.

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism

9.1.1. Generic Notions

9.1.1.1. Children are active, organic beings , growing and changing, and thus require a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development.

9.1.1.2. The school should become an "embryonic community" where childrne could learn skills both experientially as well as from books, in addition to traditional information, which would enable them to work cooperatively in a democratic society.

9.1.2. Key Researchers

9.1.2.1. George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. also Frances Bacon, Jon Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

9.1.3. Goal of Education

9.1.3.1. schools are a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order.

9.1.4. Role of Teacher

9.1.4.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement course of study.

9.1.5. Method of Instruction

9.1.5.1. both individually and in groups

9.1.5.2. children should start their node of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know. Today we refer to this method of instruction as the problem-solving or inquiry method.

9.1.6. Curriculum

9.1.6.1. integrated

9.1.6.2. a subject matter under investigation by students, such as whales, would yield problems to be solved using math, science, history, reading, writing, music, art, wood or metal working, cooking and sewing-all the academic and vocational disciplines in an interconnected way.